Magnesium hydroxide

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Magnesium hydroxide
Identifiers
CAS number1309-42-8 YesY
PubChem14791
ChemSpider14107 YesY
UNIINBZ3QY004S YesY
ChEBICHEBI:6637 YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL1200718 N
RTECS numberOM3570000
ATC codeA02AA04,G04BX01
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaMg(OH)2
Molar mass58.3197 g/mol
AppearanceWhite solid
Odorodorless
Density2.3446 g/cm3
Melting point350 °C (decomposes)
Boiling pointdecomposes
Solubility in water0.0014 g/100 mL
Solubility product, Ksp1.5×10−11
Refractive index (nD)1.559[1]
Structure
Crystal structureHexagonal, hP3[2]
Space groupP3m1 No. 164
Lattice constanta = 0.312 nm, c = 0.473 nm
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−925 kJ·mol−1[3]
Standard molar
entropy
So298
64 J·mol−1·K−1[3]
Hazards
MSDSExternal MSDS
EU IndexNot listed
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
1
0
Flash pointNon-flammable
LD508500 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Other anionsMagnesium oxide
Other cationsBeryllium hydroxide
Calcium hydroxide
Strontium hydroxide
Barium hydroxide
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references
 
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Magnesium hydroxide
Identifiers
CAS number1309-42-8 YesY
PubChem14791
ChemSpider14107 YesY
UNIINBZ3QY004S YesY
ChEBICHEBI:6637 YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL1200718 N
RTECS numberOM3570000
ATC codeA02AA04,G04BX01
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaMg(OH)2
Molar mass58.3197 g/mol
AppearanceWhite solid
Odorodorless
Density2.3446 g/cm3
Melting point350 °C (decomposes)
Boiling pointdecomposes
Solubility in water0.0014 g/100 mL
Solubility product, Ksp1.5×10−11
Refractive index (nD)1.559[1]
Structure
Crystal structureHexagonal, hP3[2]
Space groupP3m1 No. 164
Lattice constanta = 0.312 nm, c = 0.473 nm
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−925 kJ·mol−1[3]
Standard molar
entropy
So298
64 J·mol−1·K−1[3]
Hazards
MSDSExternal MSDS
EU IndexNot listed
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
1
0
Flash pointNon-flammable
LD508500 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Other anionsMagnesium oxide
Other cationsBeryllium hydroxide
Calcium hydroxide
Strontium hydroxide
Barium hydroxide
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of hydrated Mg(OH)2. As a suspension in water, it is often called milk of magnesia because of its milk-like appearance. The solid mineral form of magnesium hydroxide is known as brucite.

Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids and laxatives; it interferes with the absorption of folic acid and iron.[4] Magnesium hydroxide has a low solubility in water, with a Ksp of 1.5×10−11.

History[edit]

On May 4, 1818, an American inventor named John Callen, received a patent (No. X2952) for magnesium hydroxide [5]

In 1829, Sir James Murray used a fluid magnesia preparation of his own design to treat[clarification needed] the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Marquis of Anglesey. This was so successful (advertised in Australia and approved by the Royal College of Surgeons in 1838)[6] that he was appointed resident physician to Anglesey and two subsequent Lords Lieutenants, and knighted. His fluid magnesia product was patented two years after his death in 1873.[7]

The term milk of magnesia was first used for a white-colored, aqueous, mildly alkaline suspension of magnesium hydroxide formulated at about 8%w/v by Charles Henry Phillips in 1880 and sold under the brand name Phillips' Milk of Magnesia for medicinal usage.

Although the name may at some point have been owned by GlaxoSmithKline, USPTO registrations show "Milk of Magnesia" [8] and "Phillips' Milk of Magnesia"[9] both registered to Bayer. In the UK, the non-brand (generic) name of "Milk of Magnesia" and "Phillips' Milk of Magnesia" is "Cream of Magnesia" (Magnesium Hydroxide Mixture, BP).

Preparation[edit]

Magnesium hydroxide can be precipitated by the metathesis reaction between magnesium salts and sodium, potassium, or ammonium hydroxide:

Mg2+ (aq) + 2 OH (aq) → Mg(OH)2 (s)

Natural magnesium hydroxide exists in the form of brucite, which is used commercially as a fire retardant. However, most industrially used magnesium hydroxide is chemically produced from sea water or brine. Magnesium chloride in the sea water is reacted with lime or dolomitic lime to form a precipitated magnesium hydroxide.[10]

Uses[edit]

Suspensions of magnesium hydroxide in water are used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid, and as a laxative. The diarrhoea caused by magnesium hydroxide carries away much of the body's supply of potassium, and failure to take extra potassium may lead to muscle cramps.[11] Magnesium hydroxide is also used as an antiperspirant underarm deodorant.[12] Milk of magnesia is useful against canker sores (aphthous ulcer) when used topically.[13]

Milk of magnesia is sold for medical use as chewable tablets, capsules, and as liquids having various added flavors. It is primarily used to alleviate constipation, but also to relieve indigestion and heartburn. When taken orally as a laxative, the osmotic force of the magnesia suspension acts to draw fluids from the body and to retain those already within the lumen of the intestine, serving to distend the bowel, thus stimulating nerves within the colon wall, inducing peristalsis and resulting in evacuation of colonic contents. It is also used as an antacid, though more modern formulations such as Maalox combine the antimotility effects of equal concentrations of aluminum hydroxide to avoid unwanted laxative effects.

Magnesium hydroxide powder is used industrially as a non-hazardous alkali to neutralize acidic wastewaters.[14] It also takes part in the Biorock method of building artificial reefs.

Solid magnesium hydroxide also has smoke suppressing and fire retarding properties. This is due to the endothermic decomposition it undergoes at 332 °C (630 °F) :

Mg(OH)2 (s) → MgO (s) + H2O (g)

The heat absorbed by the reaction acts as a retardant by delaying ignition of the associated substance. The water released dilutes any combustible gases and inhibits oxygen from aiding the combustion. Common uses of magnesium hydroxide as a fire retardant include plastics, roofing, and coatings. Other mineral mixtures that are used in similar fire retardant applications are natural mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite.[15][16][17][18][19]

Biological metabolism[edit]

When the patient drinks the milk of magnesia, the suspension enters the stomach. Depending on how much was taken, one of two possible outcomes will occur.

As an antacid, milk of magnesia is dosed at approximately 0.5–1.5g in adults and works by simple neutralization, where the hydroxide ions from the Mg(OH)2 combine with acidic H+ ions produced in the form of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells in the stomach to produce water.

As a laxative, milk of magnesia is dosed at 2–5 g, and works in a number of ways. First, Mg2+ is poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract, so it draws water from the surrounding tissue by osmosis. Not only does this increase in water content soften the feces, it also increases the volume of feces in the intestine (intraluminal volume) which naturally stimulates intestinal motility. Furthermore, Mg2+ ions cause the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), which results in intraluminal accumulation of water, electrolytes, and increased intestinal motility. Although it has been stated in some sources, the hydroxide ions themselves do not play a significant role in the laxative effects of milk of magnesia, as basic solutions (i.e., solutions of hydroxide ions) are not strongly laxative, and non-basic Mg2+ solutions, like MgSO4, are equally strong laxatives mole for mole.[20]

Only a small amount of the magnesium from milk of magnesia is usually absorbed from a person's intestine (unless the person is deficient in magnesium). However, magnesium is mainly excreted by the kidneys so long-term, daily consumption of milk of magnesia by someone suffering from renal failure could lead in theory to hypermagnesemia.

Mineralogy[edit]

Brucite, the mineral form of Mg(OH)2 commonly found in nature also occurs in the 1:2:1 clay minerals amongst others, in chlorite, in which it occupies the interlayer position normally filled by monovalent and divalent cations such as Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. As a consequence, chlorite interlayers are cemented by brucite and cannot swell nor shrink anymore.

Brucite, in which some of the Mg2+ cations have been substituted by Al3+ cations, becomes positively charged and constitutes the main basis of layered double hydroxide (LDH). LDH minerals as hydrotalcite are powerful anion sorbents but are relatively rare in nature.

Brucite may also crystallise in cement and concrete in contact with seawater. Indeed, the Mg2+ cation is the second most abundant cation in seawater, just behind Na+ and before Ca2+. Because brucite is a swelling mineral, it causes a local volumetric expansion responsible for tensile stress in concrete. This leads to the formation of cracks and fissures in concrete, accelerating its degradation in seawater.

For the same reason, dolostone cannot be used as construction aggregate for making concrete. The reaction of magnesium carbonate with the free alkali hydroxides present in the cement porewater also leads to the formation of expansive brucite.

MgCO3 + 2 NaOH → Mg(OH)2 + Na2CO3

This reaction, one of the two main alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) is also known as alkali-carbonate reaction.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  2. ^ Toshiaki Enoki and Ikuji Tsujikawa (1975). "Magnetic Behaviours of a Random Magnet, NipMg(1-p)(OH2)". J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 39 (2): 317–323. doi:10.1143/JPSJ.39.317. 
  3. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A22. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  4. ^ "Magnesium Hydroxide". University of Michigan. 09-01-2007. 
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Sir James Murray's condensed solution of fluid magnesia, The Sydney Morning Herald – October 7, 1846
  7. ^ Ulster History. Sir James Murray – Inventor of Milk of Magnesia. 1788 to 1871, 24 February 2005
  8. ^ results from the TARR web server: Milk of Magnesia
  9. ^ results from the TARR web server: Phillips' Milk of Magnesia
  10. ^ Rothon, RN (2003). Particulate Filled Polymer Composites. Shrewsbury, UK: Rapra Technology. pp. 53–100. 
  11. ^ Magnesium Hydroxide – Revolution Health
  12. ^ Milk of Magnesia Makes Good Antiperspirant
  13. ^ Canker sores, 2/1/2009
  14. ^ Aileen Gibson and Michael Maniocha White Paper: The Use Of Magnesium Hydroxide Slurry For Biological Treatment Of Municipal And Industrial Wastewater, August 12, 2004
  15. ^ Hollingbery, LA; Hull TR (2010). "The Thermal Decomposition of Huntite and Hydromagnesite - A Review". Thermochimica Acta 509 (1-2): 1–11. 
  16. ^ Hollingbery, LA; Hull TR (2010). "The Fire Retardant Behaviour of Huntite and Hydromagnesite - A Review". Polymer Degradation and Stability 95 (12): 2213–2225. 
  17. ^ Hollingbery, LA; Hull TR (2012). "The Fire Retardant Effects of Huntite in Natural Mixtures with Hydromagnesite". Polymer Degradation and Stability 97 (4): 504–512. 
  18. ^ Hollingbery, LA; Hull TR (2012). "The Thermal Decomposition of Natural Mixtures of Huntite and Hydromagnesite". Thermochimica Acta 528: 45–52. 
  19. ^ Hull, TR; Witkowski A, Hollingbery LA (2011). "Fire Retardant Action of Mineral Fillers". Polymer Degradation and Stability 96 (8): 1462–1469. 
  20. ^ Tedesco FJ, DiPiro JT (1985). "Laxative use in constipation". Am. J. Gastroenterol 80 (4): 303–9. PMID 2984923.