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The Missouri National Guard is a component agency of the Missouri Department of Public Safety and the United States National Guard. It consists of the Missouri Army National Guard and the Missouri Air National Guard. Governor of Missouri Jay Nixon is Commander-in-Chief. The Missouri National Guard was originally formed in 1890. The Militia Act of 1903 organized the various state militias into the present National Guard system. The Guard headquarters is located in Jefferson City, Missouri.
National Guard units can be mobilized at any time by presidential order to supplement regular armed forces, and upon declaration of a state of emergency by the governor of the state in which they serve. Unlike United States Army Reserve members, National Guard members cannot be mobilized individually (except through voluntary transfers and Temporary DutY Assignments TDY), but only as part of their respective units. However, there has been a significant amount of individual activations to support military operations (2001-?); the legality of this policy is a major issue within the National Guard.
The Missouri Army National Guard is a component of the United States Army and the Missouri National Guard.
The Missouri Army National Guard is composed of approximately 9,039 soldiers (in the 2009 fiscal year), and maintains armories in 63 communities. Missouri Army National Guard units are trained and equipped as part of the United States Army. The same ranks and insignia are used and National Guardsmen are eligible to receive all United States military awards. The Missouri Guard also bestows a number of state awards for local services rendered in or to the state of Missouri.
Historic units of the Missouri Army National Guard include the 128th Field Artillery Regiment, the 129th Field Artillery Regiment, the 140th Infantry Regiment, the 203d Coast Artillery Regiment (AA), and the 203d Engineer Battalion.
For much of the final decades of the twentieth century, National Guard personnel typically served "One weekend a month, two weeks a year", with a portion working for the Guard in a full-time capacity. The current forces formation plans of the US Army call for the typical National Guard unit (or National Guardsman) to serve one year of active duty for every three years of service. More specifically, current United States Department of Defense policy is that no Guardsman will be involuntarily activated for a total of more than 24 months (cumulative) in one six-year enlistment period (this policy is due to change 1 August 2007, the new policy states that soldiers will be given 24 months between deployments of no more than 24 months, individual states have differing policies).
In December 1989, a contingent of 22 Military Policemen from the 1138th Military Police Company was in Panama on a two-week annual training when "Operation Just Cause" commenced. The MPs, who specialized in enemy prisoner of war operations, augmented the active duty force at Fort Clayton, taking enemy mortar and artillery fire when the invasion began. While serving in combat, the unit set up and operated the Empire Range EPW camp. They made history by being the first National Guard unit called into active service since the Vietnam War.
The 1138th was called upon once again to serve after the Invasion of Kuwait the following year. It was one of the first Guard units placed on alert status in August, 1990 but did not deploy until December, 1990. The Missouri Guard was the first Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW) unit to deploy as part of the 400th MP Battalion. Eventually it set up and operated the 301st EPW Camp, near the Saudi Arabian city of Hafar Al-Batin (Hotel 301). It returned to a hero's welcome back to West Plains, Missouri in May, 1991.
The 135th Field Artillery Brigade appears to have been disbanded between 2008 and 2011.
On August 18, 2014, after violent clashes occurred during an imposed curfew in Ferguson, Missouri in the aftermath of the fatal police shooting of an unarmed African American man, Missouri Governor Jay Nixon issued an executive order calling in the National Guard to "help restore peace and order and to protect the citizens of Ferguson."
Units and Formations include:
The Missouri Air National Guard provides airmen and units since 22 August 1946 to meet the military and civil objectives of the Governor of Missouri and the President of the United States. Among those who have served in the "MOGuard" is Charles Lindbergh. Currently the Missouri ANG is commanded by Major General Stephen L. Danner.
The Headquarters, Missouri Air National Guard, is the higher headquarters for all of the Air National Guard units within the State of Missouri. The State Headquarters, MOANG, includes the Assistant Adjutant General-Air, the Chief of Staff who also serves as the Commander of the Missouri Air National Guard, Executive Staff Support Officer and State Director Of Operations. The state headquarters is located in the Ike Skelton Training Site in Jefferson City, Missouri.
The MO Air National Guard is composed of the following units: