Military service

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For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see Armed forces. For state-mandated military service, see Conscription. For the feudal institution, see Knight-service.

Military service, is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription). Some nations (e.g., Mexico) require a specific amount of military service from every citizen (except for special cases, such as physical or mental disorders or religious beliefs). A nation with a fully volunteer military does not normally require mandatory military service from its citizens, unless it is faced with a recruitment crisis during a time of war.

  No armed forces
  No enforced conscription
  Plan to abolish conscription in the near future
  Conscription
  No information
Timetable of military duties, Switzerland.


Contents

Summary of countries[edit]

In this summary, 195 countries are included.[1][2][3][4]

No defence forces[edit]

The following nineteen countries have been identified as having no defence forces or as having no standing army but having very limited military forces:

* Countries having no standing army, but having very limited military forces.

No enforced conscription[edit]

The following 104 countries have been identified as having no enforced conscription:

Both compulsory and voluntary military service[edit]

The following nine countries and colonies have been identified as having both compulsory and voluntary military service:

Selective conscription[edit]

The following 14 countries have been identified as having selective conscription:

Civilian, unarmed or non-combatant service option[edit]

The following thirteen countries have been identified as having a civilian, unarmed or non-combatant service optional alternative to compulsory military service:

Military service limited to 1 year or less[edit]

The following twenty-one countries have been identified to having compulsory military service limited to 1 year or less:

Military service limited to 18 months[edit]

The following twelve countries have been identified to having compulsory military service limited to 18 months or less:

Military service longer than 18 months[edit]

The following thirty-two countries have been identified to having compulsory military service terms longer than 18 months:

Conscription to be abolished in the near future[edit]

As of 2013, one country has been identified as intending to abolish conscription in the near future:


Countries without mandatory military service[edit]

Albania[edit]

Albania had compulsory military service. Albania's armed forces announced an objective to create a professional army by the end of 2010.[9]

Argentina[edit]

Argentina suspended military conscription in 1995 and replaced it with a voluntary military service, yet those already in service had to finish their time in service.[10]

This came as a result of political and social distrust of the military, dwindling budgets which forced the military to induct fewer conscripts every year, the experience of the 1982 Falklands War which proved the superiority of professional servicemen over conscripts and a series of conscription-related brutality scandals which came to a head with the murder of Private Omar Carrasco at an Army base in 1994, following a brutal disciplinary action.

It should be noted that military conscription has not been abolished; the Mandatory Military Service Law is still in the books and might be enforced in times of war, crisis or national emergency.

Conscription was known in Argentina as la colimba. The word colimba is a composite word made from the initial syllables of the verbs correr (to run), limpiar (to clean) and barrer (to sweep), as it was perceived that all a conscript did during service was running, cleaning and sweeping. Conscripts themselves were known and referred to as "colimbas".

Australia[edit]

See main article: Conscription in Australia

Although various levels of conscription were in force during times of conflict (World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War), as of 2013 Australia has no conscription. All forms of conscription were abolished by the Whitlam Government in 1972.[11]

Barbados[edit]

Barbados has no conscription.[12] The country has set the minimum age for voluntary recruitment into the Barbados Defence Force at 18. Younger recruits may be conscripted with parental consent.

Belgium[edit]

Belgium suspended conscription on 31 December 1992 by amending the 1962 Law on Conscription, which became applicable only to conscripts drafted in 1993 and earlier. In practice this meant that the law no longer applied to those born in 1975 and later. Since 1 March 1995 the Belgian armed forces consist of professional volunteers only.[13]

Belize[edit]

Belize has set minimum age for voluntary recruitment into the Armed Forces at 18. (According to the Section 16 of the Defense Act of the Defence Ordinance of 1977.) Conscription has never been prescribed in the Defense Act, but is at the Governor General’s discretion.

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Bosnia and Herzegovina abolished compulsory military service as of 1 January 2007.[14]

Bulgaria[edit]

Bulgaria abolished compulsory military service. The last conscripts were sent home on 25 November 2007.[15][16][17]

Previously there was mandatory military service for male citizens from eighteen to twenty-seven years of age. Duration of the service depended on the degree of education. For citizens studying for or holding a bachelor degree or higher the service was six months, and for citizens with no higher education it was nine months.[18] The duration of service was two years in 1992, and was dropping steadily, until it was finally abolished.

Canada[edit]

See main articles: Conscription Crisis of 1917 and Conscription Crisis of 1944

In Canada, conscription has never taken place in peacetime. Conscription became a very controversial issue during both World War I and World War II, especially in the province of Quebec.

China (PRC)[edit]

At present, military conscription only exists in theory and has done so since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. Due to China's huge population, and therefore the large number of individuals who volunteer to join the regular armed forces, universal military conscription has never been enforced.

Every Chinese citizen, both male and female, who attend further education are required to attend a military training period of around 20 days as a part of a military education.

Conscription is enshrined in Article 55 of the Constitution, which states: "It is a sacred duty of every citizen of the People's Republic of China to defend his or her motherland and resist invasion. It is an honored Obligation of the citizens of the People's Republic of China to perform military service and to join the militia forces."[19]

As of 1998, the legal basis of conscription was stated to be the 1984 Military Service Law which describes military service as a duty for "all citizens without distinction of race (...) and religious creed." This law has not been amended since it came into effect.[19] Military service is normally performed in the regular armed forces but the 1984 law does allow for conscription into the reserve forces in times of national emergency.

Citizens of the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau, as of 1997 and 1999 respectively, are not permitted to join the Chinese military, however, the defence of these two regions are protected by the Chinese military.

Costa Rica[edit]

Costa Rica abolished its military in 1948. See Military of Costa Rica

Croatia[edit]

On 3 October 2007, the government proposed to the parliament of the Republic of Croatia a decision to suspend all compulsory military service. This was supported by President Stjepan Mesić, and after a vote in the parliament on 5 October 2007, the decision became official. As of 1 January 2008, obligatory military (or civil) service is replaced with voluntary military service.[20]

Czech Republic[edit]

The Czech Republic abolished compulsory military service on 31 December 2004.[21][22]

France[edit]

Modern conscription was invented during the French Revolution, when the Republic wanted a stronger defense and to expand its radical ideas throughout Europe. The 1798 Jourdan Act stated: "Any Frenchman is a soldier and owes himself to the defense of the nation". Thus Napoleon Bonaparte could create afterward the Grande Armée with which he set out on the first large intra-European war.

France suspended peacetime military conscription in 1996, while those born before 1979 had to complete their service;[23] since the Algerian War (1954–62), conscripts had not been deployed abroad or in war zones, except those volunteering for such deployments.

Germany[edit]

See main article: Conscription in Germany

On 15 November 2010, the German government voted in favour of suspending universal conscription with the aim of establishing a professional army by 1 July 2011. The last conscripts were drafted on 1 January 2011.[24]

Hungary[edit]

Hungary abolished mandatory military service by November 2004, after the parliament had modified the constitution, ending a long-standing political dispute. To restore drafting, a two-thirds vote in parliament is needed, which is unlikely in the short term. As of 2011, the country is developing a professional army, with strong emphasis on "contract soldiers" who voluntarily serve 4+4 years for a wage.[citation needed]

In December, 2011, the National Assembly re-established the possibility of mandatory military service for every male citizen - with Hungarian address - between the age of 18 and the age of 40. Even though drafting is still banned in peace time, the listing of citizens fit for military service starts in January, 2012. According to the legislation, the conscripts can only be drafted in "state of emergency" or as defensive measure, the National Assembly can authorise drafting.[25]

India[edit]

India has never had mandatory military service, either under British rule or since independence in 1947. In WWII the Indian Army became the largest all-volunteer force in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in size. And it has since maintained the world's third largest army and the world's largest all volunteer army.

Iraq[edit]

Saddam Hussein's large Iraqi army was largely composed of conscripts, except for the elite Republican Guard. About 100,000 conscripts died during the First Persian Gulf War, also known as Operation Desert Storm. In the intervening years, Iraq's military suffered from decay and poor leadership, but there was still compulsory service. One program of note was "Ashbal Saddam" known as "Saddam's Cubs" where children were trained to defend Iraq through "toughening" exercises such as firearms training and dismembering live chickens with their teeth. Following the Second Persian Gulf War where the original military was disbanded, the Iraqi Army was recreated as a volunteer force with training overseen at first by the Coalition Provisional Authority and later by the American presence.

Ireland[edit]

Ireland was initially exempt from conscription in the First World War, but in April 1918 new legislation empowered the government to extend it to Ireland. Although the government never implemented this legislation, it led to a Conscription Crisis in Ireland and politically pushed the country further to seek its independence from the UK.

The Republic of Ireland has always had a fully voluntary military, it remains a neutral nation.[26]

Italy[edit]

Italy had mandatory military service, for men only, until 31 December 2004. The right to conscientious objection was legally recognized in 1972 so that a "non armed military service", or a community service, could be authorised as an alternative to those who required it.[27]

The Italian Parliament approved the suspension of the mandatory military service in 2004, with effect starting from 1 January 2005, and the Italian armed forces will now be entirely composed of professional volunteer troops, both male and female,[28] except in case of war or serious international military crisis, when conscription can be implemented.

Jamaica[edit]

In Jamaica the military service is voluntary from 18 years of age up. Younger recruits may be conscripted with parental consent.

Japan[edit]

Conscription was enforced during the Japanese Militarism in Second World War . Japan's Self Defense Forces have been a volunteer force since their establishment in the 1950s, following the end of the Allied occupation. As the Japanese constitution expressly prohibits Japan from maintaining any offensive military force, conscription will most likely not be an issue in the near future.

Latvia[edit]

Latvia abolished compulsory military service on 1 January 2007.[29]

Lebanon[edit]

Lebanon previously had mandatory military service of one year for men. On 4 May 2005, a new conscription system was adopted, making for a six-month service, and pledging to end conscription within two years. By 10 February 2007 it did.

Luxembourg[edit]

Luxembourg has a volunteer military.[30]

Republic of Macedonia[edit]

Republic of Macedonia abolished compulsory military service as of October 2006.[31]

Mauritius[edit]

Main article: Military of Mauritius

Mauritius does not have a standing army but operates a paramilitary service manned by volunteering Police officers known as the Special Mobile Force.

Montenegro[edit]

President of Montenegro Filip Vujanović has, as of 30 August 2006, abolished conscription for the military.

Morocco[edit]

Morocco eliminated compulsory military service as of 31 August 2006.[32]

Netherlands[edit]

The Netherlands established conscription for a territorial militia in 1814, simultaneously establishing a standing army which was to be manned by volunteers only. However, lack of sufficient volunteers caused the two components to be merged in 1819 into a "cadre-militia" army, in which the bulk of troops were conscripts, led by professional officers and NCOs. This system remained in use until the end of the Cold War. Between 1991 and 1996, the Dutch armed forces phased out their conscript personnel and converted to an all-volunteer force. The last conscript troops were inducted in 1995 and demobilized in 1996. Formally, the Netherlands has not abolished conscription; that is to say, the laws and systems which provide for the conscription of armed forces personnel remain in place, and Dutch citizens can still, theoretically, be mobilized in the event of a national emergency.

New Zealand[edit]

See main article: Compulsory Military Training in New Zealand

Conscription of men into the armed forces of New Zealand came into effect in 1940, and was abolished in 1972.

Pakistan[edit]

Like India, Pakistan has always maintained a purely volunteer military. However, in the immediate aftermath of independence, and the 1948 war; at a time when the army was just reorganising from a colonial force to a new national army; militias raised for service from, the Frontier, Punjab and Kashmir were often raised from locals tribe; each tribe was given a quota and many of the individuals sent did not "volunteer" in the strictest sense (though many did).

Panama[edit]

Panama officially abolished the entire military in 1992, and transformed it into National Police.

Peru[edit]

Peru abolished conscription in 1999.[33]

Poland[edit]

Poland suspended compulsory military service on 5 December 2008 by the order of the Minister of Defence. Compulsory military service was formally abolished when the Polish parliament amended the conscription law on 9 January 2009; the law came into effect on 11 February 2009.

Portugal[edit]

Portugal abolished compulsory military service on 19 November 2004.[34]

Romania[edit]

Romania suspended compulsory military service on 23 October 2006.[35] This came about due to a 2003 constitutional amendment which allowed the parliament to make military service optional. The Romanian Parliament voted to abolish conscription in October 2005, with the vote formalising one of many military modernisation and reform programmes that Romania agreed to when it joined NATO.

Serbia[edit]

Serbia abolished compulsory military service on 1 January 2011. Before that, Serbia had compulsory national service for all men aged between 19 and 35. In practice, men over 27 were seldom called up. Service was usually performed after university studies had been completed. The length of service was 12 months, then reduced to 9 months but was reduced to 6 months in 2006. There was also an alternative for conscientious objectors which lasted 9 months. Serbian nationals living outside of the country were still expected to complete national service; however, they could defer it if it would have seriously affected their career in the country where they then resided. This could be done by contacting the embassy in the country of residence (if under 27), or done by contacting the army directly (if over 27).

Slovakia[edit]

Slovakia abolished compulsory military service on 1 January 2006.

Slovenia[edit]

Slovenia's Government of Prime Minister Anton Rop abolished mandatory military service on 9 September 2003.[36]

South Africa[edit]

South Africa under the apartheid system had two years of compulsory military service for white men, followed by camps at intervals. This was abolished in 1994. See End Conscription Campaign.

Spain[edit]

Military service in Spain (1945)

Spain abolished compulsory military service in 2001.[37] Military and alternative service was nine months long and in recent years the majority of conscripts chose to perform alternative, rather than military, service.

Sri Lanka[edit]

Sri Lanka has never had mandatory military service, either under British rule or since independence in 1948. It maintains an all volunteer military.

Sweden[edit]

Military Service was mandatory in Sweden from 1901 until 1 July 2010,[38] when conscription was officially suspended.[39] Until 2010, all Swedish men aged between 18 and 47 years old were eligible to serve with the armed forces over a period ranging from 80 to 450 days. The right to Conscientious Objection was legally recognised in 1920. An alternative community service for Conscientious Objectors was easily available instead of military service. The number of those seeking conscientious objector status declined as actual conscript recruitment continued to decline.[40] In the years running up to 2010 roughly 6000 - 8000 people out of an annual cohort of 100,000 - 120,000 potential recruits actually completed military service.[41][41]

Tanzania[edit]

Tanzania officially never had conscription since it became independent.[42]

United Kingdom[edit]

The United Kingdom introduced conscription during both world wars. For the first two years of World War I the British relied on volunteers. But by 1916, a lack of volunteers forced the British Government to introduce conscription under the Military Service Act. Conscientious objectors were required to do war-related work of an unarmed nature, and some of those who refused this alternative, or engaged in anti-war protest, went to jail.

Conscription was reintroduced in the UK in 1939 at the start of World War II. Besides the armed forces themselves, conscription was used to increase output in coal mining (see the "Bevin Boys") and other dimensions of the war effort. Later in the war women were conscripted into the Women's Land Army to help with agricultural production. Conscientious objectors were treated more leniently than in WWI, but could still go to prison if they refused war-related work. For example the scientist Kathleen Lonsdale was sentenced to a month in Holloway prison in 1943 for refusing to register for war duties and refusing to pay a resulting fine of two pounds.[43] Northern Ireland was exempt from conscription in the Second World War, and was also excluded from the post-war National Service.

After World War II, the Government re-introduced conscription in 1948 under the title of compulsory National Service. This was abolished in 1960. The last conscript was not discharged until May 1963, due to deferrals.

United States[edit]

The United States first introduced conscription during the American Civil War. With insufficient volunteers coming in by 1863, the Lincoln Administration was forced to begin drafting despite widespread complaints that it was unconstitutional and undermined states' rights (some states had conscripted men up to this point, but not the federal government). In July 1863, New York City erupted in the draft riots over the draft. However, anyone could get out by paying a $300 fee or hiring a substitute. Many conscripts and substitutes were criminals or men with debilitating health problem, and thus largely useless. The Confederate government had begun drafting men in early 1862. Conscription was next used after the United States entered World War I in 1917. The first peacetime conscription came with the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940. When World War II ended, so did the draft. It was quickly reinstated with the Korean War and retained for the next 20 years. Active conscription ("the draft") ended in 1973. In 1979, President Carter brought back registration. All males up to the age of 26 are required to register with the Selective Service System, whose mission is "to provide manpower to the armed forces in an emergency" including a "Health Care Personnel Delivery System"[44] and "to run an Alternative Service Program for men classified as conscientious objectors during a draft." No one has been prosecuted for violating the conscription law in the USA since 1986. Women do not register for Selective Service in the United States, but they may enlist for voluntary service.

Countries with mandatory military service[edit]

See also: Conscription

Armenia[edit]

Armenia has compulsory military service for two years for males from 18 to 27 years old.

Austria[edit]

Austria has mandatory military service for all able bodied male citizens up to 35 years of age. Since 2006, the period of service has been six months. Conscientious objectors can join the civilian service (called Zivildienst) for nine months. A 12-month participation in the Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service, the Austrian Social Service or the Austrian Peace Service is regarded as an equivalent to the civilian service.

Since 1 January 1998, females can join the military service voluntarily. The Austrian conscription referendum, 2013 resulted in the rejection of a proposal that would have ended conscription. Although the referendum was non-binding, both parties in government pledged to honour the results.

Belarus[edit]

Belarus has mandatory military service for all fit men from eighteen to twenty-seven years of age. Military service lasts for eighteen months for those without higher education, and for twelve months for those with higher education.

Azerbaijan[edit]

Azerbaijan has mandatory military service for all fit men, who are at least at the of 18. Military service lasts for eighteen months for those without higher education, and for twelve months for those with higher education.

Bermuda[edit]

Bermuda, although an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, still maintains conscription for its local force. Males between the ages of eighteen and thirty-two are drawn by lottery to serve in The Bermuda Regiment for a period of thirty-eight months. The commitment is only on a part-time basis, however. Anyone who objects to this has the right to have his case heard by an exemption tribunal. The rights that applied for conscientous objection during National Service in the United Kingdom apply in Bermuda. The local government, as of 2013, has committed to ending conscription, although it is likely to be phased out gradually in order to prevent the manpower of the battalion (which had already seen its numbers fall below strength, from four to three companies, as a delayed result of birth rates decreasing following the Baby boom generation) plummeting.[45] Currently, three-quarters of the strength of the Bermuda Regiment is made up of conscripts, although many soldiers, whether they initially volunteered or were conscripted, elect to re-engage annually after their initial three years and two months term of service has been completed, with some serving for decades.[46]

Brazil[edit]

Males in Brazil are required to serve 12 months of military service upon their 18th birthday. While de jure all males are required to serve, numerous exceptions mean military service is de facto limited mostly to volunteers, with an average of between 5 and 10% of those reporting for duty actually being inducted.[47] Most often, the service is performed in military bases as close as possible to the person's home. The government does not usually require those planning to attend college or holding a permanent job to serve. There are also several other exceptions, including health reasons, for which one may not have to serve. Recruits accepted at a university may also choose to train under a program similar to the American ROTC, and satisfy their military requirement this way. Direct entrance to one of the military academies will also substitute for this requirement.

Myanmar (Burma)[edit]

The Burmese junta requires able-bodied persons aged 18 and over to register with local authorities.[48] In 2011, civil servants, students, those serving prison terms, and those caring for an elderly parent were excluded from the draft, but they could be later called to serve. Totally exempt are members of religious orders, disabled persons, and married or divorced women with children. Those who fail to report for military service could be imprisoned for three years, and face fines. Those who deliberately inflict injury upon themselves to avoid conscription could be imprisoned for up to five years, as well as fined.

But the conscription has never been activated under the military junta which ruled the country from 1988-2010. Myanmar's constitution states that male citizens over 18 could be called to serve in military, but it has not been activated either. As of 2013, Myanmar citizens are not required to serve in military.[citation needed]

Cyprus[edit]

Cyprus has compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot men between the ages of eighteen and fifty. Additionally, from 2008 onwards, all men belonging to the religious groups of Armenians, Latins and Maronites, also serve their military service. Military service lasts for twenty-four months. After that, ex-soldiers are considered reservists and participate in military exercises for a few days every year. Conscientious objectors can either do thirty-three months’ unarmed service in the army or thirty-eight months’ community work.[49]

Denmark[edit]

As described in the Constitution of Denmark,[50] § 81, Denmark has mandatory service for all able men. Normal service is four months, and is normally served by men in the age of eighteen to twenty-seven. Some special services will take longer. Danish men will typically receive a letter around the time of their 18th birthday, asking when their current education (if any) ends, and some time later, depending on when, they will receive a notice on when to attend to the draft office to be tested physically and psychologically. However, some may be deemed unfit for service and not be required to show up.

Even if a person is deemed fit, or partially fit for service, he may avoid having to serve if he draws a high enough number randomly. Persons who are deemed partly fit for service will however be placed lower than those who are deemed fit for service, and therefore have a very low chance of being drafted. Men deemed fit can be called upon for service until their 50th birthday in case of national crisis, regardless of whether normal conscription has been served. This right is very rarely exercised by Danish authorities.

Conscientious objectors can choose to instead serve six months in a non-military position, for example in Beredskabsstyrelsen (dealing with non-military disasters like fires, flood, pollution, etc.) or foreign aid work in a third world country.[51]

Egypt[edit]

Main article: Conscription in Egypt

Egypt has a mandatory military service program for males between the ages of eighteen and thirty. Conscription is regularly postponed for students until the end of their studies, as long as they apply before they turn twenty-eight years of age. By the age of thirty, a male is considered unfit to join the army and pays a fine. Males with no brothers, or those supporting parents are exempted from the service. Former President Sadat added that any Egyptian who has dual nationality is exempted from military service and this is still in effect. Males serve for a period ranging from fourteen months to thirty-six months, depending on their education; high school drop-outs serve for thirty-six months. College graduates serve for lesser periods of time, depending on their education; college graduates with special skills are still conscripted yet at a different rank and at a different pay scale with the option of remaining with the service as a career. Some Egyptians evade conscription and travel overseas until they reach the age of thirty, at which point they are tried, pay a $580 fine (as of 2004), and are dishonorably discharged. Such an offense, legally considered an offense of "bad moral character", prevents the "unpatriotic" citizen from ever holding public office.

Finland[edit]

Finland has mandatory military service for men of a minimum duration of six months (180 days); depending on the assigned position: those trained as officers or NCOs serve for twelve months (362 days), specialist troops serve for nine (270 days) or twelve months, while rank and file serve for the minimum period. Unarmed service is also possible, and lasts nine months (270 days). The call-ups issued by the Finnish Military to enter into service begins when a male citizen turns the age of 18 and those up to the age of 30 who have not reported to earlier call-ups,[52] when it becomes either mandatory, or the conscript is exempted.[53]

Since 1995, women have been able to volunteer for military service. During the first 45 days, women have an option to quit at will.[54] Having served for 45 days, they fall under the same obligation to serve as men except for medical reasons. A pregnancy during service would interrupt the service but not automatically cause a medical discharge.

Belonging in a sexual minority does not result in an exemption.[55] Transsexuals usually get their service postponed until they have undergone sex reassignment surgery.

Non-military service of twelve months is available for men whose conscience prevents them from serving in the military. Men who refuse to serve at all are sent to prison for six months or half the time of their remaining non-military service at the time of refusal. In theory, male citizens from the demilitarized Åland region are to serve in customs offices or lighthouses, but since this service has not been arranged, they are always exempted in practice. Jehovah's Witnesses' service is deferred for three years, if they present a written testimony, not older than two months, from the congregation of their status as baptized and active members of the congregation. Jehovah's Witnesses will be exempted from peace time duty at the beginning of the age 29. Military service has been mandatory for men throughout the history of independent Finland since 1917. Soldiers and civilian servicemen receive a daily allowance of €4.70 (days 1 – 180), €8 (days 181 – 270), or €11.20 (onward from day 271).[53]

Approximately 20% are trained as NCOs (corporals, sergeants), and 10% are trained as officers-in-reserve (second lieutenant). In wartime, it is expected that the officers-in-reserve fulfill most platoon leader and company commander positions. At the beginning of the service, all men go through same basic training of eight weeks. After this eight-week period it is decided who will be trained as NCOs or officers.

Having completed the initial part of the service as a conscript, the soldier is placed in the reserve. Reservists may be called for mandatory refresher exercises. Rank and file serve a maximum of 40 days, specialists 75 days and officers and NCOs 100 days. Per refresher course day, the reservists receive a taxable salary of about fifty euro. The salary depends slightly on the military rank: officers receive €56, NCOs €53 and rank-and file €51 per day. The service is mandatory; it is not possible to refuse an order to attend the refresher exercise, only postpone. As of 2011, though, the option to opt for non-military service has been made available as the Finnish Defence Forces has made ongoing budget cuts, reflected in the number of reservist exercises annually.

There are no general exemptions for the conscription. The law requires employers, landlords etc. to continue any pre-existing contracts after the service. For medical reasons, exemption or postponing can be given only by a military doctor. If the disability is expected to be cured, there is no exemption, and the service is postponed. The basic doctrine is that the great majority of each age cohort serve, and the size of the active army can be adjusted by changing the maximum age of reservists to be called up, instead of using selective service.

The option to military service is civilian service (available to females after completing 45 days of military service), where an individual subject to conscript finds a job at some public institution, where they serve for 12 months, the same as the longest rank-and-file service (drivers). Before 2008, the law required 13 months, which was criticized for being punitive internationally by the Human Rights Committee of the United Nations, The European Committee of Social Rights, The Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe and Amnesty International.[56]

The national security policy of Finland is based on a credible independent defence of all Finnish territory. The maximum number of military personnel abroad is limited to 2,000 (out of the 900,000 available reserve). Contributions to the UN troops comprise only professional soldiers and trained, paid reservists who have specifically applied to such operations. Therefore, no "expeditionary wars" argument can be made against conscription.

Draft dodging is nearly non-existent, as failure to show up to conscription immediately leads to an arrest warrant and is prosecuted as absence without leave, or desertion after five days of absence. Proof of military or civil service is generally required to obtain a 5-year passport (some exceptions can apply). Without proof, the passport is valid, at the longest, until the applicant's 28th birthday.[57]

Military rank, either as NCO or reserve officer, is highly valued as a merit in Finland by employers when recruiting a male employee. A great majority of Finnish males who hold a managerial position in Finland have either NCO or officer rank in reserves.

Greece[edit]

As of 2009, Greece (Hellenic Republic) has mandatory military service of nine months for men in the Army and 12 months for the Navy and Air Force. Some are entitled to reduced service due to serious family reasons (single parent families, parent serving in the army etc.). Although Greece is developing a professional army system, it continues to enforce the 9-month mandatory military service despite earlier promises that the draft would be reduced to six months. Women are accepted into the Greek army as salaried professionals, but they are not obliged to join as men are. Conscript soldiers receive full health insurance and a nominal salary of €9 per month for privates and €12 for the rank of draft corporal and draft sergeant. There is the option of serving as a Second Lieutenant. In that case the received salary is €719 after basic training is over, but the duration of service is also increased. The minimum wage for an unskilled worker stands at around €650 per month in Greece, while professional soldiers are paid upwards of €800. This results in reservist corporals and sergeants receiving a wage that is 1/70th that of a professional soldier, whom they outrank.

Conscientious objection to military service in Greece[edit]

The length of alternative civilian service for conscientious objectors to military service is 15 months.[dubious ] Amnesty International was also concerned that the determination of conscientious objector status fell under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense, which breaches international standards that stipulate that the entire institution of alternative service should have a civilian character.

Iran[edit]

Iran has a mandatory military service for men which starts at the age of 18. Duration of military service is dependent on some conditions and circumstances. There is a 24-month military service for general, 22 months for destitute areas and 20 months for boundary areas; there is two months for military education. There are exceptions for those who cannot serve because of physical or mental health problems or disabilities. Students are exempt as long as they are attending school. The higher the education of a man, the higher his rank will be in the military service. Since 2008 and the commence of Iran's national elites organization activity (Bonyade Mellie Nokhbegan[58]), students who are accepted as members of this organization (because of their special achievements, e.g., national and international olympiad medals and winners of invention competitions) can have a "scientific research" substitution instead of mandatory military service, and the research grant is given to these members from military universities, otherwise, formally these members are regarded as "soldiers" who are spending the mandatory military service program, and in any publication related to that research, their citations have to be that of the military university giving the research grant.

Exemptions from the Iranian military service, but also military duty in case of war include:

Prisoners may be excused of their sentence to serve in the military at a time of war or to complete military service in exchange for a reduced sentence dependent on the nature of the crime committed.[59]

Men reaching 19 years old who are not granted exemption from the military service are not able to apply for a driving license, passport, or leave the country without special permission.

Israel[edit]

Israel drafts both men and women. All Israeli citizens are conscripted at age 18, with the following exceptions:

Typically, men are required to serve for 3 years and women for 2 years.[5] Officers and other soldiers in certain voluntary units such as Nahal and Hesder are required to sign on for additional service. Those studying in a "Mechina" (pre-induction preparatory course) defer service until the conclusion of the program, typically one academic year. An additional program (called "Atuda'i") for qualified applicants allows post-secondary academic studies prior to induction. See also: Israel Defense Forces.

There is a very limited amount of conscientious objection to conscription into the IDF. More common is refusal by reserve soldiers to serve in the West Bank and Gaza. Some of these conscientious objectors may be assigned to serve elsewhere, or are sentenced to brief prison terms lasting a few months to a year and may subsequently receive dishonourable discharges. See also: Refusal to serve in the Israeli military.

After a year their period of regular army service, men are liable for up to 30 days (much less on average) per year of reserve duty ("miluim") until they are in their early forties. Women in certain positions of responsibility are liable for reserve duty to a limited extent, until they are twenty-four years old, married, or pregnant. Women can also choose to do 2-3 years of service and volunteer work instead of being soldiers.

North Korea[edit]

North Korea in 1993 had a mandatory military service, for all men, of 120 months as normal troops and 156 months as special forces.

South Korea[edit]

South Korea has mandatory military service of 21 (army, navy, special civil service) and 24 (air force) months. There are no alternatives for conscientious objectors[60] except imprisonment. In general, with very few exceptions, most South Korean males serve in the military. The duration of service varies from branch to branch of the military.

Exemptions are granted to Korean male citizens with physical disabilities or whose mental status is unstable or questionable. When a Korean man becomes of legal age, he is required to take a physical check-up to determine whether he is suitable for military service. Every male is labeled into one of four different grades. Grades 1-3: normal. Grade 4: special service; which is given to individuals that fulfill their military duties as a civil worker amongst civilians. Grade 5: civil defense in peace. Grade 6: exemption from military service in both situation. Grade 7: re-check-up within two years.

There are some controversies portrayed in Korean media concerning special treatment given to celebrities. Some celebrities are given exemptions to their mandatory military service, even though they clearly have no physical disabilities. The government has begun implementing tougher sanctions to those who attempt to avoid their military duty. It is considered shameful, undutiful, and treasonous for a man to take measures to avoid his military service when he is healthy and capable of fulfilling his 21-month requirement.[citation needed] In 2002 Yoo Seung Jun, a Korean pop singer, became a naturalized American citizen to avoid his military duty in Korea. For this reason, Korea has banned Yoo from the country and actually deported him.[61][62] Another recent example is MC Mong, a popular singer/rapper accused of avoiding his military service by having his molar teeth removed. On 11 April 2011, MC Mong was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service.[63]

Compensation[edit]

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 6 January 2012.[64] Exchange rate as of 8 June 2012 (1173.84 to $1.00)

이등병 (Private)일등병 (Private first class)상등병 (Corporal)병장 (Sergeant)
81,500
$69.43 (approximate)
per month
88,200
$75.14 (approximate)
per month
97,500
$83.07 (approximate)
per month
108,000
$92.01 (approximate)
per month

Mexico[edit]

As of 2011, all males reaching eighteen years of age must register for military service (Servicio Militar Nacional, or SMN) for one year, though selection is made by a lottery system using the following color scheme: whoever draws a black ball must serve as a "disponibility reservist", that is, he must not follow any activities whatsoever and get his discharge card at the end of the year. The ones who get a white ball serve Saturdays in a Batallón del Servicio Militar Nacional (National Military Service Battalion) composed entirely of one-year SMN conscripts. Those with a community service interest may participate in Literacy Campaigns as teachers or as physical education instructors. Military service is also (voluntarily) open to women. In certain cities, such as Mexico City and Veracruz, there is a third option: a red ball (Mexico City) and a Blue ball (Veracruz), which entails serving a full year as a recruit in a Paratrooper Battalion in the case of Mexico City residents, or an Infantería de Marina unit (Navy Marines) in Veracruz. In other cities which have a Navy HQ (such as Ciudad Madero), it is the Navy which takes charge of the conscripts, instead of the Army.

A "liberated" military ID is a requirement to join the Mexican local, state, and federal police forces, also to apply for some government jobs, Draft dodging was an uncommon occurrence in Mexico until 2002, since a "liberated" military ID card was needed for a Mexican male to obtain a passport, but since this requirement was dropped by the Mexican government, absenteeism from military service has become more common.

Norway[edit]

Norway has mandatory military service of nineteen months for men between the ages of 18.5 (17 with parental consent) and 44 (55 in case of war). Beginning in 2006, the armed forces will also invite females to take a pre-service medical examination, but they will not be drafted unless they sign a declaration of willingness. The actual draft time is six months for the home guard, and twelve months for the regular army, air force and navy.

The remaining months are supposed to be served in annual exercises, but very few conscripts do this because of lack of funding for the Norwegian armed forces. As a result of this decreased funding and greater reliance on high technology, the armed forces are aiming towards drafting only 10,000 conscripts a year. As of 2011, an average of 27% of young men actually complete military service each year.[65] The remainder, for the most part, either are formally dismissed after medical tests or obtain deferral from the service because of studies or stays abroad.

Some, such as those who choose vocational course paths during high school (for example, carpenters and electricians) opt to complete their required apprenticeships within the military. While some Norwegians consider it unfair that they have to complete the compulsory military duty when so many others are dismissed, others see it as a privilege and there is normally high competition to be allowed to join some branches of the service.[citation needed]

The Norwegian armed forces will normally not draft a person who has reached the age of 28. In Norway, certain voluntary specialist training programs and courses entail extended conscription of one to eight years. Pacifists can apply for non-military service, which lasts 12 months. In 2013, the country became the first NATO country and in EU, to draft both men and women into the service. But it is required only a few young people to serve if they are not motivated, and students who reach the age of service can find a reason to avoid the draft, like studying in a University.

Russia[edit]

The conscription system was introduced into Imperial Russia by Dmitry Milyutin on 1 January 1874. As of 2008, the Russian Federation has a mandatory 12 months draft. Some examples of how people avoid being drafted are:

In Russia, all males are liable for one year of compulsory military service up to the age of 27. In 2006, the Russian government and State Duma gradually reduced the term of service to 18 months from 24 for those who will be conscripted in 2007 and to 12 months from 2008 and dropped some legal excuses for non-conscription from the law (such as non-conscription of rural doctors and teachers, of men who have a child younger than 3 years, etc.) from 1 January 2008. Also full-time students graduated from civil university with military education will be free from conscription from 1 January 2008.

As a result of draft evasion, Russian generals have repeatedly complained that the bulk of the army is made up of drug addicts, imbeciles, and ex-convicts, which in turn has led to an overall decline of the morale and function of the Russian armed services. Conscripts often face brutal hazing, bullying, and being forced into male prostitution upon their entrance into the military, known as dedovshchina, some dying as a result. Much of the hazing has begun to stop after major reforms in late 2009-2010. Declining birthrates since the fall of the Soviet Union have also led to concerns over the country's ability to meet manpower quotas.

According to the Russian federal law, the Armed Forces, the MVD Internal Troops, the Federal Protective Service (FSO), the Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), Federal Drug Control Service (FSKN) and civil defence of the Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) are considered as military service.

See also

Singapore[edit]

In Singapore, the NS (Amendment) Act was passed on 14 March 1967, under which all able-bodied male citizens of 18 – 21 years of age were forced to serve 24 months of compulsory national service in the Singapore Armed Forces, the Singapore Police Force, or the Singapore Civil Defence Force. Upon completion of full-time NS, they undergo reservist training cycles of up to forty days a year for the next ten years.

The majority of conscripts serve in the Singapore Armed Forces due to its larger manpower requirements. Almost all conscripts undergo basic military training before being deployed to the various Military services, the Police Force (SPF), or Civil Defence (SCDF); During Basic Military Training, Conscripts, known as National Servicemen, are assessed on their leadership capabilities (over and above basic military skills). The outstanding conscripts will undergo specialised training and go on to hold leadership positions as Specialists or commissioned officers.

In most situations, conscripts do not have the opportunity to choose their assignment; However it has been noted that some may be interviewed for specialised roles (Medical and Computer Systems).

Singapore used to have one of the longest mandatory military service periods for males, up to thirty months (up to June 2004).

Switzerland[edit]

Military service for Swiss men is obligatory according to the Federal Constitution, and includes 18 or 21 weeks of basic training (depending on troop category) as well as annual 3-week-refresher courses until a number of service days which increases with rank (260 days for privates) is reached. (It is also possible to serve the whole requirement at one piece, meaning no refresher courses are required.) Service for women is voluntary, but identical in all respects. Conscientious objectors can choose 390 days of community service instead of military service. Medical deferments and dismissals from basic training (often on somewhat dubious grounds) have increased significantly in the last years. Therefore, only about 55% to 60% of Swiss men actually complete basic training.

Taiwan (ROC)[edit]

The Republic of China has had mandatory military service for all males since 1949. Females from the outlying islands of Fuchien were also required to serve in a civil defense role, although this requirement has been dropped since the lifting of martial law. In October 1999, the mandatory service was shortened from twenty-four months to twenty-two months; from January 2004 it was shortened further to eighteen months, and from 1 January 2006 the duration has decreased to sixteen months. The ROC Defense Ministry had announced that should voluntary enlistment reach sufficient numbers, the compulsory service period for draftees will be shortened to fourteen months in 2007, and further to twelve months in 2009.[66][67]

ROC nationals with Overseas Chinese status are exempt from service. Draftees may also request alternative service, usually in community service areas, although the required service period would be longer than military service. Qualified draftees with graduate degrees in the sciences or engineering who pass officer candidate exams may also apply to fulfil their obligations in a national defense service option which involves three months of military training, followed by an officer commission in the reserves and four years working in technical jobs in the defense industry or government research institutions.

The Ministry of Interior is responsible for administering the National Conscription Agency.[68]

On 1 August 2008, the Defence Minister announced that from 2014 on, Taiwan would have a purely volunteer professional force. However, males who opt not to volunteer will be subjected to three to four-month military training. Those who do not have a tertiary education will have a three-month training when reaching military age, whereas those who are receiving tertiary education will have to complete the training in summer vacations.[69]

Should this policy remain unchanged, although Taiwan will have a purely volunteer professional force, every male will still be conscripted to receive a three- to four-month military training. Thus, after 2014, compulsory military service will still remain in practice in Taiwan.

Thailand[edit]

Thailand has a mandatory military service which applies to all male citizens who have turned 21 years old. Some volunteer to serve in their country’s armed forces and some are subjected to a random draft lottery for a Red or Black card. When not enough men have volunteered to fill the amphoe’s quota, the draft lottery will decide the fate of the remaining male citizens. A black ticket means you do not have to serve in the military and you can continue on with your life and your career. A red ticket means you belong to the Thai government for the next two years.

The only way to avoid Thailand's 2 years mandatory military recruitment is to graduate a Three Years: Military Service Students Program. Students must be between the ages of 18 and 22 and they have to attend this course once per week. Have a grade point average of 2.50 or above, be physically fit, and pass a series of fitness tests will allow them to be accepted into the reserves.

Those who volunteer are free to choose from the three branches of the armed forces (Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy and Royal Thai Air Force). Service obligation also varies by educational qualification. Those with a high school diploma or the equivalent and those who have one year of Military Service education are required to serve for two years if they draw the red card, but if these same individuals volunteer, the service obligation would be reduced in half, i.e., reduced to only one year. Likewise, those with an associate's degree (or equivalent) or higher would be required to serve for one year if drafted, but the requirement would be reduced to only six months if they volunteered. University students can defer their service as long as they maintain the student status until reaching the age of 27 or obtaining a master's degree or the equivalent, whichever comes first. Undergraduate and graduate students who decide to volunteer are allowed by their institution to put their studies on suspension until the end of term of service. All conscripts, regardless of educational qualification, undergo the same training and receive the same grade and rank upon completion of basic training.

Turkey[edit]

In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty-one years of age (with some exceptions). Those who are engaged in higher education or vocational training programs prior to their military drafting are allowed to delay service until they have completed the programs, or reach a certain age, depending on the program (e.g. 29 years of age for undergraduate degrees). The duration of the basic military service varies. As of July 2003, the reduced durations are as follows: fifteen months for privates (previously eighteen months), twelve months for reserve officers (previously sixteen months) and six months for short-term privates, which denotes those who have earned a university degree and have not been enlisted as reserve officers (previously eight months).

Turkish citizens who have lived or worked abroad for at least three years can be exempt from military service in exchange for a certain fee in foreign currencies. Also, when the General Staff assesses that the military reserve exceeds the required amount, paid military service of one-month's basic training is established by law as a stopgap measure, but has only been practiced in reality once so far, and only applied to men of a certain age (born in or prior to 1973). This was done in order to generate funds to recover from the aftermath of the 1999 İzmit earthquake, which took place in the highly industrialized Marmara region of the country, and had a considerable negative impact on the Turkish economy due to the severe damage it caused to a significant number of residential and industrial structures.

Although women in principle are not obliged to serve in the military, they are allowed to become military officers.

Conscientious objection of military service is illegal in Turkey and punishable with imprisonment by law. Many conscientious objectors flee abroad mainly to neighbouring countries or the European Union (as asylum seekers or guest workers).

Ukraine[edit]

The options are either reserve officer training for two years (offered in universities as a part of a program which means not having to join the army), or one year regular service. In Ukraine, a person could not be conscripted after he turned twenty-five. The Ukrainian army had similar problems with dedovshchina as the Russian army did until very recently, but in Ukraine the problem is getting less severe compared to Russia, due to cuts in the conscript terms (from 24 months to 18 months in the early 2000s and then to 12 months in 2004) and cuts in total conscription numbers (due to the switching of the army into a full-time professional army) since the last conscripts are being drafted at the end of 2013.[70]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Geneva, Switzerland, 1997, via Nationmaster: http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/mil_con-military-conscription
  2. ^ The CIA World Fact book — Military service age and obligation. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2024.html
  3. ^ J. Jih. Dual Nationality, Conscription and Death Penalty. http://web.archive.org/web/20091027100908/http://geocities.com/jusjih/dncdp.html
  4. ^ سربازی داوطلبانه آري؛ اجباري نه
  5. ^ a b CIA - The World Factbook
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  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ [3]
  9. ^ Albanian Forces, General Staff of Albanian Army forces.
  10. ^ "Nationmaster: Conscription".  source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Geneva, Switzerland, 1997. Data collected from the nations concerned, or as otherwise indicated.
  11. ^ R. C. S. Trahair (2004). Encyclopedia of Cold War espionage, spies, and secret operations. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 333. ISBN 978-0-313-31955-6. 
  12. ^ "Barbados". CIA Factbook. 2011. .
  13. ^ Country report and updates: Belgium | War Resisters' International
  14. ^ NATO and the Defence Reform Commission: partners for progress (SETimes.com)
  15. ^ Bulgaria's last conscripts - News news
  16. ^ Bulgaria Scraps the Draft (New York Times) - ExpatsBulgaria.com
  17. ^ Bulgaria to abolish compulsory military service as of 2008 (SETimes.com)
  18. ^ "Bulgarian military service reduced", BBC News, 17 May 2000. Retrieved 31 May 2006.
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  20. ^ Vijesti.net - Hrvatska uvodi profesionalnu vojsku od 1. siječnja 2008
  21. ^ Ministerstvo obrany - Stránka nebyla nalezena - Not Found
  22. ^ Cameron, Rob (22 December 2004). "Last conscripts leave Czech army". BBC News. 
  23. ^ "France salutes end of military service". BBC News. 29 November 2001. 
  24. ^ Final conscripts join German army
  25. ^ Nyilvántartásba veszik a hadkötelezett férfiakat januártól
  26. ^ Defence Forces Homepage
  27. ^ Law n. 772, 15 December 1972 [4] (Italian)
  28. ^ Law nr. 226, 23 August 2004 [5] (Italian)
  29. ^ Latvia: Refusing to Bear Arms 2005 revision
  30. ^ National Museum of Military History - DIEKIRCH, LUXEMBOURG
  31. ^ Macedonian Army phases out conscription (SETimes.com)
  32. ^ "The Islamization of Morocco", by Oliver Guitta, The Weekly Standard, 2 October 2006
  33. ^ http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=836
  34. ^ FIM DO SERVIÇO MILITAR OBRIGATÓRIO (archived from the original on 2007-02-22).
  35. ^ Romania drops compulsory military service, United Press International, 23 October 2006
  36. ^ Literal
  37. ^ See an announcement by the Minister of Defence
  38. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38036455/ns/world_news-europe/
  39. ^ Military conscription phase out under fire - The Local
  40. ^ http://wri-irg.org/programmes/world_survey/country_report/en/Sweden#sdfootnote11sym
  41. ^ a b http://www.thelocal.se/9479/20071221/
  42. ^ Country report and updates: Tanzania | War Resisters' International
  43. ^ Source: [6]; also [7].
  44. ^ FAQ about Health Care Workers and the Medical Draft
  45. ^ The Royal Gazette: Regiment plans incentives to attract volunteers, by Gareth Finighan. 7 June, 2013
  46. ^ The Royal Gazette: Pitman’s 40 years in the Regiment recognised, By Ceola Wilson. 4 June, 2013.
  47. ^ Bernardes, Júlio. Military Service in Brazil declining. USP Notícias. 24 July 2002. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  48. ^ Six Youths Conscripted into Burmese Army. Narinjara News. August 4, 2009. 
  49. ^ See official pages by the Greek Cypriot National Guard.
  50. ^ grundlov_eng.pmd
  51. ^ http://danmark.dk/portal/page?_pageid=34,328944&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
  52. ^ http://www.puolustusvoimat.fi/portal/puolustusvoimat.fi/!ut/p/c5/vZTLbqNAEEW_JR8QdzdvlrxpHm5MQ0PYIENsx2AbExMb8_XjURazGMWriKpV6arqSPdKBQrw6NP6ut-th313Wh9ADgqp1FcscSyeQIfwIsQrlAh2YCBbEUAGciiUtLmf8dROcQNvKJlSRD_xLTRtP2zeAyrHeGm1E51CFCYFCSc7GJr4MaiI2StL83bReUhfHreKvzSHkxTXg0glfqhDTALI5CBChgOf6xB96xJv-dbSEZATGQLE1EzVJJV5J5We7pNY_tbhD6VB8AYK-Z8bhEYmxKGGbU5dQl1AIPlFN56y_DlZ_HwsA87I4mZkzZiXMWNedMa86O_m5YFiXx0Xt_q4gAtRUkRFhZDjFFmQH58kK-r7aF7wzsLmB5Ncs3nLqnz9RcbBkXAFeyPXLLM_XD9fT736VVfbhlSvNKOmYGjXfDu4yJKbTq9MvzXECw4EJ7Dv-zrpSNgewqRW1cbiNT2yeTa4ds_YUF66MVM3F71MxZXWyDGt-4Tk-sRK9vGusFbzxqvBRThK8h25jVuPybgCS7c7bsD5eD1bsTvl__VG-wPhLTdy/dl3/d3/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/?pcid=e7e52b8042b76fa8a4f6f5433f46c91a
  53. ^ a b "Conscript"
  54. ^ Defence Forces > Conscript > Voluntary military service for women > "Voluntary military service for women"
  55. ^ Defence Forces > Conscript > Non-discrimination policies > "Non-discrimination policies"
  56. ^ Welcome to Finland – Where Refusing to Kill is Criminal! | AKL
  57. ^ Passports for persons liable for military service
  58. ^ official site of bonyade mellie nokhbegan(Iran's national elites organization)
  59. ^ More information can be found at [8] (in Persian).
  60. ^ "Korean pacifists fight conscription", BBC News, 5 May 2002. Retrieved 31 May 2006.
  61. ^ Can Yoo Seung Jun come back to Korea? |
  62. ^ Yoo Seung Jun Betrays Korea to be American | HollywoodGrind
  63. ^ Park Si-soo,MC Mong gets suspended jail term. 11 April 2011, The Korea Times.
  64. ^ "공무원보수규정 [별표 13] 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) Korea Ministry of Government Legislation". Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  65. ^ Conscription for women?
  66. ^ Look under Military
  67. ^ Reduced to 1 year
  68. ^ Ministry of Interior site on Conscription Administration
  69. ^ 聯合新聞網 | 國內要聞 | 募兵制推動方案 | 國防部:103年仍就學 免當兵
  70. ^ Ukraine to end military conscription after autumn call-ups

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]