Moncton

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Moncton
City
From top left: Moncton skyline at night, the Capitol Theatre, Magic Mountain Water Park, Centennial Park, and Downtown Moncton at dusk
From top left: Moncton skyline at night, the Capitol Theatre, Magic Mountain Water Park, Centennial Park, and Downtown Moncton at dusk
Coat of arms of Moncton
Coat of arms
Official logo of Moncton
Logo
Nickname(s): Hub City
Motto: Resurgo
(Latin: I rise again)
Moncton is located in New Brunswick
Moncton
Moncton
Location in New Brunswick, Canada
Coordinates: 46°07′58″N 64°46′17″W / 46.13278°N 64.77139°W / 46.13278; -64.77139Coordinates: 46°07′58″N 64°46′17″W / 46.13278°N 64.77139°W / 46.13278; -64.77139
CountryCanada Canada
Province New Brunswick
CountyWestmorland
ParishMoncton Parish
First settled1733
Founded1766
Incorporated1855, 1875
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • MayorGeorge LeBlanc
 • Governing BodyMoncton City Council
 • MPRobert Goguen
 • MLAsJohn Betts
Marie-Claude Blais
Chris Collins
Susan Stultz
Area[1][2][3]
 • City141.17 km2 (54.51 sq mi)
 • Urban146 km2 (56 sq mi)
 • Metro2,406 km2 (929 sq mi)
Highest elevation70 m (230 ft)
Lowest elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population (2011)[1][2][3][4]
 • City69,074 rank (79th)
 • Density473.1/km2 (1,233.5/sq mi)
 • Urban107,086 rank (27th)
 • Metro143,000 rank (29th)
 • Metro density57.6/km2 (149.2/sq mi)
 • DemonymMonctonian
Time zoneAST (UTC−4)
 • Summer (DST)ADT (UTC−3)
Canadian Postal codeE1A-E1G
Area code(s)506
NTS Map021I02
GNBC CodeDADHJ
Websitewww.moncton.ca
 
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For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation).
Moncton
City
From top left: Moncton skyline at night, the Capitol Theatre, Magic Mountain Water Park, Centennial Park, and Downtown Moncton at dusk
From top left: Moncton skyline at night, the Capitol Theatre, Magic Mountain Water Park, Centennial Park, and Downtown Moncton at dusk
Coat of arms of Moncton
Coat of arms
Official logo of Moncton
Logo
Nickname(s): Hub City
Motto: Resurgo
(Latin: I rise again)
Moncton is located in New Brunswick
Moncton
Moncton
Location in New Brunswick, Canada
Coordinates: 46°07′58″N 64°46′17″W / 46.13278°N 64.77139°W / 46.13278; -64.77139Coordinates: 46°07′58″N 64°46′17″W / 46.13278°N 64.77139°W / 46.13278; -64.77139
CountryCanada Canada
Province New Brunswick
CountyWestmorland
ParishMoncton Parish
First settled1733
Founded1766
Incorporated1855, 1875
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • MayorGeorge LeBlanc
 • Governing BodyMoncton City Council
 • MPRobert Goguen
 • MLAsJohn Betts
Marie-Claude Blais
Chris Collins
Susan Stultz
Area[1][2][3]
 • City141.17 km2 (54.51 sq mi)
 • Urban146 km2 (56 sq mi)
 • Metro2,406 km2 (929 sq mi)
Highest elevation70 m (230 ft)
Lowest elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population (2011)[1][2][3][4]
 • City69,074 rank (79th)
 • Density473.1/km2 (1,233.5/sq mi)
 • Urban107,086 rank (27th)
 • Metro143,000 rank (29th)
 • Metro density57.6/km2 (149.2/sq mi)
 • DemonymMonctonian
Time zoneAST (UTC−4)
 • Summer (DST)ADT (UTC−3)
Canadian Postal codeE1A-E1G
Area code(s)506
NTS Map021I02
GNBC CodeDADHJ
Websitewww.moncton.ca

Moncton /ˈmʌŋktən/ is a Canadian city located in Westmorland County in southeastern New Brunswick. Situated in the Petitcodiac River Valley, it lies at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces. The city has gained the nickname "Hub City" because of its central location and also because Moncton has historically been the railway and land transportation hub for the Maritimes.

The city proper has a population of 69,074 (2011) and covers 142 km2 (55 sq mi). The Moncton CMA has a population of 138,644 (2011). The CMA includes the neighbouring city of Dieppe and the town of Riverview, as well as adjacent suburban areas in Westmorland and Albert counties.[5]

Although the area was originally settled in 1733, Moncton is considered to have been officially founded in 1766 with the arrival of Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants from Philadelphia. Initially an agricultural settlement, Moncton was not incorporated until 1855. The city was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, the British officer who had captured nearby Fort Beauséjour a century earlier. A significant wooden shipbuilding industry had developed in the community by the mid-1840s, allowing for the civic incorporation in 1855, but the shipbuilding economy collapsed in the 1860s, causing the town to subsequently lose its civic charter in 1862. Moncton regained its charter in 1875 after the community's economy rebounded, mainly due to a growing railway industry. In 1871, the Intercolonial Railway of Canada had chosen Moncton to be its headquarters, and Moncton remained a railroad town for well over a century until the closure of the Canadian National Railway (CNR) locomotive shops in the late 1980s.

Although the economy of Moncton was traumatized twice—by the collapse of the shipbuilding industry in the 1860s and by the closure of the CNR locomotive shops in the 1980s—the city was able to rebound strongly on both occasions. The city adopted the motto Resurgo after its rebirth as a railway town. At present, the city's economy is stable and diversified, primarily based on its traditional transportation, distribution, retailing, and commercial heritage, but also supplemented by strength in the educational, health care, financial, information technology, and insurance sectors. The strength of the economy has received national recognition and the local unemployment rate is consistently less than the national average.

History[edit]

The city is named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton. He captured nearby Fort Beauséjour in 1755 and is also known for his roles as second-in-command at the Plains of Abraham, for capturing Martinique, as Governor of New York and also for his participation in the Great Upheaval.

Acadians first settled the head of the Bay of Fundy in the 1670s.[6] The first reference to the "Petcoucoyer River" was on the De Meulles map of 1686.[7] Settlement of the Petitcodiac and Memramcook river valleys began about 1700, gradually extending inland and reaching the site of present day Moncton in 1733. The first Acadian settlers in the Moncton area established a marshland farming community and chose to name their settlement Le Coude (The Elbow).[8]

In 1755, nearby Fort Beausejour was captured by English forces under the command of Lt. Col. Robert Monckton.[9] The Beaubassin region including the Memramcook and Petitcodiac river valleys subsequently fell under English control.[10]

Later that year, Governor Charles Lawrence issued a decree ordering the expulsion of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia (including recently captured areas of Acadia such as le Coude). This action came to be known as the "Great Upheaval".[11]

The reaches of the upper Petitcodiac River valley then came under the control of the Philadelphia Land Company and in 1766 Pennsylvania Dutch settlers arrived to re-establish the pre-existing farming community at Le Coude.[12] The Settlers consisted of eight families; Heinrick Stief (Steeves), Jacob Treitz (Trites), Matthias Sommer (Somers), Jacob Reicker (Ricker), Charles Jones, George Wortmann (Wortman), Michael Lutz (Lutes), and George Koppel (Copple). There is a plaque dedicated in their honor at the mouth of Hall's Creek.[13] They renamed the settlement "The Bend".[8] The Bend remained an agricultural settlement for nearly 80 more years. Even by 1836, there were only 20 households in the community. At this time, the Westmorland Road became open to year round travel and a regular mail coach service was established between Saint John and Halifax. The Bend became an important transfer and rest station along the route. Over the next decade, lumbering and then shipbuilding would become important industries in the area.

The Intercolonial Railway depot in Moncton was central to the city's economic recovery in the late 19th century.

The turning point for the community was when Joseph Salter built a shipyard at The Bend that ultimately resulted in the employment of about 1000 workers. The Bend subsequently developed a service-based economy to support the shipyard and gradually began to acquire all the amenities of a growing town.[14] The prosperity engendered by the wooden shipbuilding industry allowed The Bend to incorporate as the town of Moncton in 1855. The town was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton,[8] but a clerical error at the time the town was incorporated resulted in the misspelling of the community's name, which has been perpetuated to the present day. The first mayor of Moncton was the shipbuilder Joseph Salter.

Two years later, in 1857, the European and North American Railway opened its line from Moncton to nearby Shediac; this was followed by a line from Moncton to Saint John opening in 1859.[15] At about the time of the arrival of the railway, the popularity of steam-powered ships forced an end to the era of wooden shipbuilding. The resulting industrial collapse caused Moncton to surrender its civic charter in 1862.[8]

Moncton's economic depression did not last long and a second era of prosperity came to the area in 1871 when Moncton was selected to be the headquarters of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada (ICR).[8] The arrival of the ICR in Moncton was a seminal event for the community. For the next 120 years, the history of the city would be firmly linked with that of the railway. In 1875,[8] Moncton was able to reincorporate as a town and adopted the motto "Resurgo" (Latin for I rise again). One year later, the ICR line to Quebec was opened. The railway boom that emanated from this and the associated employment growth allowed Moncton to achieve city status on April 23, 1890.[16]

Moncton grew rapidly during the early 20th century, particularly after provincial lobbying helped the city become the eastern terminus of the massive National Transcontinental Railway project in 1912.[17] In 1918, the ICR and NTR were merged by the federal government into the newly formed Canadian National Railways (CNR) system.[17] The ICR shops would become CNR's major locomotive repair facility for the Maritimes and Moncton became the headquarters for CNR's Maritime division.[18] The T. Eaton Company's catalogue warehouse moved to the city in the early 1920s, employing over seven hundred people.[19] Transportation and distribution became increasingly important to the Moncton economy throughout the middle part of the 20th century. The Moncton Airport opened in 1929 and quickly became an important fixture in the community. During the Second World War the Canadian Army built a large military supply base in the city to service the Maritime military establishment. The CNR continued to dominate the economy of the city with railway employment in Moncton peaked at nearly six thousand workers in the 1950s before beginning a slow decline.[20]

Moncton was placed on the Trans-Canada Highway network in the early 1960s after Route 2 was built along the northern perimeter of the city. Subsequent development saw Route 15 built between the city and Shediac.[21] At the same time, the Petitcodiac River Causeway was constructed.[8] The Université de Moncton was founded in 1963.[22] This institution became an important resource in the development of Acadian culture in the area.[23]

The CNR repair shops were the largest employer in Moncton until their closure in the late 1980s.

The late 1970s and the 1980s again saw a period of economic hardship hit the city as several major employers closed or restructured.[24] The Eatons catalogue division, CNR's locomotive shops facility and CFB Moncton were all closed during this time[25] throwing thousands of citizens out of work.[26]

Diversification in the early 1990s saw the rise of information technology, led by call centres which made use of the city's bilingual workforce.[27] By the late 1990s, retail, manufacturing and service expansion began to occur in all sectors and within a decade of the closure of the CNR locomotive shops Moncton had more than made up for its employment losses. This dramatic turnaround in the fortunes of the city has been termed the "Moncton Miracle".[28]

The growth of the community has continued unabated since the 1990s and has actually been accelerating. The confidence of the community has been bolstered by its ability to host major events such as the Francophonie Summit in 1999, a Rolling Stones concert in 2005, the Memorial Cup in 2006 and both the IAAF World Junior Championships in Athletics and a neutral site regular season CFL football game in 2010.[29] Recent positive developments include the Atlantic Baptist University achieving full university status and relocating to a new campus in 1996, the Greater Moncton Airport opening a new terminal building and becoming a designated international airport in 2002,[30] and the opening of the new Gunningsville Bridge to Riverview in 2005.[31] In 2002, Moncton became Canada's first officially bilingual city.[32] In the 2006 census, Moncton was officially designated a Census Metropolitan Area and became the largest metropolitan area in the province of New Brunswick.[33]

Geography[edit]

An aerial photo of Metro Moncton showing "the Bend" in the Petitcodiac River which inspired early names for the city.

Moncton lies in southeastern New Brunswick, at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces. The city is located along the north bank of the Petitcodiac River at a point where the river bends acutely from a west−east to north−south flow. This geographical feature has contributed significantly to historical names given to the community.

Petitcodiac in the Mi'kmaq language has been translated as meaning "bends like a bow". The early Acadian settlers in the region named their community Le Coude which means "the elbow".[8] Subsequent English immigrants changed the name of the settlement to The Bend of the Petitcodiac (or simply The Bend).[8]

The Petitcodiac river valley at Moncton is broad and relatively flat, bounded by a long ridge to the north (Lutes Mountain) and by the rugged Caledonia Highlands to the south. Moncton lies at the original head of navigation on the river, however a causeway to Riverview (constructed in 1968) resulted in extensive sedimentation of the river channel downstream and rendered the Moncton area of the waterway unnavigable.[8] On April 14, 2010, the causeway gates were opened in an effort to restore the silt-laden river.[34]

Tidal bore[edit]

Petitcodiac River, downtown Moncton, at midday in early June, 2013

The Petitcodiac River exhibits one of North America's few tidal bores: a regularly occurring wave that travels up the river on the leading edge of the incoming tide. The bore is as a result of the extreme tides of the Bay of Fundy. Originally, the bore was very impressive, sometimes between 1 and 2 metres (3 ft 3 in and 6 ft 7 in) in height and extending across the 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) width of the Petitcodiac River in the Moncton area. This wave would occur twice a day at high tide, travelling at an average speed of 13 km/h (8.1 mph) and producing an audible roar.[35] Unsurprisingly, the "bore" became a very popular early tourist attraction for the city, but when the Petitcodiac causeway was built in the 1960s, the river channel quickly silted in and reduced the bore so that it rarely exceeds 15 to 20 centimetres (5.9 to 7.9 in) in height.[36] On April 14, 2010, the causeway gates were opened in an effort to restore the silt-laden river.[34] A recent tidal bore since the opening of the causeway gates measured a 2-foot-high (0.61 m) wave, unseen for many years.[37]

Nearby natural features[edit]

There are many natural attractions near Moncton. Two major national parks, Fundy National Park and Kouchibouguac National Park, are within a one-hour drive of the city.[38] The warmest salt water beaches north of Virginia can be found on the Northumberland Strait, only 15 minutes away at Parlee Beach in the nearby town of Shediac.[39] New Brunswick's signature natural attraction, the Hopewell Rocks, are a half hour's drive down the Petitcodiac river valley.[38] Cape Enrage, located near Alma, includes a historic lighthouse, fossil cliffs, scenic vistas, and adventure tourism.[38] The Sackville Waterfowl Park includes nature trails and a boardwalk over a freshwater marsh as well as waterfowl viewing platforms. Other nearby attractions (within one hour of the city) include The Cape Jourimain National Wildlife Preserve, La Dune de Bouctouche Eco-Centre, (an ecotourism site and beach) and the Joggins Fossil Cliffs in Nova Scotia; a UNESCO world heritage site.[38]

Climate[edit]

Main article: Climate of Moncton

Despite being less than 50 km (31 mi) from the Bay of Fundy and less than 30 km (19 mi) from the Northumberland Strait, the climate tends to be more continental than maritime during the summer and winter seasons, with maritime influences somewhat tempering the transitional seasons of spring and autumn.[40]

Moncton has a warm summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with uniform precipitation distribution. Winter days are typically cold but generally sunny with solar radiation generating some warmth. Daytime high temperatures usually range a few degrees below the freezing point. Major snowfalls can result from nor'easter ocean storms moving up the east coast of North America.[41] These major snowfalls typically average 20–30 cm (8–12 in) and are frequently mixed with rain or freezing rain. Spring is frequently delayed because the sea ice that forms in the nearby Gulf of St. Lawrence during the previous winter requires time to melt, and this will cool onshore winds, which can extend inland as far as Moncton. The ice burden in the gulf has diminished considerably over the course of the last decade (which may be a consequence of global warming),[42] and the springtime cooling effect has weakened as a result. Daytime temperatures above freezing are typical by late February. Trees are usually in full leaf by May.[43] Summers are hot and humid due to the seasonal prevailing westerly winds strengthening the continental tendencies of the local climate.[40] Daytime highs sometimes reach more than 30 °C (86 °F). Rainfall is generally modest, especially in late July and August, and periods of drought are not uncommon.[43] Autumn daytime temperatures remain mild until late October.[40] First snowfalls usually do not occur until early December and consistent snow cover on the ground does not happen until early January. The Fundy coast of New Brunswick occasionally experiences the effects of post-tropical storms.[43] The stormiest weather of the year, with the greatest precipitation and the strongest winds, usually occurs during the fall/winter transition (November to mid-January).[43]

Cityscape[edit]

A panoramic view of Moncton's skyline looking northeast from Riverview
The Bell Aliant Tower is the tallest structure in New Brunswick

Moncton generally remains a "low rise" city. The city's skyline however encompasses many buildings and structures with varying architectural styles from many periods. The most dominant structure in the city is the Bell Aliant Tower, a 127 metres (417 ft) microwave communications tower built in 1971. When it was constructed, it was the tallest microwave communications tower of its kind in North America. It remains the tallest structure in Moncton, dwarfing the neighbouring Place L’Assomption by 46 metres (151 ft).[45] Assumption Place is a 20-story office building and is the headquarters of Assumption Mutual Life Insurance. This building is 81 metres (266 ft) in height and is tied with Brunswick Square, (Saint John) as the tallest building in the province.[46] The Blue Cross Centre is a large nine-story building in Downtown Moncton. Although only nine stories tall, the building is architecturally distinctive, encompasses a full city block, and is the largest office building in the city in terms of square footage.[47] It is the home of Medavie Blue Cross and the Moncton Public Library. There are about a half dozen other buildings in Moncton that range between eight and twelve stories in height, including the Delta Beausejour and Brunswick Crowne Plaza Hotels and the Terminal Plaza office complex.

Urban parks[edit]

The most popular park in the area is Centennial Park, which contains an artificial beach, lighted cross country skiing and hiking trails, the city's largest playground, lawn bowling and tennis facilities, a boating pond, a treetop adventure course, and Rocky Stone Field, the city's only football field with artificial turf.[48] The city's other main parks are Mapleton Park in the city's north end, Irishtown Nature Park (one of the largest urban nature parks in Canada) and St. Anselme Park (located in Dieppe). The numerous neighbourhood parks throughout the metro Moncton area include Bore View Park (which overlooks the Petitcodiac River), and the downtown Victoria Park, which features a bandshell, flower gardens, fountain, and the city's cenotaph.[49] There is an extensive system of hiking and biking trails in Metro Moncton. The Riverfront Trail is part of the Trans Canada Trail system, and various monuments and pavilions can be found along its length.[50]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  
1871600—    
18815,032+738.7%
18918,762+74.1%
19019,026+3.0%
191111,345+25.7%
192117,488+54.1%
193120,689+18.3%
194122,763+10.0%
195127,334+20.1%
195636,003+31.7%
196143,840+21.8%
196645,847+4.6%
197154,864+19.7%
197655,934+2.0%
198154,741−2.1%
198655,468+1.3%
199156,823+2.4%
199659,313+4.4%
200161,046+2.9%
200664,128+5.0%
201169,074+7.7%

Moncton's linguistic majority is English, though the city has an active French-speaking Acadian minority population (31.9%).[51] Almost all Monctonians speak English (64.6%) or French (31.9%) as first languages; 1.6% speak both languages as a first language, and 6.9% speak another language.[51] About 46% of the city population is bilingual and understands both English and French;[51] the only other Canadian cities that approach this level of linguistic duality are Ottawa, Sudbury, and Montreal. Moncton became the first officially bilingual city in the country in 2002.[32] The adjacent city of Dieppe is about 73% Francophone and has benefited from an ongoing rural depopulation of the Acadian Peninsula and areas in northern and eastern New Brunswick.[51] The town of Riverview meanwhile is heavily (95%) Anglophone.[51]

The census metropolitan area (CMA) grew by 9.7% between 2006 and 2011 - the fastest such rate of any metropolitan area in Atlantic Canada.[3] The census metropolitan area had a population of 138,644 as of the 2011 national census,[3] which makes it the largest metropolitan area in the province of New Brunswick and the second largest in the Maritime Provinces after Halifax. The 2013 estimated CMA population is 144,941. The CMA includes the city of Dieppe (population 23,310), town of Riverview (19,128), Moncton Parish (9,421), Memramcook (4,831), Coverdale Parish (4,401), and Salisbury (2,208).

Historically, the population of the city has been racially homogeneous with almost all residents originating from northwestern Europe. Migration is currently mostly from other areas of New Brunswick (especially the north) as well as Nova Scotia (13%) and Ontario (9%). 62% of new arrivals to the city are Anglophone and 38% are Francophone.[52]

Economy[edit]

Assumption Place in downtown Moncton is headquarters of Assumption Life.

The underpinnings of the local economy are based on Moncton's heritage as a commercial, distribution, transportation, and retailing centre. This is due to Moncton's central location in the Maritimes: it has the largest catchment area in Atlantic Canada with 1.6 million people living within a three-hour drive of the city.[53] The insurance, information technology, educational, and health care sectors also are major factors in the local economy with the city's two hospitals alone employing over five thousand people.

Moncton has garnered national attention because of the strength of its economy. The local unemployment rate averages around 6%, which is below the national average.[54] In 2004 Canadian Business Magazine named it the "The best city for business in Canada",[55] and in 2007 FDi magazine named it the fifth most business friendly small-sized city in North America.[56]

A number of nationally or regionally prominent corporations have their head offices in Moncton including Atlantic Lottery Corporation, Assumption Life Insurance, Medavie Blue Cross Insurance, Armour Transportation Systems, Imvescor, Major Drilling Group International, PropertyGuys.com, and Co-op Atlantic.

There are 37 call centres in the city which employ over 5000 people. Some of the larger centres include Asurion, BBM Canada, Exxon Mobil, Royal Bank of Canada, ING Direct, UPS, Fairmont Hotels and Resorts, Rogers Communications, and Sitel.[57] A growing high tech sector includes companies such as Gtech, Nanoptix,[58] International Game Technology, OAO Technology Solutions, TrustMe,[59] and BelTek Systems Design.[52]

The Blue Cross Centre is headquarters for Medavie Blue Cross.

Several arms of the Irving corporate empire have their head offices and/or major operations in greater Moncton. These include Midland Transport, Majesta/Royale Tissues, Irving Personal Care, Master Packaging, Brunswick News, and Cavendish Farms. Kent Building Supplies (an Irving subsidiary) will be opening their main distribution centre in the Caledonia Industrial Park in 2014. The Irving group of companies employs several thousand people in the Moncton region.[60]

The Central Business District of Moncton is home to many government and financial organizations

There are three large industrial parks in the metropolitan area. The Irving operations are concentrated in the Dieppe Industrial Park. Maple Leaf Foods is a major employer in the city and is in the Moncton Industrial Park. Molson/Coors opened a brewery in the Caledonia Industrial Park in 2007, their first new brewery in over fifty years.[61] All three industrial parks also have large concentrations of warehousing and regional trucking facilities.

A new four-lane Gunningsville Bridge was opened in 2005, connecting downtown Riverview directly with downtown Moncton. On the Moncton side, the bridge connects with an extension of Vaughan Harvey Boulevard as well as to Assumption Boulevard and will serve as a catalyst for economic growth in the downtown area.[62] This has become already evident as an expansion to the Blue Cross Centre was completed in 2006 and a Marriott Residence Inn opened in 2008. The new regional law courts on Assumption Blvd opened in 2011. Momentum is also building for a new downtown 9-10,000 seat multipurpose events centre and arena. On the Riverview side, the Gunningsville Bridge now connects to a new ring road around the town and is expected to serve as a catalyst for development in east Riverview.[62]

The retail sector in Moncton has become one of the most important pillars of the local economy. Major retail projects such as Champlain Place in Dieppe and the Wheeler Park Power Centre on Trinity Drive have become major destinations for locals and for tourists alike.[63][64] Champlain Place has recently undergone a $14 million renovation and a new power centre is under construction on Mapleton road, adjacent to Wheeler Park.

Tourism is an important industry in Moncton and historically owes its origins to the presence of two natural attractions, the tidal bore of the Petitcodiac River (see above) and the optical illusion of Magnetic Hill. The tidal bore was the first phenomenon to become an attraction but the construction of the Petitcodiac causeway in the 1960s effectively extirpated the attraction.[35] Today, Magnetic Hill, on the city's northwest outskirts, is the city's most famous attraction. The Magnetic Hill area includes (in addition to the phenomenon itself), a golf course, major water park, zoo, and an outdoor concert facility. A $90 million casino/hotel/entertainment complex opened at Magnetic Hill in 2010.

Arts and culture[edit]

The Capitol Theatre features live shows such as ballets, theatre, and symphony orchestras.

Moncton's Capitol Theatre, an 800-seat restored 1920s-era vaudeville house on Main Street, is the main centre for cultural entertainment for the city.[65][66] The theatre hosts a performing arts series and provides a venue for various theatrical performances as well as Symphony New Brunswick and the Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada.[65] The adjacent Empress Theatre offers space for smaller performances and recitals.[65]

Sister cities
United States Lafayette, Louisiana, United States[67]
Italy Parma, Italy[68]
Canada North Bay, Ontario[69]

The Moncton-based Atlantic Ballet Theatre tours mainly in Atlantic Canada but also tours nationally and internationally on occasion.[70] Théâtre l'Escaouette is a Francophone live theatre company which has its own auditorium and performance space on Botsford Street. The Anglophone Live Bait Theatre is based in the nearby university town of Sackville. There are several private dance and music academies in the metropolitan area, including the Capitol Theatre's own performing arts school. The Canadian Poetry Association national headquarters is located in Moncton.[71]

The Aberdeen Cultural Centre is a major Acadian cultural cooperative containing multiple studios and galleries. Among other tenants, the Centre houses the Galerie Sans Nom, the principal private art gallery in the city.[72]

The city's two main museums are the Moncton Museum on Mountain Road and the Musée Acadien at Université de Moncton. The Moncton Museum is undergoing an expansion to include the Transportation Discovery Centre, which will open in 2013. The city has several recognized historical sites. The Free Meeting House was built in 1821 and is a New England-style meeting house located adjacent to the Moncton Museum.[73] The Thomas Williams House, a former home of a city industrialist built in 1883, is now maintained in period style and serves as a genealogical research centre and is also home to several multicultural organizations.[73] The Treitz Haus is located on the riverfront adjacent to Bore View Park and has been dated to 1769 both by architectural style and by dendrochronology.[74] It is the only surviving building from the Pennsylvania Dutch era and now serves as the city's principle tourist information centre.[74]

Moncton is home to the Frye Festival, an annual bilingual literary celebration held in honour of world renowned literary critic and favourite son Northrop Frye. This event attracts noted writers and poets from around the world and takes place in the month of April.[75]

The Atlantic Nationals Automotive Extravaganza, held each July, is the largest annual gathering of classic cars in Canada.[76] Other notable events include The Atlantic Seafood Festival[77] in August, The HubCap Comedy Festival,[78] and the World Wine Festival, both held in the spring.

Sports[edit]

Facilities[edit]

A construction crane in downtown Moncton shows support for the Moncton Wildcats.

The Moncton Coliseum is a 6,554-seat arena which serves as a venue for major concerts and trade shows and is the home of the Moncton Wildcats of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League.[79] The CN Sportplex is a major recreational facility which has been built on the former CN Shops property. It includes ten ballfields, six soccer fields, and an indoor rink complex with four ice surfaces (the Red Ball Internet Centre). The Dundee Sports Dome, an indoor air supported multi-use building is also located at the Sportsplex. This building is large enough to allow for year-round football, soccer and golf activities. A newly constructed YMCA near the CN Sportsplex has extensive cardio and weight training facilities, as well as three indoor pools. The CEPS at Université de Moncton contains an indoor track and a 37.5 metres (123 ft) swimming pool with diving towers.[80] The new Moncton Stadium, also located at the U de M campus was built for the 2010 IAAF World Junior Track & Field Championships. It has a permanent seating for 10,000, but is expandable to a capacity of over 20,000 for events such as professional Canadian football. The only velodrome in Atlantic Canada is in Dieppe.[81] The metro area has a total of 12 indoor hockey rinks and three curling clubs. Other public sporting and recreational facilities are scattered throughout the metropolitan area, including a new $18 million aquatic centre in Dieppe opened in 2009.

Greater Moncton has many golfing facilities. There are nine 18-hole golf courses in the census metropolitan area, four of which are residential courses with courseside housing developments existing or under construction. Both the Royal Oaks and Fox Creek golf clubs can be considered championship courses, with Royal Oaks being the first Rees Jones designed golf course in Canada.[82] Other notable courses include the Moncton Golf & Country Club, Memramcook Valley Golf Club and the Mountain Woods Golf Club.

Sports teams[edit]

The Moncton Wildcats play major junior hockey in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League (QMJHL). They won the President's Cup, the QMJHL championship in both 2006 and 2010.[83] The Moncton Mets play baseball in the New Brunswick Senior Baseball League and won the Canadian Senior Baseball Championship in 2006.[84] The Dieppe Commandos (formerly known as the Moncton Beavers) are a member of the Maritime Junior A Hockey League.[85] The Universite de Moncton has a number of active CIS university sports programs including hockey, soccer, and volleyball.[86] These teams are a part of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport program.[87] Historically, Moncton was home to a professional American Hockey League franchise from 1978 to 1994. The New Brunswick Hawks won the AHL Calder Cup by defeating the Binghamton Whalers in 1981-1982.[citation needed]

In 2011, the Moncton Miracles began play as one of the seven charter franchises of the professional National Basketball League of Canada.

ClubSportLeagueVenueEstablishedChampionships
Moncton MiraclesBasketballNBL CanadaMoncton Coliseum2011
Moncton WildcatsIce HockeyQMJHLMoncton Coliseum19962 - President's Cup (QMJHL)
Dieppe CommandosIce HockeyMJAHLArthur-J-LeBlanc Centre19831 - MJAHL
Moncton MetsBaseballNBSBLKiwanis Park19847 - NBSBL
1 - Canadian Senior Champ.
Hub City BrewersBaseballNBSBLKiwanis Park2010
Moncton MustangsFootballMFLRocky Stone Field20044 - Maritime Bowl
Moncton MavericksLacrosseECJLL (JR A)Red Ball Internet Centre20061 (Jr.B 2008)
U de M Aigles BleusIce Hockey (M/F)
Soccer (M/F)
Volleyball (F)
track and field (M/F)
Cross country running (M/F)
AUSAréna Jean-Louis-Lévesque
U de M CEPS
Stade Moncton Stadium
1964Men's Hockey - 11 (AUS), 4 (CIS)
Women's Hockey - 1 (AUS)
Women's Volleyball - 5 (AUS)
Men's Athletics - 6 (AUS)
Women's Athletics - 2 (AUS)
Crandall ChargersBaseball (M)
Soccer (M/F)
Basketball (M/F)
Cross country running (M/F)
ACAA
CIBA
Various Campus Facilities19491 - CIBA Regional Championships


Major events[edit]

Moncton has hosted many large sporting events. The 2006 Memorial Cup was held in Moncton with the hometown Moncton Wildcats losing in the championship final to rival Quebec Remparts.[88] Moncton hosted the Canadian Interuniversity Sports (CIS) Men's University Hockey Championship in 2007 and 2008.[89] The World Men's Curling Championship was held in Moncton in 2009; the second time this event has taken place in the city.

Moncton also hosted the 2010 IAAF World Junior Championships in Athletics. This was the largest sporting event ever held in Atlantic Canada, with athletes from over 170 countries in attendance. The new 10,000 seat capacity Moncton Stadium was built for this event on the Université de Moncton campus.[90] The construction of this new stadium led directly to Moncton being awarded a regular season neutral site CFL game between the Toronto Argonauts and the Edmonton Eskimos, which was held on September 26, 2010.[91] This was the first neutral site regular season game in the history of the Canadian Football League and was played before a capacity crowd of 20,750.

Moncton will be one of six Canadian cities to host the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Major sporting events hosted by Moncton include:

Tourism, entertainment and shopping[edit]

Magic Mountain Water Park is a popular tourist attraction during the summer months.

Magnetic Hill is on the northwestern outskirts of Moncton and is now the city's most famous attraction. It is a gravity hill optical illusion, where the local topography gives the impression that you are going uphill when in fact you are going downhill.[92]

The "Magnetic Hill Illusion" is a popular tourism draw and both the city and province have built major tourism developments on the surrounding properties to capitalize on this.[92] The complex includes The Magnetic Hill Zoo, a nationally accredited and award winning zoo with over 400 animals displayed in themed exhibit areas. It is the largest zoo in Atlantic Canada, has well-developed and popular educational program, and has recently been ranked as the 4th best zoo in Canada.[93] Also on site is Magic Mountain Water Park, the largest water park in Atlantic Canada, with a half dozen large water slides, a lazy river, wave pool, children's splash pool, and a 36-hole mini-golf course.[94] The Magnetic Hill Concert Site, a large outdoor concert facility which holds one or two large concerts every year is located nearby. The Rolling Stones performed there in 2005 in front of 85,000 fans.[95][96] More recently, The Eagles played there in the summer of 2008 in front of 55,000 fans.[97] Both AC/DC and Bon Jovi played at the hill in 2009, with the crowd for the AC/DC concert exceeding 70,000. The Magnetic Hill Concert Site has developed a reputation for holding the largest concert productions in the entire country. U2 played the final concert of their worldwide U2 360° Tour at Magnetic Hill on July 30, 2011. The Casino New Brunswick, which also encompasses a hotel and 2,000 seat entertainment venue also opened at Magnetic Hill in 2010. The performance space at the Casino New Brunswick has already hosted many top acts on the casino circuit.

At present, the major destinations for shopping enthusiasts in Greater Moncton are the Northwest Centre, and the Wheeler Park Power Centre in Moncton, and Champlain Place in Dieppe, which, at 816,000 square feet (75,800 m2),[98] is the largest shopping mall in Atlantic Canada and has over 160 stores and services.[99][100] Crystal Palace, an indoor amusement park with a dozen rides including a roller coaster and a wave swinger was built adjacent to Champlain Place in 1990 to take advantage of the tourist traffic generated by the mall. It is a popular family destination and has Top Attraction status with tourism New Brunswick.[101] This complex also includes a hotel, restaurant, Chapters bookstore and a multiplex cinema complex.

The city's current City Hall was constructed in 1996 as part of an urban renewal project[102]

Government[edit]

The municipal government consists of a mayor and ten city councillors elected to four-year terms of office. The council is non-partisan with the mayor serving as the chairman, casting a ballot only in cases of a tie vote. There are four wards electing two councillors each with an additional two councillors selected at large by the general electorate. Day-to-day operation of the city is under the control of a City Manager.[103]

The greater Moncton area contains seven of New Brunswick's 55 provincial electoral districts: Moncton North, Moncton Crescent, Moncton East, Moncton West, Riverview, Memramcook-Lakeville-Dieppe, and Dieppe Centre-Lewisville. Of the seven members of the Legislative Assembly that currently represent greater Moncton, three belong to the Liberal party and four belong to the Progressive Conservative party.

Moncton is in the federal riding of Moncton—Riverview—Dieppe. Portions of Dieppe are in the federal riding of Beauséjour, and portions of Riverview are in the riding of Fundy Royal. Of the three members of Parliament that currently represent greater Moncton, two belong to the Conservative party and one belongs to the Liberal party.

The current federal MP for Moncton—Riverview—Dieppe is Robert Goguen (Conservative), as of the 2011 federal election.

Education[edit]

Separate Anglophone and Francophone school boards administer greater Moncton's 35 public primary and secondary schools. The Francophone South School Board administers ten schools in the Moncton area. The Anglophone East School Board administers 25 schools in Greater Moncton. There are four Anglophone high schools in the metro Moncton area; Moncton High School, Harrison Trimble High School, Bernice MacNaughton High School, and Riverview High School. The area's Francophone high schools are École Mathieu-Martin and École L'Odyssée.

The Université de Moncton is the only French-language university in New Brunswick.[104]

Four universities have campuses in the greater Moncton region.

Moncton is also home to two campuses of the New Brunswick Community College system.

Moncton also has six private vocational schools that offer practical training in a variety of fields.

The New Brunswick headquarters for Rogers Cable (Canada's largest cable TV provider)[108] is located in downtown Moncton.

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Moncton

Moncton's daily newspaper is the Times & Transcript, which has the highest circulation of any daily newspaper in New Brunswick.[109] More than 60 percent of city households subscribe daily, and more than 90 percent of Moncton residents read the Times & Transcript at least once a week. The city's other publications include [Here] Moncton, a free weekly publication offering a more youthful perspective on local news, and L'Acadie Nouvelle a French newspaper published in Caraquet in northern New Brunswick.

There are 16 broadcast radio stations in the city covering a variety of genres and interests, all on the FM dial. Ten of these stations are English and six are French.

Rogers Cable has its provincial headquarters and main production facilities in Moncton and broadcasts on two community channels, Cable 9 in French and Cable 10 in English. The French-language arm of the CBC, Radio-Canada, maintains its Atlantic Canadian headquarters in Moncton. There are three other broadcast television stations in Moncton and these represent all of the major national networks.

Transportation[edit]

The Via Rail Moncton station in downtown Moncton offers transportation across eight Canadian provinces
Air

Moncton is served by the Greater Moncton International Airport (YQM). A new airport terminal with an international arrivals area was opened in 2002 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The GMIA handles about 615,000 passengers per year, making it the second busiest airport in the Maritime provinces in terms of passenger volume,.[110] The GMIA is also the 10th busiest airport in Canada in terms of aircraft movements. Regular scheduled destinations include Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton, and New York City. Scheduled service providers include Air Canada, Air Canada Express, Westjet, Porter Airlines and United Express. Seasonal direct air service is provided to destinations in Cuba, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Florida, with operators including Sunwing Airlines, Air Transat, and Westjet.[111] FedEx, UPS, and Purolator all have their Atlantic Canadian air cargo bases at the facility. The GMIA is the home of the Moncton Flight College; the largest pilot training institution in Canada,[112] and is also the base for the regional RCMP air service, the New Brunswick Air Ambulance Service and the regional Transport Canada hangar and depot.

There is a second smaller aerodrome near Elmwood Drive. McEwen Airfield (CCG4) is a private airstrip used for general aviation. Skydive Moncton operates the province's only nationally certified sports parachute club out of this facility.[113]

The Moncton Area Control Centre is one of only seven regional air traffic control centres in Canada.[114] This centre monitors over 430,000 flights a year, 80% of which are either entering or leaving North American airspace.[114]

Railways

Freight rail transportation in Moncton is provided by Canadian National Railway. Although the presence of the CNR in Moncton has diminished greatly since the 1970s, the railway still maintains a large classification yard and intermodal facility in the west end of the city, and the regional headquarters for Atlantic Canada is still located here as well. Passenger rail transportation is provided by Via Rail Canada, with their train the Ocean serving the Moncton railway station three days per week to Halifax and to Montreal.[115] The downtown Via station has been recently refurbished and also serves as the terminal for the Maritime Bus intercity bus service.

Highways
Moncton's urban transit authority (Codiac Transpo) uses primarily modern busses manufactured by Nova Bus.

Moncton lies on Route 2 of the Trans-Canada Highway, which leads to Nova Scotia in the east and to Fredericton and Quebec in the west. Route 15 intersects Route 2 at the eastern outskirts of Moncton, heads northeast leading to Shediac and northern New Brunswick, Route 16 connects to route 15 at Shediac and leads to Port Elgin and Prince Edward Island. Route 1 intersects Route 2 approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) west of the city and leads to Saint John and the U.S. border.[116] Wheeler Boulevard (Route 15) serves as an internal ring road, extending from the Petitcodiac River Causeway to Dieppe before exiting the city and heading for Shediac. Inside the city it is an expressway bounded at either end by traffic circles.[116]

Urban transit

The Metro Moncton Area is served by Codiac Transpo, which is operated by the City of Moncton. It operates 40 buses on 19 routes throughout Moncton, Dieppe, and Riverview.[117]

Intercity Bus

Maritime Bus provides intercity service to the region. Moncton is the largest hub in the system. All other major centres in New Brunswick, as well as Charlottetown, Halifax, and Truro are served out of the Moncton terminal.

Military[edit]

Main article: CFB Moncton
The Moncton Garrison

Aside from locally formed militia units, the military did not have a significant presence in the Moncton area until the beginning of the Second World War. In 1940, a large military supply base (later known as CFB Moncton) was constructed on a railway spur line north of downtown next to the CNR shops. This base served as the main supply depot for the large wartime military establishment in the Maritimes.[118] In addition, two Commonwealth Air Training Plan bases were also built in the Moncton area during the war: No. 8 Service Flying Training School, RCAF, and No. 31 Personnel Depot, RAF. The RCAF also operated No. 5 Supply Depot in Moncton.[118] A naval listening station was also constructed in Coverdale (Riverview) in 1941 to help in coordinating radar activities in the North Atlantic.[118] Military flight training in the Moncton area terminated at the end of World War II and the naval listening station closed in 1971. CFB Moncton remained open to supply the maritime military establishment until just after the end of the Cold War.[118]

With the closure of CFB Moncton in the early 1990s, the military presence in Moncton has been significantly reduced.[119] The northern portion of the former base property has been turned over to the Canada Lands Corporation and is slowly being redeveloped.[120] The southern part of the former base remains an active DND property and is now termed the Moncton Garrison. It is affiliated with CFB Gagetown.[119] Resident components of the garrison include the 1 Engineer Support Unit(Regular force). The garrison also houses the 37 Canadian Brigade Group Headquarters (reserve force) and one of the 37 Brigades constituent units; the 8th Canadian Hussars (Princess Louise's), which is an armoured reconnaissance regiment.[119] 3 Area support unit Det Moncton, and 42 Canadian Forces Health Services Center Det Moncton provide logistical support for the base.[119] In 2013, the last regular forces units left the Moncton base, but the reserve units remain active and Moncton remains the 37 Canadian Brigade Unit headquarters.

Health facilities[edit]

There are two major regional referral and teaching hospitals in Moncton.

The Moncton Hospital.

The Moncton Hospital has approximately 400 active treatment beds[121] and is affiliated with Dalhousie University Medical School. It is presently home to the Northumberland family medicine residency training program and is a site for third and fourth year clinical training for medical students in the Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick Training Program. The hospital also hosts UNB degree programs in nursing and medical x-ray technology and professional internships in fields such as dietetics. Specialized medical services at the hospital include neurosurgery, peripheral and neuro-interventional radiology, vascular surgery, thoracic surgery, orthopedics, trauma, burn unit, medical oncology, neonatal intensive care, and adolescent psychiatry. A $48 million expansion to the hospital was completed in 2009 and contains a new laboratory, ambulatory care centre, and provincial level one trauma centre.[122] A new oncology clinic will be built at the hospital, with completion expected in 2014. The Moncton Hospital is managed by the Horizon Health Network (Formerly the South East Regional Health Authority).

The Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre

The Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre also has about 400 beds[123] and hosts a medical training program through the local CFMNB and distant Université de Sherbrooke Medical School. There are also degree programs in nursing, medical x-ray technology, medical laboratory technology and inhalotherapy which are administered by U de M. Specialized medical services include medical oncology, radiation oncology, orthopedics, vascular surgery, and nephrology. A cardiac cath lab is being studied for the hospital and a new PET/CT scanner was recently installed. A future $75 million expansion for ambulatory care, expanded surgery suites, and medical training is also planned.[124] The hospital has an affiliation with the Moncton based Atlantic Cancer Research Institute.[125] This hospital is managed by Vitalité Health Network.

Maclean's magazine has recently stated that Moncton has the best health care facilities of any of the smaller sized regional cities in Canada.

Notable residents[edit]

Moncton has been the home of a number of notable people, including National Hockey League Hall of Famer and NHL scoring champion Gordie Drillon,[126] World and Olympic champion curler Russ Howard,[127] The distinguished literary critic and theorist Northrop Frye,[128] the former Governor-General of Canada Roméo LeBlanc,[129] and former Supreme Court Justice Ivan Cleveland Rand, developer of the Rand Formula and Canada's representative on the UNSCOP commission.[130] Robb Wells, the actor who plays Ricky on the Showcase hit comedy Trailer Park Boys hails from Moncton,[131][132] along with Chris Lee, Julie Doiron,[133][134] an indie rock musician and Holly Dignard the actress who plays Nicole Miller on the CTV series "Whistler".[135] Harry Currie, noted Canadian conductor, musician, educator, journalist and author was born in Moncton and graduated from MHS. Antonine Maillet a francophone author, recipient of the Order of Canada and the "Prix Goncourt", the highest honour in francophone literature, is also from Moncton.[136]

In popular culture[edit]

Moncton is mentioned several times in the 1961 Twilight Zone episode "The Odyssey of Flight 33", in which the lost aircraft desperately tries to contact Moncton Air Traffic Control, as well as the air traffic control in Gander and Boston.

Moncton is briefly mentioned in the movie "Taking Lives" (2004) starring Angelina Jolie, when the killer boards a train from Montreal to Moncton.

The title of the "Barenaked Ladies" song "Enid" was inspired by Enid Léger, a waitress at Spanky's Pub (which once occupied the space on Main Street now home to Terra Verde) in Moncton. The band found it interesting that "Enid" spelled backwards is "dine." However, the song is not actually about her.

The title of I Mother Earth's song "Shortcut to Moncton" on the album Scenery and Fish (track 7) was inspired by a highway sign on the Trans-Canada highway that points to the old Fredericton Road that says, "Shortcut to Moncton".

The Trailer Park Boys episodes "Propane, Propane" and "Working Man" mention Moncton several times, as does the episode "The Microphone Assassin".

The Moncton Area Control Centre is mentioned in numerous television documentaries regarding the Swiss Air Flight 111, which crashed into the Atlantic Ocean on the 2 September 1998, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from shore, roughly equidistant from the tiny fishing and tourist communities of Peggys Cove and Bayswater, Nova Scotia.[137]

Miscellaneous facts[edit]

Steveston (part of Metro Vancouver) has a major street named after the city of Moncton. This is because the founder of this seaside community, which is today part of the municipality of Richmond, British Columbia, was Manoah Steves, originally from Moncton.

Likewise, Winnipeg has a Moncton Avenue.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]