Monday Night Football

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Monday Night Football
ESPN Monday Night Football logo
FormatSports
Created byRoone Arledge
Directed byChet Forte (1970–1986)
Larry Kamm (1987)
Craig Janoff (1988–1999)
Drew Esocoff (2000–2005)
Chip Dean (2006–present)
StarringCommentators:
Mike Tirico
Jon Gruden
Lisa Salters
Studio hosts:
Chris Berman
Stuart Scott
Mike Ditka
Keyshawn Johnson
Cris Carter
Tom Jackson
Steve Young
Trent Dilfer
Opening theme"Heavy Action" by Johnny Pearson
Country of originUnited States
No. of seasons42
No. of episodes659
Production
Producer(s)Roger Lewin
Jay Rothman
Suzy Kolber (uncredited) (2006–present)
Location(s)NFL stadiums
Bristol, Connecticut (studio)
Running time3+ hours
Production company(s)National Football League
ABC Sports (1970-2005)
ESPN (2006-present)
Broadcast
Original channelABC (1970-2005)
ESPN (2006-present)
Picture format480i (SDTV),
720p (HDTV)
Original runSeptember 21, 1970 – present
External links
Website
 
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Monday Night Football
ESPN Monday Night Football logo
FormatSports
Created byRoone Arledge
Directed byChet Forte (1970–1986)
Larry Kamm (1987)
Craig Janoff (1988–1999)
Drew Esocoff (2000–2005)
Chip Dean (2006–present)
StarringCommentators:
Mike Tirico
Jon Gruden
Lisa Salters
Studio hosts:
Chris Berman
Stuart Scott
Mike Ditka
Keyshawn Johnson
Cris Carter
Tom Jackson
Steve Young
Trent Dilfer
Opening theme"Heavy Action" by Johnny Pearson
Country of originUnited States
No. of seasons42
No. of episodes659
Production
Producer(s)Roger Lewin
Jay Rothman
Suzy Kolber (uncredited) (2006–present)
Location(s)NFL stadiums
Bristol, Connecticut (studio)
Running time3+ hours
Production company(s)National Football League
ABC Sports (1970-2005)
ESPN (2006-present)
Broadcast
Original channelABC (1970-2005)
ESPN (2006-present)
Picture format480i (SDTV),
720p (HDTV)
Original runSeptember 21, 1970 – present
External links
Website

Monday Night Football (MNF) is a live broadcast of the National Football League on ESPN. From 1970 to 2005 it aired on ABC. Monday Night Football was, along with Hallmark Hall of Fame, and the Walt Disney anthology television series, one of the longest running prime time commercial network television series ever, and one of the highest-rated, particularly among male viewers.

Monday Night Football can also be seen in Canada on TSN and RIS, and in most of Europe on ESPN America. On 29 March 2010 it was announced that MNF would be shown on ESPN UK,[1] in most of Australia on ESPN Australia, in Portugal on SportTV 3 and SportTV HD and on TV 2 Sport in Denmark, and in some regions of the world outside the U.S. on ESPN International. A Spanish language version airs on ESPN Deportes in the U.S. and on ESPN International in Latin America. The games are also made available on regular over-the-air television stations in each participating team's local market so that households without cable television can still see the telecast. Is also available in portuguese on the ESPN Brasil. [2]

As of December 26, 2011, the Monday Night Football franchise had aired a total of 659 games.

On September 8, 2011 the first day of the 2011 regular season, ESPN extended its contract for Monday Night Football for another eight seasons, giving it rights to the broadcasts until 2021. The new deal, valued between $14.2 billion and $15.2 billion, also gives them rights to expanded highlights, international and digital rights, and possibly a Wildcard game.[3] Cable television operators condemned the new contract, noting that ESPN has the highest retransmission consent fees of any national cable television channel, nearly five times higher than the nearest competitor (TNT), and raises fees on an annual basis.[4]

Contents

Overview

After 42 years, there now have been a total of 730 games televised by the Monday Night Football franchise.

List of announcers

Scheduling problems

To avoid any scheduling unfairness where a team may have five days between games and others six before the first playoff game, there is no Monday night game during the final week of the regular season. From 2003 until 2005, one game was played on Thursday and another Monday under the Monday Night Football banner. Starting in 2006, when the series moved to cable, two games are played on the opening Monday night to capitalize on fan interest during "Kickoff Weekend".

Monday night games early in the season are often highly anticipated since records are new, teams usually are showcasing fresh talent and potential, and storylines coming into the season are often played out as fans try to see if these hyped teams are up to form. Since no one knows during the first month of the season if a team is indeed good, or will rebound from a difficult start, interest is usually high for the first few weeks of the MNF season.

Unfortunately, since the MNF schedule is set in April and cannot be changed, the league and network cannot guarantee a late season match up will have any significance or be highly anticipated. Teams thought to be good during the off-season could be out of playoff contention by mid-season (a prime example occurring in 1999, when the 49ers and Falcons both entered the season's final MNF game with 4–11 records. It had seemed like a good pre-season matchup since the Falcons had played in the previous season's Super Bowl and the 49ers coming into the '99 season had posted 16 consecutive 10-win seasons). It is also possible for a team like the 1999 St. Louis Rams not to be scheduled for a Monday night game because of its dismal record the year before, and many other NFL teams have had huge unforeseen turnarounds that result in lack of MNF attention (these teams generally receive multiple MNF spots the year after their breakout success, which is great for viewers if those teams continue to play well, and not so great if they return to mediocrity or worse). However, the forecasting abilities of the NFL's schedule-makers have generally been proficient over the years, resulting in most late-season MNF games featuring at least one team that is either headed to the playoffs or needs to win the MNF game to clinch/get closer to a playoff spot.

The problem of having a national spotlight game which during the season's most critical weeks late in the year probably would not show the most important game of the week was long known by the league and network. As a result of this, the league wished to move the "Game of the Week" idea to Sunday nights as to make flex scheduling possible. This was a move which would ultimately mean the end of Monday Night Football on ABC. (Cable games are protected from the NFL's flexible scheduling rule adopted for the 2006–07 season. The new rule applies only to CBS, Fox, and NBC's Sunday night games.)

Franchises with the most appearances

The franchise with the most Monday night appearances is the Miami Dolphins, followed by the Dallas Cowboys, who have the most victories on Monday night.

The most common Monday Night Football pairings are Broncos vs. Raiders (matched up 17 times as of the start September 12, 2011), and Cowboys vs. Redskins (matched up 15 times as of September 27, 2011 season); both are division games between bitter rivals and draw substantial interest from fans of other teams as well.

The show as entertainment

Monday Night Football has continued to provide as much entertainment as sports throughout its run. In addition to the extra cameras, the show has also pioneered technological broadcast innovations, such as the use of enhanced slow motion replays and computerized graphics.

Celebrity guests, such as former Vice President Spiro Agnew, singers Plácido Domingo and John Lennon (formerly of The Beatles), President Bill Clinton, and even Kermit the Frog, were often featured during the game to "liven up" the broadcast. The December 9, 1974 contest featured a rare instance of two celebrities entering the booth, with Lennon being interviewed by Howard Cosell and California governor Ronald Reagan speaking with Gifford, with Reagan explaining the rules of American football (off-camera) to Lennon as the game went along. However, the late 1990s and early 2000s (decade) saw an even more increased reliance on the entertainment factor. Some halftime shows, featuring popular music stars, were broadcast in full rather than being ignored in favor of analysis of the game by the commentators, as in previous seasons.

Hank Williams, Jr. reworked his country music hit "All My Rowdy Friends Are Coming Over Tonight" to be included in the telecast's introduction as "All My Rowdy Friends Are Here on Monday Night". (The original introduction music was an organ-based piece called "Score", written by Charles Fox and recorded by Bob's Band.) In addition, Edd Kalehoff modernized the classic "Heavy Action" theme in 1989. It was Williams, Jr. who literally had the last word on ABC's last broadcast, with his rendition of Don Meredith's famous line, "Turn Out the Lights, The Party's Over", shown as the broadcast ended.[5] On October 23, 2006, Hank Williams Jr. shouted the catchphrase, live, on top of the "Cowboy star" at the 50-yard line of Texas Stadium before kickoff of the Dallas Cowboys game that evening.

In December 1980, one of the most memorable moments of MNF occurred when Cosell announced in a news flash that John Lennon had been shot and killed in New York City.

The program's affiliation with ABC/ESPN also resulted in numerous promotional crossovers between MNF and other ABC/ESPN programs.

2006 summary

For its 2006 debut on ESPN, Williams, Jr. re-recorded the MNF opening theme with an all-star jam band that included Brian Setzer, Little Richard, Questlove, Joe Perry, Clarence Clemons, Rick Nielsen, Bootsy Collins, Charlie Daniels, Steven Van Zandt and others. The 2006 telecast generally began with a cinematic tease produced by Rico Labbe, Michael Sciallis and Jason Jobes. It was during one of these teases that Barack Obama spoofed his announcement for the 2008 Presidential candidacy in favor of his hometown Chicago Bears in their game against the St. Louis Rams.[6]

The tease is followed by the show open produced by Los Angeles-based The Syndicate called Transformation. It features computer-generated imagery showing a city being transformed into a football stadium and passers-by on the street turning into players, coaches, fans, and officials set to an updated orchestral treatment of the "Heavy Action" theme song. The sequence begins every week with a different celebrity walking down the street, picking up a glowing football helmet with the ESPN logo on the side and saying, "I'm ready for some football! Are you?", thus beginning the transformation process. Celebrities for 2006 included Arnold Schwarzenegger, Matthew Fox, Hugh Hefner, Paris Hilton, Spike Lee, Ashton Kutcher, Samuel L. Jackson, Ludacris, Jack Black, Kiefer Sutherland, James Belushi, Ben Stiller, Tyra Banks, Carmen Electra and Eva Longoria.

Also, the stars returned in full force to the booth, though this proved to be the major criticism of the ESPN's first MNF season. On the opening weekend, Arnold Schwarzenegger, another celebrity turned California governor, was in the booth at McAfee Coliseum in Oakland, California; before that, Jamie Foxx appeared at FedExField in suburban Washington, D.C. Following them have included NBA basketball superstar Dwyane Wade, Basketball Hall of Fame player Charles Barkley, NASCAR NEXTEL Cup Series driver Jeff Gordon, comedian Jimmy Kimmel (whose opening words to Joe Theismann were "how's the leg?"), actor Sylvester Stallone, director Spike Lee, hip hop artist Jay-Z, and MNF theme singer Hank Williams, Jr.

Digital on-screen graphics

ESPN's score banner used since acquiring Monday Night Football from sister-channel ABC was located in the middle of the screen on the bottom. The graphics were all black, with the road team on the left side, and the home team on the right side. The team colors were displayed on the sides of the scoreboard. When a touchdown happens, the side of the team who scored the touchdown opens with a team logo, and "TOUCHDOWN" appeared alongside and the score changed number-by-number. Monday Night Football broadcasts were the only time the graphics were used, in other sports, a red parallelogram-shaped score banner was used.

Beginning with the 2008 season, the score banner was given a revamp. Monday Night Football used a more traditional score banner, dubbed the "MNF Dashboard", at the bottom of the screen in 2008, with player stats and information being displayed in conjunction with the score and time.[1] A virtual on-field graphic (showing an arrow pointing towards the direction of advancement and the down/yardage information) was used for all plays. A play clock was added to the virtual on-field graphic the following season, starting with the September 14, 2009 game between the Buffalo Bills and the New England Patriots. ESPN's NFL broadcasts, even before acquiring MNF, have been traditionally somewhat of a testing ground for new graphics used for the network's other play-by-play properties.

MNF's graphics underwent an overhaul for its 40th season in 2009. Additionally (beginning with Week 4), timeout indicators were added below each team's abbreviations. (Note: This was first used on the ESPN networks' college football coverage, beginning in 2007.) On December 19, 2009, ESPN debuted a variation of this scoring banner and a graphics package mirroring that of MNF for its college football coverage, beginning with the 2009 New Mexico Bowl. On March 14, 2010, the scoreboard debuted for the NBA on ESPN. On April 4, 2010, ESPN Major League Baseball debuted their graphics package on the 2010 MLB Opening Day, the New York Yankees and the Boston Red Sox.

The MNF scoring banner had some significant changes made for the 2010 season, mirroring that of what was first used during the 2010 college football season on the ESPN family of networks a week earlier. When the scoring banner was introduced, the "ESPN Monday Night Football" logo appeared before showing the time and score. Also, the time remaining in each quarter was slightly larger. The logos of the participating teams appeared alongside their abbreviations, and the timeout indicators were made more visible than the previous year. When a team took a timeout, the word "TIMEOUT" appeared in place of the team abbreviations and score. When a team scored a touchdown, the graphic reading "TOUCHDOWN" appeared in conjunction with the score change. The MNF watermark was moved and used as a "placeholder" in the area of the banner where the down and yardage were displayed.

For the 2011 season, the graphics underwent a complete overhaul. To incorporate the new logo, the graphics were given a more vibrant tone, contrasting what was used during the 2009 and 2010 NFL seasons. The scoring banner has a black, glossy interface with the quarter and time on a red background, reminiscing what was used when ESPN acquired MNF. This was the first season in which the 16:9 letterbox format presentation were used for all ESPN broadcasts, in compliance with the #10 AFD code (ESPN switched to a letterbox format that summer).

In 2011, the graphics used for other ESPN broadcasts were updated. Some noticeable changes made to the scoring banners were that the team names were displayed in their respective color backgrounds, the addition of "bonus" indicators (for basketball broadcasts), and the overall graphics were given a slightly-translucent design.

2007 summary

ESPN cut back to only one opening tease for the 2007 season. Williams Jr. and the all-star band returned, only this time they played in a "juke joint" set on a country road. The lead singer arrives in a GMC Yukon truck (GMC paid for product placement) with the license plate "BOCEPHUS", which is Williams' nickname. The Syndicate's computer-generated tease was removed and replaced by short pre-taped films focusing on a team or player in the game. Some of them have featured actor Jamie Foxx.

The guest visits continued: Barkley returned to the booth on September 17 in Philadelphia. Other guests throughout the season have included Kimmel (another returnee), Drew Carey, Miley Cyrus, Russell Crowe, and Terry Bradshaw. In addition, Gordon was a halftime guest on the game just before the season-ending Ford 400 and was joined by teammate Jimmie Johnson.

When the game ends, Williams returns to say, "See you in (city that is the site of the next week's game)." Both the open and close contain helmets of the participating teams, organized in the style of a concert poster.

2008 summary

Despite the de-emphasis on entertainment on the overall telecast, ESPN did bring back Hank Williams, Jr. for his 20th season as part of the opening. This time, the open was set in a private residence. At the end of the song, Williams Jr. touched a foot pump which supposedly contained the helmets of that night's participating teams. The helmets were launched from the home toward the stadium at which the game was held. Through computer-generated imagery, the helmets "land" at midfield during a live shot, and then explode. The "exploding helmets" gimmick was also used at various times in the 1980s and 1990s during the pre-game tease. Williams Jr. then appeared again at the end of the game to promote the next week's matchup.

ESPN also continued to promote upcoming albums through its use in bumper music. On September 29 (Baltimore Ravens at Pittsburgh Steelers), ESPN used "Another Way to Die", a duet between Alicia Keys and Jack White of the White Stripes. The song was part of the soundtrack for the 2008 movie Quantum of Solace, the latest in the James Bond series.

Monday Night Football celebrated their 600th game on Monday, October 20, 2008 in a game where the New England Patriots defeated the Denver Broncos 41–7.

The 39th season of MNF ended December 22, 2008 in Chicago, when the Bears beat the Green Bay Packers, 20–17, in overtime.

2009 summary

For the 40th season of Monday Night Football, Hank Williams, Jr. is seen on the steps of a building (presumably a museum), surrounded by dancers, football fans, and statues/busts patterned after those at the Pro Football Hall of Fame. The statues begin to move and dance along with everyone else in the scene.

The transition to Williams Jr. is a book, with the chapter number (in Roman numerals, sequentially with each week) and a tag line about the game to be played that night.

At the end of the song, Williams Jr. plugged in the cords, thereby launching animated "helmets" into space. The helmets were launched from the building toward the stadium at which the game was held (with the exception of October 5, 2009, when the helmets zoomed towards Brett Favre instead), passing the International Space Station. And just like the previous season as mentioned above, the helmets "land" at midfield during a live shot and then crashed into each other. Williams Jr. appeared again at the end of the telecast to promote the following week's matchup, and the book closed, signifying the end of the "chapter," or game.

The scene was filmed in the summer of 2009 at The Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee.

Before Williams Jr. appears, Frank Gifford gives a short vignette about a memorable moment in the history of Monday Night Football featuring one or both of the teams playing that night's game.

The 40th season of Monday Night Football ended December 28, 2009 with the Minnesota Vikings-Chicago Bears game in Chicago. The Bears defeated the Vikings in overtime, 36–30. The telecast ended with a vignette that featured Gifford taking a look back at highlights of the last 4 decades – and the 40th season – of MNF. After that, the book closed, signifying the end of the season.

2010 summary

The opening was identical to the previous season, except for the final scenes. This time, Williams Jr. turns a wheel filled with paint and then, through computer-generated imagery, colors blast into the air and the helmets containing logos of participating teams are revealed. The helmets stay on top of the building. In one other minor difference, the chapter numbers in the "book" are Arabic numerals, not Roman ones. Gifford is providing new vignettes and the Parthenon scenes are repeated from the year before. The 2010 season marked Williams' 22nd as part of the telecast open.

In an unusual coincidence, both games which had the New York Jets as a home team at New Meadowlands Stadium (now MetLife Stadium) were delayed by heavy rain and lightning. The first time, September 13 against the Baltimore Ravens, the game was delayed 25 minutes; the second delay, prior to the October 11 contest against the Minnesota Vikings, lasted for 40 minutes. Prior to the 9/13 game, the last ESPN telecast to encounter weather problems was on October 2, 1999 (a Sunday night) when lightning halted Seattle Seahawks at Kansas City Chiefs during the second quarter. The first delay forced ESPN to again use ESPN2 for a game telecast, this time for the Chiefs' home opener against the San Diego Chargers. As in 2007, the broadcast was shifted to ESPN once the first game was over.

The game between the Jets and the Vikings was both Brett Favre's first game in East Rutherford since his only season there in 2008 and marked Randy Moss' return to the Vikings. Moss played only four games for Minnesota until he was waived on November 2.

2011 summary

The opening sequence was set in a closed-studio setting, with Hank Williams Jr. (in his 23rd year) performing with a band in front of a live audience with large video screens in the background. The end of the opening sequence has team logos of that night's participants transitioning into the new ESPN Monday Night Football logo before going to a live shot. On October 3, 2011, ESPN pulled the theme song after Williams appeared on a Fox News Channel program, Fox & Friends, where he compared a golf outing involving Barack Obama, John Boehner, Joe Biden, and John Kasich to "Hitler playing golf with Netanyahu."[7][8] On October 6, 2011, it was announced that Williams will no longer be singing the theme song, and that "All My Rowdy Friends" will no longer be used as its theme, as Williams still owns the song. A statement from ESPN says that the network has "decided to part ways with Hank Williams Jr. We appreciate his contributions over the past years. The success of Monday Night Football has always been about the games and that will continue."[9] Williams commented on the matter: "After reading hundreds of e-mails, I have made my decision... By pulling my opening October 3rd, [ESPN] stepped on the toes of the First Amendment Freedom of Speech, so therefore me, my song, and All My Rowdy Friends are out of here. It’s been a great run."[9] A First Amendment expert at law firm Baker Hostetler said ESPN is "a private company which does not have to use a tone-deaf politico to sing into its kickoffs."[10]

With Suzy Kolber re-assigned to the new studio show NFL32, and Michele Tafoya having left ESPN for NBC Sunday Night Football, the sideline reporter position is a rotating one.

For the second year in a row, and third time overall, the beginning of the 10:15 p.m. ET game (Oakland Raiders at Denver Broncos) was shown on ESPN2 as the game that began at 7 p.m. ET (New England Patriots at Miami Dolphins) ran past the scheduled time period.

Scoring records

Air times

Notable events

Commentators


Foreign language versions

Spanish version

Since 2006, a Spanish-language telecast is also broadcasted on ESPN Deportes, the Spanish version of ESPN and on ESPN Latin América featuring NBA and NFL play-by-play announcer Alvaro Martin, Super Bowl winner Raul Allegre as color commentator and John Sutcliffe as the field reporter. This is the same crew of La NFL Dominical, the Spanish version of ESPN Sunday Night Football, until 2005. The announcers of the second game of the 2006 doubleheader were Eduardo Varela (play-by-play), Robert Abramowitz (color) and Georgina Ruiz Sandoval (field reporter). Preceding the game NFL Esta Noche (NFL Tonight), the 30-minute pre-game show, can be seen on both networks.

The four booth announcers called the 2007 season opening games from ESPN's Bristol, Connecticut headquarters while watching games on monitors. None of them traveled to the game sites and there were no sideline reporters in the early weeks. Sutcliffe would later report from the game sites. Allegre did not work the season finale between the Broncos and Chargers; he was replaced by Abramovitz.

In 2008, Martin and Allegre only travelled to the Cowboys-Eagles game, during the NFL's celebrations of the Hispanic Heritage Month.

Portuguese version

Since the 1990s, ESPN Latin America has a feed in portuguese language targeted to their viewers in Brazil. Ivan Zimmermann (play-by-play), André José Adler (play-by-play), Roberto Figueroa (color), Marco Alfaro (color) among others, were the announcers broadcasting from ESPN's headquarters. Since 2006, the structure of the Brazilian feed was merged with ESPN Brasil and the broadcasting is made from São Paulo. The current announcers are Everaldo Marques (play-by-play) and Paulo Antunes (color). Ari Aguiar (play-by-play) and Eduardo Agra (color) occasionally fill-in.

Radio broadcasts

Monday Night Football has also been carried on national radio networks over the years. The Mutual Broadcasting System aired the games initially, with Van Patrick (19721973) and Lindsey Nelson (19741977) announcing. CBS Radio took over in 1978 with Jack Buck and Hank Stram commentating. After a two-year stint (19851986) with Don Criqui and Bob Trumpy calling the games on NBC Radio, Buck and Stram resumed with CBS Radio in 1987. In 1996, Howard David and Matt Millen replaced Buck and Stram. Marv Albert and Boomer Esiason were the MNF radio voices from 2002 to 2009, with Kevin Harlan replacing Albert in 2010.

In the 1990s, CBS Radio purchased a controlling stake in Westwood One, which in turn had bought out both the NBC and Mutual networks. As of 2008, Westwood One was no longer controlled by CBS, but the network retained its NFL broadcast rights. In 2011 Westwood One was purchased by Dial Global

TV ratings

The highest-rated Monday Night Football telecast on ABC was the Miami Dolphins' victory over the previously undefeated Chicago Bears on December 2, 1985, which drew a national Nielsen rating of 29.6 and a share of 46. ABC's lowest-rated MNF game was the St. Louis Rams' defeat of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers on October 18, 2004, which drew a 7.7 rating.

During the 1995–1996 TV season, Monday Night Football averaged a 17.1 household rating. Its main competitor, Murphy Brown, averaged a 12.3 rating.[11]

The highest-rated Monday Night Football game on ESPN, and the highest-rated program in U.S. cable television history at that time, was the Minnesota Vikings' defeat of the Green Bay Packers 30–23 on October 5, 2009, with a rating of 15.3. The game featured the much-hyped matchup of Vikings quarterback Brett Favre facing his longtime former Green Bay team. ESPN noted in a press release that the telecast "was watched by more than 16.8 million people. The previous record was more than 13.6 million viewers for 2008's Monday night game between the Philadelphia Eagles and Dallas Cowboys. This was subsequently beaten by ESPN's coverage of the 2011 BCS National Championship Game. ESPN also stated that the game drew the highest rating in the network's 30-year history. The 15.3 rating beat the 14.4 for a Bears-Vikings game on Dec. 6, 1987, during ESPN's first season of televising NFL games".[12] ESPN's lowest-rated MNF game to date was the New York Giants' defeat of the Atlanta Falcons on October 15, 2007, which drew a 5.7 rating.

ESPN's third season of Monday Night Football was the most watched series on cable television in 2008. It set an all-time cable viewership record for the third straight year and drew the year's three biggest cable household audiences and 13 of the top 15. In three seasons on ESPN, Monday Night Football has registered seven of the top 10 all-time biggest household audiences in cable history, led by the Eagles-Cowboys telecast on 9/15/08, which attracted cable's largest household audience ever (an average of 12,953,000 million homes).

ESPN's 17 MNF telecasts in 2008 averaged a 8.9 rating, representing an average of 8,679,000 households (11,962,000 viewers), increases of 3%, 5% and 7%, respectively, vs. 2007 (8.6; 8,277,000 and 11,230,000).[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Laughlin, Andrew (March 29, 2010). "ESPN to air NFL's Monday Night Football". Digital Spy. http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/digitaltv/news/a211221/espn-to-air-nfls-monday-night-football.html. 
  2. ^ Shapiro, Leonard; Maske, Mark (April 19, 2005). "'Monday Night Football' Changes the Channel". Washington Post: p. A1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A63538-2005Apr18?language=printer. 
  3. ^ Updated: ESPN Kicks Off New Eight-Year, $14 Billion NFL Deal Multichannel News September 8, 2011
  4. ^ Atkinson, Claire (September 10, 2011). Cable operators rip ESPN's $15B rights deal with NFL. The New York Post. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  5. ^ http://nbcsports.msnbc.com/id/10612536/ns/sports-nfl/
  6. ^ Goldfarb, Zachary A. (December 17, 2006). "On 'Monday Night Football,' An Announcement From Obama". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 10, 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/62LFP4Ylx. 
  7. ^ Martinez, Michael (2011-10-05). "Hank Williams Jr. apologizes for Hitler-Obama comparison". Entertainment (CNN.com). http://www.cnn.com/2011/10/04/showbiz/williams-football/. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  8. ^ "ESPN pulls Williams from MNF opening". ESPN.com. 2011-10-04. http://espn.go.com/espn/story/_/id/7056003/espn-pulls-hank-williams-jr-ready-opening-mnf. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  9. ^ a b AP, via Yahoo: "Hank Williams Jr. out on Monday Night Football", October 6, 2011.
  10. ^ Sandomir, Richard (October 7, 2011). "ESPN Permanently Drops Football Pregame Song". The New York Times: p. B14. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/62IL38wVE. 
  11. ^ Complete TV Ratings 1995–1996
  12. ^ Favre's matchup with Packers draws record television audience
  13. ^ Breaking News – Monday Night Football: Most-Watched Series on Cable

External links