Morgenstern is a German surname meaning morning star.
- Barbara Morgenstern (born 1971), German musician
- Christian Morgenstern (1871–1914), German poet
- Christian Ernst Bernhard Morgenstern, German landscape painter
- Dan Morgenstern, music critic, former editor of Down Beat magazine, academician at Rutgers University
- Erin Morgenstern, American author
- Janusz Morgenstern (1922–2011), Polish film director and producer.
- Joe Morgenstern, American film critic
- Johann Carl Simon Morgenstern (1770–1852), the German philologist who coined the term Bildungsroman
- Maia Morgenstern (born 1962), Romanian film and stage actress
- Mark Morgenstern, Canadian filmmaker
- Norbert Morgenstern, geotechnical engineer and developer of the "Morgenstern-Price" method of slope stability analysis
- Oskar Morgenstern (1902–1977), German-born economist and founder of the field of game theory
- Ralph Morgenstern, German actor in theatre, TV and film
- Rick Morgenstern (born 1951), Canadian recording artist
- Sam Morgenstern, composer (with Harry Granick) of the symphonic poem, "Warsaw Ghetto"
- Soma Morgenstern (1890–1976), Jewish-Austrian writer and journalist
- Stephanie Morgenstern, Canadian actress and screenwriter
- Thomas Morgenstern (born 1986), Austrian ski jumper
- David Morgenstern, a fictional emergency-room physician portrayed by William H. Macy on the television
- Morgenstern (fiction), the mythical horse ridden by Julian, one of the Princes of Amber in Roger Zelazny's Amber series.
- S. Morgenstern, fictional author of William Goldman's The Princess Bride
- Valentine Morgenstern, a character in the Mortal Instruments book series.