Mitcham, London

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Mitcham
Eagle House, London Road, Mitcham. - geograph.org.uk - 22085.jpg
Eagle House, London Road, Mitcham, built in 1705
Mitcham is located in Greater London
Mitcham

 Mitcham shown within Greater London
Population103,298 [1]
OS grid referenceTQ285685
London boroughMerton
Ceremonial countyGreater London
RegionLondon
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townMITCHAM
Postcode districtCR4
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
EU ParliamentLondon
UK ParliamentMitcham and Morden
London AssemblyMerton and Wandsworth
List of places
UK
England
London
 
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Coordinates: 51°24′03″N 0°09′06″W / 51.4009°N 0.1517°W / 51.4009; -0.1517

Mitcham
Eagle House, London Road, Mitcham. - geograph.org.uk - 22085.jpg
Eagle House, London Road, Mitcham, built in 1705
Mitcham is located in Greater London
Mitcham

 Mitcham shown within Greater London
Population103,298 [1]
OS grid referenceTQ285685
London boroughMerton
Ceremonial countyGreater London
RegionLondon
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townMITCHAM
Postcode districtCR4
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
EU ParliamentLondon
UK ParliamentMitcham and Morden
London AssemblyMerton and Wandsworth
List of places
UK
England
London

Mitcham is a district in the south west area of London, in the London Borough of Merton. A suburban area, Mitcham is located on the border of Inner London and Outer London. It is both residentially and financially developed, well served by Transport for London, and home to Mitcham Town Centre, Mitcham Common, Mitcham Library, and Mitcham Cricket Green. Nearby districts include Wimbledon, Streatham, Tooting, Morden and Sutton.

Location[edit]

Mitcham is on the east side of the London Borough of Merton and is bounded by the London Borough of Wandsworth, the London Borough of Croydon, the London Borough of Lambeth and the London Borough of Sutton. Mitcham is close to Wimbledon, Croydon, Streatham and Tooting. The River Wandle bounds the town to the southwest. The original village lies in the west, although expansion has pushed the eastern boundary the furthest. Mitcham Common takes up the greater part of the boundary and area to the south.

Mitcham had until recently never been well served by railway, due to its being equidistant between the historic lines of Waterloo to Southampton and London Bridge to Brighton. However, a recent addition of Mitcham Eastfields railway station in June 2008, nearer to the centre of the town than Mitcham Junction, on the same line, has improved transport links. It is the first suburban station to be built in 50 years in the area. The station serves routes to London Victoria, Blackfriars and London Bridge, as well as direct links by train to St Albans and Bedford and Luton airport An 18th-century milestone on Figges Marsh indicates Mitcham to be 8.5 miles from Whitehall.

History[edit]

Mitcham Parish Church, Church Road, Mitcham dates in part from the Saxon era.

The toponym "Mitcham" is Old English in origin and means big settlement. Before the Romans and Saxons were present, there was a Celtic settlement in the area, with evidence of a hill fort in the Pollards Hill area. The discovery of Roman-era graves and a well on the site of the Mitcham gas works evince Roman settlement. The Saxon graveyard, located on the North bank of the Wandle is the largest discovered to date, and many of the finds therein are on display in the British Museum. The area is a possible location for the Battle of Merton, 871, in which King Ethelred of Wessex was either mortally wounded or killed outright. The Church of England parish church of St Peter and St Paul dates from the Saxon era. Although it was mostly rebuilt in 1819–21, the current building retains the original Saxon tower. The Domesday Book of 1086 lists Mitcham as a small farming community, with 250 people living in two hamlets; Mitcham, an area known today as Upper Mitcham; and Whitford, today known as the Lower Green area.

The area lay within the Anglo-Saxon administrative division of Wallington hundred.

The Domesday Book records Mitcham as Michelham. It was held partly by the Canons of Bayeux; partly by William, son of Ansculf and partly by Osbert.[2] Its domesday assets were: 8 hides and 1 virgate. It had ½ mill worth £1, 3½ ploughs, 56 acres (23 ha) of meadow. It rendered £4 5s 4d.

Potter & Moore aftershave, made with Mitcham lavender

During her reign Queen Elizabeth I made at least five visits to the area. John Donne and Sir Walter Raleigh also had residences here in this era. It was at this time that Mitcham became gentrified, as due to the abundance of lavender fields Mitcham became renowned for its soothing air. The air also led people to settle in the area during times of plague.

When industrialisation occurred, Mitcham quickly grew to become a town and most of the farms were swallowed up in the expansion. Remnants of this farming history today include: Mitcham Common itself; Arthur's Pond, sited on the corner of Watney's Road and Commonside East, and named for a local farmer; Alfred Mizen School (Now named Garden Primary), named after a local nursery man who was very charitable towards the burgeoning town; and the road New Barnes Avenue, which was named after the farm that stood on that site.

There were many lavender fields in Mitcham, and peppermint and lavender oils were also distilled. In 1749 two local physic gardeners, John Potter and William Moore, founded a company to make and market toiletries made from locally-grown herbs and flowers.[3] Lavender features on Merton Council's coat of arms and the badge of the local football team, Tooting & Mitcham United F.C., as well as in the name of a local council ward, Lavender Field.

Mitcham was industrialised first along the banks of the Wandle, where snuff, copper, flour, iron and dye were all worked. Mitcham, along with nearby Merton Abbey, became the calico cloth printing centres of England by 1750. Asprey, suppliers of luxury goods made from various materials, was founded in Mitcham as a silk-printing business in 1781. William Morris opened a factory on the River Wandle at Merton Abbey. Merton Abbey Mills were the Liberty silk-printing works. It is now a craft village and its waterwheel has been preserved.

The activity along the Wandle led to the building of the Surrey Iron Railway, the World's first public railway, in 1803. The decline and failure of the railway in the 1840s also heralded a change in industry, as horticulture gradually gave way to manufacturing, with paint, varnish, linoleum and firework manufacturers moving into the area. The work provided and migratory patterns eventually resulted in a doubling of the population between the years 1900 and 1910.

Mitcham became a borough on 19 September 1934 with the charter of incorporation being presented to the 84-year old mayor, Mr. R.M. Chart, by the Lord Lieutenant of Surrey, Lord Ashcombe.[4]

Mitcham's population
19th Century20th Century
18013,466190114,903
18114,175191129,606
18214,453192135,119
18314,387193156,859
18414,5321941¹war
18514,641195167,269
18615,078196163,690
18716,498197160,608
18818,960198157,158
189112,1271991²n/a
  1. no census was held due to war
  2. census data no longer relates to parish boundaries
source: UK census

Social housing schemes in the 1930s included New Close, aimed at housing people made homeless by a factory explosion in 1933 and Sunshine Way, for housing the poor from inner London. This industry made Mitcham a target for German bombing during World War II. During this time Mitcham also returned to its agricultural roots, with Mitcham Common being farmed to help with the war effort.

From 1929 the electronics company Mullard had a factory on New Road.

Post war, the areas of Eastfields, Phipps Bridge and Pollards Hill were rebuilt to provide cheaper more affordable housing. The largest council housing project in Mitcham is Phipps Bridge estate. Further expansion of the housing estates in Eastfields, Phipps Bridge and Pollards Hill occurred after 1965. In Mitcham Cricket Green, the area lays reasonable, although not definitive, claim to having the world's oldest cricket ground in continual use, and the world's oldest club in Mitcham Cricket Club. The ground is also notable for having a road separate the pavilion from the pitch. Local folklore also claims Mitcham has the oldest fair in England, believing it to have been granted a charter by Queen Elizabeth I, although this claim has not been proven.

Demographics[edit]

Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency)
Ethnic Group[5]

British - 40,608, Irish - 1,840, Gypsy or Irish Traveller - 161, Other White - 12,899

White and Black Caribbean - 1,862, White and Black African - 856, White and Asian - 1,163, Other Mixed - 1,444

Indian - 4,536, Pakistani - 5,054, Bangladeshi - 1,484, Chinese - 1,169, Other Asian - 10,194

African - 9,036, Caribbean - 7,029, Other Black - 1,912

Arab - 670, Other ethnic group - 1,381

Religion[6]

Buddhist - 862, Sikh - 252, Jewish - 147, Other Religion - 362

Gender[7]

Open Space[edit]

Pond on Mitcham Common.

Mitcham is home to a vast area (460 acres) of South London's open green space in the form of Mitcham Common. There are several ponds and a few buildings on the Common.

The Seven Islands pond is the largest of all the ponds on the Common, and was created as the result of gravel extraction during the 19th century. The most recent pond to be created, Bidder's pond, was created in 1990 and named for George Parker Bidder.

The buildings comprising the Windmill Trading Estate have existed in one form or another since 1782, when the estate was established as workhouses for the poor. Companies to have utilised the buildings include Hooper's Telegraph Works. Recently the Estate has been replaced by a mixed-tenure of housing apartments. The Mill House Ecology Centre and the Mill House Pub are located near the site of an old windmill, the remnants of which still exist.

Also see separate article on Mitcham Common.

Notable buildings[edit]

Old Mitcham Station
Mitcham Library, London Rd
St Barnabas church, Gorringe Pk Ave

Notable residents[edit]

Transport and locale[edit]

Mitcham is on the Croydon Tramlink providing easy access to Wimbledon as well as Croydon

Nearest stations[edit]

Recent developments[edit]

A new railway station, Mitcham Eastfields railway station in the area of Eastfields, opened on Monday 2 June 2008. This is located at Eastfields Road level crossing, about a mile to the north of Mitcham Junction. The station has filled in a gap in the rail system and serves the centre of Mitcham more directly.

Nearest places[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population Density, 2011". Area: Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency). Office for National Statistics. 
  2. ^ "Surrey". The Domesday Book online - Surrey. 
  3. ^ "Potter and Moore - An Introduction". Potter & Moore. 
  4. ^ Daily Mirror page 13, September 19, 1934
  5. ^ "Ethnic Group, 2011". Area: Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency). Office for National Statistics. 
  6. ^ "Religion, 2011". Area: Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency). Office for National Statistics. 
  7. ^ "Sex, 2011". Area: Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency). Office for National Statistics. 
  8. ^ "Mitcham Methodist Church, exterior (E. Mills)". Flickr. 

External links[edit]