Mogpog is politically subdivided into 37 barangays. Hinanggayon was formerly a sitio of barrio (barangay) Argao; in 1954 it was elevated as a barrio.
Dulong Bayan (Pob.)
Gitnang Bayan (Pob.)
Market Site (Pob.)
Mataas Na Bayan (Pob.)
Nangka I (Pob.)
Villa Mendez (Pob.)
The town center or poblacion comprises the barangays of Dulong Bayan, Gitnang Bayan, Market Site, Mataas na Bayan, Villa Mendez, and Nangka I.
In 1942, the Japanese troops occupied the town of Mogpog, Marinduque.
In 1945, in the Second World War the liberation of the town of Mogpog, Marinduque, the American and Filipino troops fought against the Japanese Imperial forces during the Battle of Marinduque.
Historically the famous Moriones Festival is said to have originated from Mogpog. This festival is known to be one of the most colorful festivals in Marinduque and the Philippines. It is held in Mogpog and the surrounding areas of Marinduque island.
Barangay Balanacan is where the main shipping port is located. It is famous for its large image of Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage, erected at a top of a shed on a mound of land overlooking the sea.
Not far from the Academy is the town plaza, located at the side right of Marinduque Academy's Main Building, with a great view of a local park, the Municipal Building, and the Trial Court - all of which covers the town public market.