Monroe, Michigan

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Monroe, Michigan
City
Monroe’s historic downtown on South Monroe Street
Monroe’s historic downtown on South Monroe Street
Location in Monroe County and the state of Michigan
Location in Monroe County and the state of Michigan
Coordinates: 41°54′59″N 83°23′52″W / 41.91639°N 83.39778°W / 41.91639; -83.39778
CountryUnited States
StateMichigan
CountyMonroe
Platted1817
Incorporated1837
Government
 • MayorRobert Clark
Area[1]
 • City10.19 sq mi (26.39 km2)
 • Land9.17 sq mi (23.75 km2)
 • Water1.02 sq mi (2.64 km2)
Elevation594 ft (182 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City20,733
 • Estimate (2012[3])20,535
 • Density2,261.0/sq mi (873.0/km2)
 • Urban51,240 (US: 490th)
 • Metro151,560 (US: 264th)
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes48161, 48162
Area code(s)734
FIPS code26-55020
GNIS feature ID0632572[4]
Websitehttp://www.ci.monroe.mi.us/
 
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Monroe, Michigan
City
Monroe’s historic downtown on South Monroe Street
Monroe’s historic downtown on South Monroe Street
Location in Monroe County and the state of Michigan
Location in Monroe County and the state of Michigan
Coordinates: 41°54′59″N 83°23′52″W / 41.91639°N 83.39778°W / 41.91639; -83.39778
CountryUnited States
StateMichigan
CountyMonroe
Platted1817
Incorporated1837
Government
 • MayorRobert Clark
Area[1]
 • City10.19 sq mi (26.39 km2)
 • Land9.17 sq mi (23.75 km2)
 • Water1.02 sq mi (2.64 km2)
Elevation594 ft (182 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City20,733
 • Estimate (2012[3])20,535
 • Density2,261.0/sq mi (873.0/km2)
 • Urban51,240 (US: 490th)
 • Metro151,560 (US: 264th)
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes48161, 48162
Area code(s)734
FIPS code26-55020
GNIS feature ID0632572[4]
Websitehttp://www.ci.monroe.mi.us/

Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 20,733 at the 2010 census. It is the largest city and county seat of Monroe County.[5] The city is bordered on the south by Monroe Charter Township, but both are politically independent. The city is located approximately 14 mi (23 km) north of Toledo, Ohio and 25 mi (40 km) south of Detroit. The United States Census Bureau lists Monroe as the core city in the Monroe Metropolitan Area, which had a population of 152,021 in 2010.[6] Monroe itself is officially part of the Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint CSA, and Monroe is also sometimes unofficially included as a northerly extension of the Toledo Metropolitan Area.

Settled as early as 1784, Monroe was platted in 1817[7] and was named after then-President James Monroe. Today, the city has a strong sense of historic preservationism and is remembered for the Battle of Frenchtown during the War of 1812, as well as being the childhood residence of George Armstrong Custer and other members of his family, including his wife Elizabeth Bacon and brother Boston Custer. The city has numerous historic museums and landmarks. Monroe is also recognized as the home La-Z-Boy world headquarters.

History[edit]

The area was settled by Native American tribes (specifically the Potawatomi) hundreds of years before the French reached the area for the first time in the late seventeenth-century. Robert de LaSalle claimed the area for New France after his 1679 expedition on the Griffon. In 1784, Francis Navarre was given a portion of land south of the River Raisin by the Potawatomi. Frenchtown was settled shortly thereafter as the third European settlement in the state. Around the same time, the Sandy Creek Settlement was established just north of Frenchtown by Joseph Porlier Benec.[8]

Front Street 2010
Front Street 1900
Front Street looking east toward the Old Village around the year 1900 (top) and in 2010 (bottom)

Because of its proximity to Detroit, the area was of strategic importance during the War of 1812, especially after Detroit surrendered to the British in August 1812. American forces en route to retake Detroit had camped in the area of the River Raisin in the winter of 1812-13. A force of 200 Native Americans and 63 Canadian militia were made to retreat north away from the River Raisin by 600 Kentucky militiamen and 100 French, under the command of James Winchester, on January 18, 1813. This skirmish was later dubbed the 'First Battle of the River Raisin'. However, on January 22, a force of 800 Native Americans and 597 British, under Henry Procter (British Army officer), surprised the force of 1,000 Americans and captured Frenchtown. Many of the American militia were inexperienced, ill-trained and badly equipped. They suffered 397 killed and 547 captured. The British and their allies suffered slight losses.

When the British departed with their captives to Detroit, they left Americans too wounded to walk in the homes of Frenchtown inhabitants under the guard of a small British detachment and their Native American allies. The morning after the Battle, Native Americans returned to Frenchtown, plundering and burning homes, killing and scalping many of the remaining Americans, and taking others as personal property. The official U.S. estimate of the aftermath include a dozen named individuals killed and up to 30 more who were likely killed in this manner. British estimates put the number at about six. This event became known throughout the country as the River Raisin Massacre.

The battle is known as the Battle of Frenchtown (or the Second Battle of the River Raisin).[9] Today, the site of the battle houses a small visitor center[10] and the recently authorized River Raisin National Battlefield Park.[11]

Custer’s statue, unveiled in 1910, now sits at the corner of Elm Street and Monroe Street.

The area of Frenchtown was renamed and incorporated as the village of Monroe in honor of President James Monroe, who visited the Michigan Territory in 1817. In the same year, the city of Monroe was named the county seat of the newly created Monroe County. Monroe was re-incorporated as a city in 1837.[7]

Monroe is known for the residency of United States Major General George Armstrong Custer (1839–1876) during his childhood. While he was not born in Monroe, Custer spent much of his childhood living in Monroe, and it was where he later met and married Elizabeth Bacon (1842–1933) during the Civil War in 1864. In 1910, President William Howard Taft and the widowed Elizabeth Bacon unveiled an equestrian statue of Custer (George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument) that now stands at the corner of Elm Street and Monroe Street.[12][13] The Custer connection is also commemorated in street names, various historic markers, buildings, schools, and the Custer Airport.[14] City limit signs for Monroe describe the city as "the home of General Custer."

The famous La-Z-Boy furniture company was founded in Monroe in 1927.[15] Their world headquarters are still located in Monroe on Telegraph Road.

In 1974, the Monroe Power Plant, currently the fourth largest coal firing plant in North America, opened. At 805 feet (245 m) tall, the dual smokestacks are the visible from over 25 miles (40 km) away and are among the tallest structures in the state.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
18401,703
18502,81365.2%
18603,89238.4%
18705,08630.7%
18804,930−3.1%
18905,2586.7%
19005,043−4.1%
19106,89336.7%
192011,57367.9%
193018,11056.5%
194018,4782.0%
195021,46716.2%
196022,9687.0%
197023,8944.0%
198023,531−1.5%
199022,625−3.9%
200022,076−2.4%
201020,733−6.1%
Est. 201220,535−1.0%
U.S. Decennial Census
2011 estimate

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 20,733 people, 8,238 households, and 5,277 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,261.0 inhabitants per square mile (873.0 /km2). There were 9,158 housing units at an average density of 998.7 per square mile (385.6 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 88.4% White, 6.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 1.2% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population.

There were 8,238 households of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 35.9% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.05.

The median age in the city was 36.3 years. 26.2% of residents were under the age of 18; 9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.9% were from 25 to 44; 25.4% were from 45 to 64; and 13.3% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.0% male and 53.0% female.

2000 census[edit]

In the census of 2000, there were 22,076 people, 8,594 households, and 5,586 families in the city. The population density was 2,440.9 per square mile (942.9/km²). There were 9,107 housing units at an average density of 1,007.0 per square mile (389.0/km²). The racial makeup was 90.87% White, 5.07% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.90% from other races, and 2.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.76% of the population.

There were 8,594 households of which 33.6% had children under 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.0% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone 65 years or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size 3.10.

In the city the population was 26.9% under 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.0% who 65 or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $41,810, and the median income for a family $51,442. Males had a median income of $42,881 versus $25,816 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,948. 9.0% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under 18 and 16.1% of those 65 or over.

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.19 square miles (26.39 km2), of which, 9.17 square miles (23.75 km2) is land and 1.02 square miles (2.64 km2) is water.[1] Monroe sits at the lowest elevation in state of Michigan, which is the shores of Lake Erie at 571 feet (174 meters).[16] The average elevation of the city of Monroe is 594 feet (182 meters).[17] The Port of Monroe is the only Michigan port on Lake Erie,[18] and Sterling State Park is the only of Michigan's 98 state parks located on or near Lake Erie.[19] The River Raisin and Sandy Creek travel through Monroe, although these waterways are unnavigable.

Climate[edit]

Monroe lies in the humid continental climate zone. Monroe only receives an average of 28.5 inches (72.4 cm) of snow a year — the lowest average snowfall for any large city in the state. July is the warmest month with an average high temperature of 84 °F (29 °C), and January is the coldest month with an average low temperature of 16 °F (-9 °C). Monroe does not normally have extremely hot or cold temperatures. On average, the temperature only drops below 0 °F (-18 °C) a couple of times during a winter season, and it is even rarer for the temperature to rise above 100 °F (38 °C) during the summer. The coldest recorded temperature was -21 °F (-29 °C) on February 5, 1918. The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on July 24, 1934, with another equal temperature recorded on one occasion many years earlier.[20]

Climate data for Monroe, Michigan
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)70
(21)
70
(21)
83
(28)
90
(32)
95
(35)
106
(41)
106
(41)
103
(39)
103
(39)
92
(33)
81
(27)
68
(20)
106
(41)
Average high °F (°C)31
(−1)
33
(1)
43
(6)
57
(14)
69
(21)
80
(27)
84
(29)
82
(28)
75
(24)
62
(17)
48
(9)
36
(2)
58.3
(14.8)
Average low °F (°C)16
(−9)
18
(−8)
27
(−3)
38
(3)
49
(9)
59
(15)
64
(18)
62
(17)
55
(13)
43
(6)
33
(1)
22
(−6)
40.5
(4.7)
Record low °F (°C)−18
(−28)
−21
(−29)
−2
(−19)
11
(−12)
26
(−3)
35
(2)
35
(2)
38
(3)
27
(−3)
21
(−6)
1
(−17)
−12
(−24)
−21
(−29)
Precipitation inches (mm)1.6
(41)
1.7
(43)
2.6
(66)
3.0
(76)
3.1
(79)
3.5
(89)
3.1
(79)
3.2
(81)
3.0
(76)
2.3
(58)
2.8
(71)
2.8
(71)
32.7
(831)
Snowfall inches (cm)7.4
(18.8)
6.2
(15.7)
5.3
(13.5)
0.9
(2.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2.2
(5.6)
6.0
(15.2)
28
(71.1)
Source: [21]

Education[edit]

The Hall of the Divine Child, now the Norman Towers senior citizens residence, was a boarding school in Monroe from 1918–1980.

The city of Monroe is served by only one large public school district, Monroe Public Schools (MPS), which enrolls approximately 6,700 students.[22] MPS operates nine elementary schools, one middle school, one high school, one alternative high school, and two specialized education centers.[23] At around 2,100 students, Monroe High School is one of the largest high schools in the state. Monroe is also served by the Monroe County Intermediate School District, which provides services to other schools in the form of special education services, support staff, substitute teachers, and educational technology (such as computers and distance learning). Students in Monroe may also attend one of two public charter schools, and there are also over a dozen various parochial schools in and around Monroe. In 2012, the three largest parochial elementary schools (St. Michael the Archangel, St. Mary and St. John the Baptist) merged to form Monroe Catholic Elementary Schools, serving infants through 8th Grade. The St. Michael Campus hosts infants through 1st grade, while St. John hosts 2nd through 4th grade and St. Mary functions as the Middle School for grades 5 through 8. The largest of the parochial schools is St. Mary Catholic Central High School, which enrolls over 400 students a year and has a full sports program that competes against the other public school districts. Students may also be homeschooled.

Marygrove College, sponsored by the local Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (IHM), was founded in Monroe in 1905 as a Catholic, liberal arts college. The college then moved to its current location in Detroit in 1927. The IHM also operated a boarding school, the Hall of the Divine Child, in Monroe from 1918–1980. Monroe County Community College was founded in 1964 just west of Monroe. It is the only higher education school in Monroe County.[24]

Economy[edit]

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[25] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1Mercy Memorial Hospital1,600
2County of Monroe1,062
3DTE Energy530
4La-Z-Boy522
5Macsteel450
6Monroe Bank & Trust401
7Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary265
8City of Monroe205
9Monroe Publishing Company200
10SYGMA Network162

Transportation[edit]

Lake Erie Transit logo.png

The city of Monroe is served by the Lake Erie Transit public transportation bus system. Established in 1975, Lake Erie Transit currently has a fleet of 31 buses and serves approximately 400,000 riders every year. In 2008, the system logged 764,000 miles.[26] The system operates buses on eight fixed routes in and around the city of Monroe. It also serves several neighboring townships outside of its normal routes should a passenger call ahead for a ride. From Bedford Township, its provides transportation to and from two shopping malls in Toledo, Ohio.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Monroe, Michigan has only one official sister city:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-03. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  6. ^ Population of Michigan Regions and Statistical Areas, 2000 and 2010, at www.michigan.gov
  7. ^ a b Romig, Walter (1986) [1973]. Michigan Place Names. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1838-X. 
  8. ^ http://www.monroeinfo.com/set1_source.html Monroe, Michigan historical markers
  9. ^ http://www.nps.gov/rira/historyculture/index.htm
  10. ^ http://www.riverraisinbattlefield.org/visitorscenter.htm Battlefield Visitor Center
  11. ^ Monroe Evening News staff (31 March 2009). "Battlefield bill signing celebrated". Monroe Evening News (Monroe, Michigan). Retrieved 3 April 2009. 
  12. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D0DE7DA1530E233A25756C1A9639C946196D6CF History of the Custer statue
  13. ^ http://monroe.lib.mi.us/books_movies_music/special_collections/custer_statue_moved.htm Custer statue moved
  14. ^ a b http://mich.gov/documents/Ttf_19117_7.pdf Custer Airport details
  15. ^ http://www.la-z-boy.com/about/our_history.aspx La-Z-Boy history
  16. ^ http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest USGS Elevations and Distances in the United States
  17. ^ http://michigan.hometownlocator.com/mi/monroe/monroe.cfm Elevation of Monroe, MI
  18. ^ http://www.portofmonroe.com/ Port of Monroe
  19. ^ http://www.michigandnr.com/ParksandTrails/Details.aspx?id=497&type=SPRK Sterling State Park
  20. ^ http://climate.geo.msu.edu/Stations/5558/NARRAT.txt Climate of Monroe
  21. ^ "Average Weather for Monroe, MI - Temperature and Precipitation". Weatherbase. Retrieved May 28, 2009. 
  22. ^ http://www.greatschools.net/michigan/monroe/Monroe-Public-Schools/ Great Schools profile of Monroe Public Schools
  23. ^ http://www.monroe.k12.mi.us/ Monroe Public Schools homepage
  24. ^ http://www.monroeccc.edu/ MCCC homepage
  25. ^ City of Monroe CAFR
  26. ^ Michigan DOT: Lake Erie Transit http://www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9625_21607-164483--,00.html
  27. ^ http://www.michiganhighways.org/listings/MichHwys50-59.html Michigan Highways 50 through 59
  28. ^ "Ernst Gerhard Wilhelm Keyl". Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  29. ^ http://www.ci.monroe.mi.us/Hofu_Mayor_Visit.cfm Twin towning with Hofu, Japan

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°54′59″N 83°23′52″W / 41.91639°N 83.39778°W / 41.91639; -83.39778