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"Hatter" redirects here. For other uses, see Hatter (disambiguation).
"Milliner" redirects here. For people named Milliner, see Milliner (surname).
Canada's early fur trade was largely built on the fashion for beaver hats in Europe, particularly top hats. The steps in manufacturing hats are illustrated in this image from 1858.
Hat-maker making a felt hat

Hatmaking is the manufacture of hats and headwear. Millinery is the designing and manufacture of hats. A millinery shop is a store that sells those goods.

A milliner or hatter designs, makes, trims, or sells hats.

Millinery is sold to women, men and children, though some definitions limit the term to women's hats.[1] Historically, milliners, typically female shopkeepers, produced or imported an inventory of garments for men, women, and children, including hats, shirts, cloaks, shifts, caps, neckerchiefs, and undergarments, and sold these garments in their millinery shop.

More recently, the term milliner has evolved to describe a person who designs, makes, sells or trims hats primarily for a female clientele.

The origin of the term is likely the Middle English milener, an inhabitant of Milan or one who deals in items from this Italian city[2] known for its fashion and clothing.

Types of millinery[edit]

Main article: List of headgear

Many styles of headgear have been popular through history and worn for different functions and events. They can be part of uniforms or worn to indicate social status. Styles include the top hat, hats worn as part of military uniforms, cowboy hat, and cocktail hat.

Notable hatters and milliners[edit]

This is a partial list of people who have had a significant influence on hatmaking and millinery.



See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Milliner". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-06-07. 
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition
  3. ^ Bowler hat makes a comeback Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 June 2012
  4. ^ Reynolds, William and Rich Rand (1995) The Cowboy Hat book. Pg 8 ISBN 0-87905-656-8
  5. ^ Jones, Stephen & Cullen, Oriole (editor) (2009). Hats: An Anthology. V&A Publishing. ISBN 1-85177-557-9. 
  6. ^ Steele, Valerie (2010). The Berg Companion to Fashion. Berg. pp. 72–73. ISBN 1847885926. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ New York Times obituary for Mr. John
  9. ^ Biography of Stephen Jones on the V&A Museum website, accessed 1 April 2009
  10. ^ Hillier, Bevis (October 13, 1985). "Hat Trick". LA Times. Retrieved January 24, 2013. 

External links[edit]