Model United Nations

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Model United Nations at the Prague Student Summit in the Czech Republic
Model United Nations in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Turkish International Model United Nations in Istanbul, Turkey

Model United Nations, also known as Model UN or MUN, is an educational simulation and academic competition in which students learn about diplomacy, international relations, and the United Nations. MUN involves and teaches research, public speaking, debating, and writing skills, in addition to critical thinking, teamwork, and leadership abilities.[1] Usually an extracurricular activity, some schools also offer Model UN as a class.[2]

Participants in Model UN conferences, referred to as delegates, are placed in committees and assigned countries, or occasionally other organizations or political figures, to represent. They are presented with their assignments in advance, along with a topic or topics that their committee will discuss. Delegates conduct research before conferences and formulate positions that they will then debate with their fellow delegates in committee. At the end of a conference, the best-performing delegates in each committee are sometimes recognized with awards.

Model UN participants include students at the middle school, high school, and college/university levels,[3] with most conferences catering to just one of these three levels (high school and college conferences being most common). Delegates usually attend conferences together as delegations sent by their respective schools' or universities' Model UN clubs, though some delegates attend conferences independently.[4]

Most conferences are hosted by high school and college MUN clubs, though organizations such as UNA-USA also host Model UN conferences.[5] As of 2012, there were about 400 MUN conferences worldwide.


Model UN began as a series of student-led Model League of Nations simulations. It is believed that the first Model League of Nations conferences were held in the 1920s, before transitioning to Model UN after the formation of the League's successor organization, the United Nations, in 1945.[6] Today, some Model UN conferences include simulations of the League of Nations among their committee offerings.

It is disputed which conference was the first Model UN conference held in the world, with the major claimants being Berkeley Model United Nations (BMUN),[7][8] Harvard Model United Nations (HMUN), and National Model United Nations (NMUN NY). However, it is clear that the first was held some time in the early 1950s.[9][10]

In recent decades, Model UN has spread to East and South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa, with major conference organizers such as Harvard and THIMUN establishing additional conferences in these regions to meet burgeoning demand.[11] The Ivy League Model United Nations, an arm of the Model UN at the University of Pennsylvania, hosts conferences for high-school-aged delegates in India and China, as well.[12][13]



Delegates negotiating during an unmoderated caucus

In order to maintain decorum, most Model UN committees use parliamentary procedure derived from Robert's Rules of Order. However most crisis committees forgo the formality of parliamentary procedure so as to ensure smoother operation. In addition, recently the United Nations has spearheaded efforts to introduce new Model UN rules of procedure that are more closely aligned with those used by the actual UN.[14][15][16][17] Since there is no governing body for MUNs, each conference differs in the rules of procedure. The following rules of procedure apply to general MUNs but may not apply to every MUN:

MUNs are run by a group of administrators known as the dais. A dais is headed by a Secretary-General. Each committee usually has a chair (also known as moderator), a member of the dais that enforces the rules of procedure. A delegate may request the committee as a whole to perform a particular action; this is known as a motion. Documents aiming to address the issue of the committee are known as resolutions and are voted for ratification.[18]

MUN committees can be divided into three general sessions: formal debate, moderated caucus, and unmoderated caucus. In a formal debate, the staff maintains a list of speakers and the delegates follow the order written on the 'speaker list'. Speakers may be added to the speaker list by raising their placards or sending a note to the chair. During this time, delegates talk to the entire committee. They make speeches, answer questions, and debate on resolutions and amendments. If there are no other motions, the committee goes back to formal debate by default. There is usually a time limit. In a moderated caucus, the committee goes into a recess and the rules of procedure are suspended. Anyone may speak if recognized by the chair. A vote on a motion is necessary to go into a moderated caucus. There is a comparatively shorter time limit per speech. In an unmoderated caucus, the delegates informally meet with other delegates and the staff for discussions[17][19]

Resolutions are the basis of all debate.[20] They are considered the final results of conversations, writings, and negotiations. Resolutions must go through a draft, approval by the dais, and consequent debate and modification.[21]


Placard for the United Kingdom in Spanish at the International Model United Nations of Buenos Aires (MINUBA) in Argentina

Traditionally, English has been the official and working language of most conferences, but, as Model UN has become more popular around the world, and as conferences in countries such as the United States have sought to appeal to underrepresented minorities (such as the Spanish-speaking community), committees using languages other than English, or which are bilingual, have become common.[22] It should be noted, however, that this is still not yet a mainstream phenomenon, especially not in the United States, where most bilingual or Spanish language committees are found at conferences hosted in Puerto Rico or the South.[23]


Nearly all Model UN conferences require delegates to wear Western business attire (WBA), as dressing professionally is an important way to show respect for the nation, organization, or individual one is representing, as well as for the rest of one’s committee.[24] At some conferences delegates may be allowed to dress in a manner that reflects their committee and topic or their assigned nation, organization, or individual (provided their portrayals are accurate and appropriate), however this is less common.


General Assembly delegates at Model United Nations Baden-Württemberg in Stuttgart, Germany

The number of possible committees in Model UN is very large, limited only by the creativity and vision of conference organizers. In spite of differences in type and topic, most all committees share a few common characteristics. An example of this would be a dais (also known as a committee staff), which facilitates the smooth running of a committee. A dais is headed by a chair and/or director who presides over the committee, maintaining decorum, ensuring delegates follow the established procedures in committee, and guiding delegates through the resolution or directive-writing process. Another example of a common characteristic would be note passing, which allows delegates to discreetly communicate with one another and the dais during debate.

Committees in Model United Nations can be divided into a variety of categories, based on

Committees at Model UN conferences can simulate a variety of bodies. From the more commonly simulated six main committees of the United Nations General Assembly and the UN Security Council, to corporate executive boards and national cabinets, Model UN committees reflect the diversity of the delegates who participate in them.

Model United Nations committees may be modern, historical, futuristic, or fantastical.

A special committee that does not have a parallel in the actual United Nations which deals with a crisis is known as a 'Crisis Committee.'[25] In this committee, a crisis is given to a team of students and the teams must come up with solutions.[26] The Crisis Committee focuses on a single historical event. The event may be fictional or non-fictional.[25]


MUNs are usually organized by high school clubs or college clubs.[27] Organizations that coordinate MUNs such as the United Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA) are considered important organizing forces.[28]

The United Nations hosts a site called the UN Cyberschoolbus which contains general information about MUNs such as: advice for researching papers for MUNs, starting MUN conferences, and methods to help finding MUNs. The program also has an international Internet forum in which participants can share information.[29] Organizations such as the Osgood Center for International Studies[30] have aided in the creation of MUNs.

Model UN by region and country[edit]

Although Model United Nations originated in the United States, MUN clubs and conferences are not isolated to that country. Rather, like the actual UN, Model UN is found in countries around the globe.[31] Because Model UN is decentralized and has grown autonomously around the world, there are significant differences in how MUN is done between regions.[32]

North America[edit]

United States[edit]

Model UN was first developed in the United States and it is where many of the world's most respected conferences are held. The United States has several regional centers of Model UN,[33] including the East Coast (Northeast), the West Coast (California), the Midwest, the South, and Puerto Rico.[31]



Model United Nations is mainly a new trend across the Asia Minor among high schools and universities. One of the most outstanding conferences, also the first and only trilingual conference of Turkey, is IELMUN IELMUN. With over 300 hundred university and high school students from 4 continents, 10 countries and 20 cities gathering together in Istanbul annually, IELMUN offers youngsters a festival of various ideas and cultures. Project Managers of IELMUN are Cagan Mungan and Erdogan Ata Gezen.

Among the MUN conferences in Turkey, GSMUN is a MUN organization held by the International Law and Diplomacy Club of Galatasaray University, which is situated in Ortaköy, one of the central districts of İstanbul. Although the main language of the conference is English, GSMUN has also a committee of which the official language is French. Each year, over 150 students from top universities of Europe and around the world attend this conference.


Model United Nations is quite popular in Germany, with numerous conferences held each year at the high school and college levels.[34] Most conferences use English as their working language, though there are also bilingual conferences and committees.

Latin America[edit]



Model United Nations first came to China in 1995, when the elite China Foreign Affairs University held the country's first collegiate MUN conference.[35][36][37] Arriving in Chinese high schools in 2005, Model UN expanded rapidly. Peking University (PKU) students, after attending Harvard's HMUN, organized the first national Model UN conference for high school students in China. PKU's conference was initially backed by UNA-USA, however support was curtailed in 2010 due to the Great Recession.

Between 2005 and 2010, national MUN conferences such as those organized by PKU and the rivaling Fudan University in Shanghai drew the best high school students from around the country, who competed for limited spaces. Over time, lesser-known national conferences, as well as regional and even local conferences for high school students, began to develop and gradually spread to cities beyond Beijing and Shanghai.[38]

In the realm of interscholastic MUN conferences in China, the widely acknowledged top 3 conferences are called "the ABC": Asian International Model United Nations held by rumored Peking University; Beijing Model United Nations held by China Foreign Affairs University, the forthgoer of MUN in China; and China National Model United Nations, held by United Nations Association of China, hosted in different cities annually.[39]

Most MUN conferences in China are organized through private or academic enterprises, however some government-affiliated MUNs have also flourished, and recently, unofficial student-run grassroots conferences have begun to dominate the Chinese MUN scene.[38]


The first Model United Nations conference in India was the Cathedral Model United Nations (CMUN) hosted by The Cathedral and John Connon School in Mumbai in 1996.[40] Since then, Model UN has become increasingly popular in India, with an estimated 200 conferences held in the country in 2012 alone, most concentrated in Delhi, Mumbai, and South India.[41][42] As major conference organizers have sought to expand internationally, India has seen the creation of such conferences as HMUN India, which in August 2011 became the first major conference established by a well-known group from outside India.[43]


Singapore has a number of Model United Nations conferences which include conferences such as SCMUN organised by Singapore Chinese Girls' School and IMUNC organised by Anglo-Chinese School (Independent). The list is as follows and is not exhaustive;

Singapore Chinese Girls' School Model United Nations Conference - SCMUN

Anglo-Chinese School (Independent) Model United Nations Conference - IMUNC

River Valley High School Model United Nations Conference - RVMUN

Yale-NUS Model United Nations Conference

Yale-NUS Asia Pacific Model UN - YNC-AP MUN[44]

Saint Joseph's Institution Model United Nations Conference - SJIMUN

Fundemental Model United Nations Conference - FUNMUN

Preparatory Model United Nations Conference - PREPMUN

Raffles Model United Nations Conference - RMUN

The Hague International Model United Nations Conference - THIMUN

Singapore Model United Nations Conference - SMUN

Middle East and North Africa[edit]

Dhahran High School Model United Nations,

Nigerian International Secondary School Model United Nation Society

King's Academy Model United Nations, Jordan

International Academy Amman Model United Nations, Jordan

Amman Model United Nations (AMMUN), Jordan

Global Classrooms Lebanese American University Model United Nations (GCLAUMUN), Lebanon and

Modern Science & Arts University Model United Nations (MSAMUN), Egypt

Notable participants[edit]

Model UN builds skills that are useful in a wide variety of fields, with many participants having gone on to become leaders in diplomacy, politics, law and the media.

When I was an undergraduate at Stanford, I was twice a delegate to the Model United Nations and once a member of the Secretariat (when Stanford was the host). Students are enthusiastic role-players. We had to learn how nations and their representatives could work with others. We learned about how the United Nations (and international relations) worked in practice. The experience was valuable; the conferences were educational; and it was great fun. I am delighted to learn more than half a century later the Model UN is still going strong. I should think that in today’s great global conversation it offers ... students an even more valuable experience.

—U.S. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer

In popular culture[edit]

As Model UN has become more well-known, numerous references to the activity have appeared in popular culture.[49] At times inaccurate, the depiction of or reference to the activity in the mainstream media and the entertainment industry, in such shows as Mad Men, How I Met Your Mother, and Jeopardy, raises the profile of Model UN, and shows how it is perceived, while also shaping the perception of the public in the process.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "What is Model United Nations?". Best Delegate. 
  2. ^ "How to Build Your Model UN Program". Best Delegate. 
  3. ^
  4. ^ "The Sudden Rise of Independent Model UN Teams: Homeschool, Community, and Private Travel Teams". Best Delegate. 
  5. ^ "Global Classrooms International Middle School Conference - UNA-USA - UN Foundation - Best Delegate". Best Delegate. 
  6. ^ Ross Feldman. "Frequently Asked Questions". United Nations Association of the USA. 
  7. ^ "Berkeley Model United Nations (BMUN XLI): Transformation Into a True Teaching Conference". Best Delegate. 
  8. ^ "Berkeley Model United Nations Celebrates 60th Year as the First and Oldest MUN Conference in the World". Best Delegate. 
  9. ^ Ross Feldman. "Frequently Asked Questions". United Nations Association of the USA. 
  10. ^ Ryan Villanueva (March 12, 2012). "Berkeley Model United Nations Celebrates 60th Year as the First and Oldest MUN Conference in the World". Best Delegate. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Which Countries Love Model UN the Most? Analysis of the G20 Countries of Best Delegate Fans". Best Delegate. 
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ "UN4MUN Workshop Recap: 4 Big Differences Between Model UN and the Real UN". Best Delegate. 
  15. ^ Maher Nasser (August 13, 2013). "Letter: The U.N., on the Model U.N.". The New York Times. 
  16. ^ "UN General Assembly - Rules of Procedure". 
  17. ^ a b "Rules of Procedure". United Nations Foundation. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Model UN Glossary". United Nations Foundation. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  19. ^ Shen, Sunny; Ryan Bae; Amanda Chen; Geneva Nam; Sarah Wang; Marco Wong; Lance Zhou (2012). "The MUN Manifesto". Connect Global Youth Association. Retrieved November 25, 2013. 
  20. ^ "What is a Resolution?". University of Tennessee. Retrieved November 25, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Resolutions". United Nations Foundation. Retrieved November 25, 2013. 
  22. ^ Ross Feldman. "Global Classrooms: Minnesota Model UN Conference". United Nations Association of the USA. 
  23. ^ "Model United Nations San Antonio (MUNSA) Finds Success Through Community". Best Delegate. 
  24. ^ Ross Feldman. "Dressing for Success". United Nations Association of the USA. 
  25. ^ a b Parrin, Anjli (August 2, 2013). "The Dog-Eat-Dog World of Model U.N.". The New York Times Company. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  26. ^ Montero, Nicole (November 22, 2013). "Model United Nations Team Hopes to Rank First Among the Country". FIU Student Media. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  27. ^ Yossinger, Nili Sarit (August 23, 2012). "What is Model UN? (And Why Should You Care?)". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  28. ^ Brennan, Mary Beth (1996). "The Importance of the Model United Nations Experience". Johnson Country Community College. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Guide to the UN Cyberschoolbus". BEST DELEGATE. Retrieved November 28, 2013. 
  30. ^ Jackson, Robert P. (October 28, 2013). "Africa: U.S. Envoy on Africa at Opening of Model U.N. Conference". United States Department of State. Retrieved November 28, 2013. 
  31. ^ a b "Model United Nations Conference Database: 2014-2015". 
  32. ^ "A Tale of Two Coasts: 5 Key Differences Between West Coast versus East Coast Model UN". Best Delegate. 
  33. ^ "The 150 Best High School Model UN Teams in North America 2013-2014". Best Delegate. 
  34. ^ " – Model United Nations in Germany". 
  35. ^ "记外交学院首届模拟联合国活动 - China Academic Journals Full-text Database". 
  36. ^ "Intro to CFAU-MUNA". 
  37. ^ "外交学院举办"2012北京模拟联合国大会"". 
  38. ^ a b Wendy Qian (25 April 2013). "Romance! Money! Intrigue! It's Model UN ... in China". The Atlantic. 
  39. ^ "模拟联合国(MUN)简介". U.N. Association of China. 23 September 2013. 
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ "- The Washington Post". Washington Post. 
  46. ^
  47. ^ "My Interview with Journalist Joel Stein". Best Delegate. 
  48. ^ "A glimpse into Rainn Wilson's 'SoulPancake' -". 
  49. ^ "Diplomacy on the Silver Screen: Model UN from a Pop Culture Perspective". Best Delegate. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]