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"Miles" redirects here. For other uses, see Mile (disambiguation) and Miles (disambiguation).
mile typemetres
U.S. survey1,609.347219
A milestone in London showing the distance in miles to two destinations.

A mile is a unit of length most commonly equivalent to 5,280 feet or 1,760 yards (about 1,609 metres). The mile of 5,280 feet is also known as the statute mile or land mile to distinguish it from the nautical mile of approximately 6,076 feet (1,852 metres exactly).[1] There have also been many historical miles and similar units in other systems that may be translated into English as miles; they have varied in length from 1 to 15 kilometres.

The exact length of the land mile varied slightly among English-speaking countries until the international yard and pound agreement in 1959 established the yard as exactly 0.9144 metres, giving a mile of exactly 1,609.344 metres. The U.S. adopted this international mile for most purposes, but retained the pre-1959 mile for some land-survey data, terming it the U.S. survey mile. In the United States, statute mile formally refers to the survey mile[citation needed], about 3.2 mm (18 inch) longer than the international mile (the international mile is exactly 0.0002% less than the U.S. survey mile).

While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the international mile continues to be used in some countries such as Liberia, Myanmar,[2] the United Kingdom[3] and the United States.[4] It is furthermore used in a number of countries with vastly less than a million inhabitants, most of which are US or UK territories, or have close historical ties with the US or UK: Am. Samoa,[5] Bahamas,[6] Belize,[7] British Virgin Islands,[8] Cayman Islands,[9] Dominica,[9] Falkland Islands,[10] Grenada,[11] Guam,[12] The N. Mariana Islands,[13] Samoa,[14] St. Lucia,[15] St. Vincent & The Grenadines,[16] St. Helena,[17] St. Kitts & Nevis,[18] the Turks & Caicos Islands,[19] and the U.S. Virgin Islands.[20] The mile is even encountered in Canada, though this is predominantly in rail transport and horse racing, as the roadways have been metricated since 1977.[21][22][23][24][25]


The word mile originally derives from the Old English word mīl which in turn was ultimately derived from the Latin word millia meaning "thousand".[26] The English mile was based on what the Romans referred to as mille passuum (Latin, "one thousand paces"), but the cognate term in some other languages – for example, Meile in German, mijl in Dutch – was based on the Romans' miliarium spatium (Latin for "one thousand intervals"), a significantly longer unit.[27]

Various historic miles/leagues from a German textbook dated 1848 (given in feet, metres and fractions of a meridian

Roman mile[edit]

The Romans, when marching their armies through Europe, were the first to use the unit of long distance mille passuum (literally "a thousand paces" in Latin, where each pace or stride was two steps). When marching through uncharted territory, they would often push a carved stick in the ground after each 1000 paces. Well fed and harshly driven Roman battalions in good weather thus created longer miles. After attempts to standardize, it denoted a distance of 1,000 average paces or 5,000 Roman feet, and is estimated to be about 1,479 metres (4,851 feet or 1,617 yards). This unit, now known as the Roman mile,[28] spread throughout the Roman Empire, often with modifications to fit local systems of measurements.

Historical miles in the Arabic world and Europe[edit]

Historical miles in Britain and Ireland[edit]

The statute mile (1593) of Elizabeth I was not the only definition of the mile in Britain and Ireland. Perhaps the earliest tables of English linear measures, Arnold's Customs of London (c. 1500) indicates a mile consisted of 8 furlongs, each of 625 feet, for a total of 5000 feet (1666⅔ yards, 0.947 statute miles, 1524 metres):[34] this is the same definition of the mile in terms of feet as used by the Romans. The "old English" mile of medieval and early modern times appears to have measured about 1.3 statute miles (1.9 km).[35] The 17th century cartographer, Robert Morden, had multiple scales on his maps—for example, his map of Hampshire showed two different miles that had a ratio of 1 : 1.23[36] and his map of Dorset had three scales with a ratio of 1 : 1.23 : 1.41.[37] In both cases, the smallest mile appears to be the statute mile.

Scots mile[edit]

The Royal Mile in Edinburgh is roughly a Scots mile long.

The Royal Mile in Edinburgh, i.e., from the Castle down to Holyrood Abbey, is approximately the same length as the Scots mile.[38] English miles were imposed in 1824 by an Act of Parliament.

Equivalent to:

Robert Burns spoke of Scots miles in the first verse of "Tam o' Shanter":

While we sit bousing at the nappy,
An' getting fou and unco happy,
We think na on the lang Scots miles,
The mosses, waters, slaps and stiles,
That lie between us and our hame,
Where sits our sulky, sullen dame,
Gathering her brows like gathering storm,
Nursing her wrath to keep it warm.

The Scots mile was longer than the English mile, but varied in length from place to place.[39] It was formally abolished by an Act of the Parliament of Scotland in 1685,[40] and again by the Treaty of Union with England in 1707,[41] but continued in use as a customary unit during the 18th century. It was obsolete by the time of its final abolition by the Weights and Measures Act 1824.[39] An estimate of its length can be made from other Scots units: in Scots, the rod was usually called the fall or faw, and was equal to six ells of 37 inches.[42] As there are 320 rods in a mile and 1.0016 Imperial inches in a Scots inch, this would make the Scots mile equal to 5,920 Scots feet (1,976.5 imperial yards, 1.12 statute miles). Other estimates are similar.[34][43]

Irish mile[edit]

The Irish mile (Irish: míle Gaelach) was longer still.[35] In Elizabethan times, four Irish miles was often equated to five English, though whether the statute mile or the "old English" mile is unclear.[35] By the seventeenth century, it was 2,240 yards (6,720 feet, 1.27 statute miles, 2,048 metres).[26][44][45] Again, the difference arose from a different length of the rod in Ireland (usually called the perch locally): 21 feet as opposed to 16½ feet in England.[44][46]

From 1774, through the 1801 union with Britain, until the 1820s, the grand juries of 25 Irish counties commissioned surveyed maps at scales of one or two inches per Irish mile.[47][48] Scottish engineer William Bald's County Mayo maps of 1809–30 were drawn in English miles and rescaled to Irish miles for printing.[49] The HowthDublin Post Office extension of the London–Holyhead turnpike engineered by Thomas Telford had mileposts in English miles.[50] Although legally abolished by the Weights and Measures Act 1824, the Irish mile was used till 1856 by the Irish Post Office.[51] The Ordnance Survey of Ireland, from its establishment in 1824, used English miles.[52]

In 1894, Alfred Austin complained after visiting Ireland that "the Irish mile is a fine source of confusion when distances are computed. In one county a mile means a statute mile, in another it means an Irish mile".[53] When the Oxford English Dictionary definition of "mile" was published in 1906,[54] it described the Irish mile as "still in rustic use".[26] A 1902 guide says regarding milestones, "Counties Dublin, Waterford, Cork, Antrim, Down, and Armagh use English, but Donegal Irish Miles; the other counties either have both, or only one or two roads have Irish".[55] Variation in signage persisted till the publication of standardised road traffic regulations by the Irish Free State in 1926.[56] In 1937, a man prosecuted for driving outside the 15-mile limit of his licence offered the unsuccessful defence that, since the state was independent, the limit ought to use Irish miles, "just as no one would ever think of selling land other than as Irish acres".[57] A 1965 proposal by two TDs to replace statute miles with Irish miles in a clause of the Road Transport Act was rejected.[58] The term is now obsolete as a specific measure,[59] though an "Irish mile" colloquially is a long but vague distance akin to a "country mile".[60]

Statute mile[edit]

The statute mile was so-named because it was defined by an English Act of Parliament in 1593, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. The statute states: "A Mile ſhall contain eight Furlongs, every Furlong forty Poles, and every Pole ſhall contain ſixteen Foot and an half." (35 Eliz. cap. 6.)[61] It was thus 1760 yards (5280 feet, about 1609 metres).[34] For surveying, the statute mile is divided into eight furlongs; each furlong into ten chains; each chain into four rods (also known as poles or perches); and each rod into 25 links. This makes the rod equal to 5½ yards or 16½ feet in both Imperial and U.S. usage.

The exact conversion of the mile to SI units depends on which definition of the yard is used. Different English-speaking countries maintained independent physical standards for the yard that were found to differ by small, but measurable, amounts and even to slowly shorten in length.[62] The U.S. redefined the U.S. yard in 1893, but this resulted in U.S. and Imperial measures of distance having very slightly different lengths. The difference was resolved in 1959 with the definition of the international yard in terms of the metre by Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, the UK and the U.S.[63] The "international mile" of 1760 international yards is exactly 1609.344 metres.[64]

The difference from the previous standards was 2 ppm, or about 3.2 millimetres (⅛ inch) per mile. The U.S. standard was slightly longer and the old Imperial standards had been slightly shorter than the international mile. When the international mile was introduced in English-speaking countries, the basic geodetic datum in America was the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27). This had been constructed by triangulation based on the definition of the foot in the Mendenhall Order of 1893, with 1 foot = 12003937 metres and the definition was retained for data derived from NAD27, but renamed the U.S. survey foot to distinguish it from the international foot.[65]

The U.S. survey mile is 5280 survey feet, or about 1609.347 218 694 metres.[66] In the U.S., statute mile formally refers to the survey mile,[67] but for most purposes, the difference between the survey mile and the international mile is insignificant—one international mile is exactly 0.999 998 of a U.S survey mile—so statute mile can be used for either. But in some cases, such as in the U.S. State Plane Coordinate Systems (SPCSs), which can stretch over hundreds of miles,[68] the accumulated difference can be significant, so it is important to note that the reference is to the U.S. survey mile.

The North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83), which replaced the NAD27, is defined in meters. State Plane Coordinate Systems were then updated, but the National Geodetic Survey left individual states to decide which (if any) definition of the foot they would use. All State Plane Coordinate Systems are defined in meters, and 42 of the 50 states only use the metre-based State Plane Coordinate Systems. However, eight states also have State Plane Coordinate Systems defined in feet, seven of them in U.S. Survey feet and one in international feet.[68] State legislation in the U.S. is important for determining which conversion factor from the metric datum is to be used for land surveying and real estate transactions, even though the difference (2 ppm) is hardly significant, given the precision of normal surveying measurements over short distances (usually much less than a mile). Twenty-four states have legislated that surveying measures be based on the U.S. survey foot, eight have legislated that they be based on the international foot, and eighteen have not specified which conversion factor to use.[68]

The old Imperial value of the yard was used in converting measurements to metric values in India in a 1976 Act of the Indian Parliament.[69] However, the current National Topographic Database of the Survey of India is based on the metric WGS-84 datum,[70] which is also used by the Global Positioning System.

Metric mile[edit]

Main article: Metric mile

The term metric mile is used in sports such as track and field athletics and speed skating to denote a distance of 1500 metres (about 4921 ft). In United States high school competition, the term is sometimes used for a race of 1,600 metres (about 5249 ft).[71]

Nautical mile[edit]

On the utility of the nautical mile
Each circle shown is a great circle– the analog of a line in spherical trigonometry– and hence the shortest path connecting two points on the globular surface. Meridians are great circles that pass through the poles.
Main article: Nautical mile

The nautical mile was originally defined as one minute of arc along a meridian of the Earth.[72] Navigators use dividers to step off the distance between two points on the navigational chart, then place the open dividers against the minutes-of-latitude scale at the edge of the chart, and read off the distance in nautical miles.[73] The Earth is not perfectly spherical but an oblate spheroid, so the length of a minute of latitude increases by 1% from the equator to the poles. Using the WGS84 ellipsoid, the commonly accepted Earth model for many purposes today, one minute of latitude at the WGS84 equator is 6,046 feet and at the poles is 6,107.5 feet. The average is about 6,076 feet (about 1,852 metres or 1.15 statute miles).

In the United States the nautical mile was defined in the 19th century as 6,080.2 feet (1,853.249 m), whereas in the United Kingdom, the Admiralty nautical mile was defined as 6,080 feet (1,853.184 m) and was about one minute of latitude in the latitudes of the south of the UK. Other nations had different definitions of the nautical mile, but it is now internationally defined to be exactly 1,852 metres.[74]

Related nautical units[edit]

The nautical mile per hour is known as the knot. Nautical miles and knots are almost universally used for aeronautical and maritime navigation, because of their relationship with degrees and minutes of latitude and the convenience of using the latitude scale on a map for distance measuring.

The data mile is used in radar-related subjects and is equal to 6,000 feet (1.8288 kilometres).[75] The radar mile is a unit of time (in the same way that the light year is a unit of distance), equal to the time required for a radar pulse to travel a distance of two miles (one mile each way). Thus, the radar statute mile is 10.8 μs and the radar nautical mile is 12.4 μs.[76]

Abbreviation and symbol[edit]

There have been several abbreviations for mile (with and without trailing period): mi, ml, m, M. In the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi,[77] which avoids confusion with metres, millilitres, etc., but in everyday usage (at least in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada), units such as miles per hour and miles per gallon are almost always abbreviated as mph or mpg (rather than mi/h or mi/gal).

Grid system[edit]

Cities in the continental United States often have streets laid out by miles. Detroit, Indianapolis, Chicago, Phoenix, Philadelphia, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, and Miami, are several examples. Typically the largest streets are about a mile apart, with others at half-mile and quarter-mile intervals.[citation needed] In the Manhattan borough of New York City "streets" are close to 20 per mile, while the major numbered "avenues" are about six per mile. (Centerline to centerline, 42nd St to 22nd St is supposed to be 5250 feet while 42nd to 62nd is supposed to be[clarification needed] 5276 ft 8 in.)[citation needed]

Comparison table[edit]

A comparison of the different lengths for a "mile", in different countries and at different times in history, is given in the table below. Leagues are also included in this list because, in terms of length, they fall in between the short West European miles and the long North, Central and Eastern European miles.

Length (m)NameCountry usedFromToDefinitionRemarks
01,482mille passus, milliariumRoman EmpireAncient Roman units of measurement
01,500Persian milePersia
01,524London mileEngland
0 1,609.3426(statute) mileGreat Britain159219591760 yardsOver the course of time, the length of a yard changed several times and consequently so did the English, and from 1824, the imperial mile. The statute mile was introduced in 1592 during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I
01,609.344mileinternational1959today1760 yardsUntil 1 July 1959 the imperial mile was a standard length worldwide. The length given in metres is exact.
01,609.3472(statute) mileUnited States1893today1760 yardsFrom 1959 also called the U.S. Survey Mile. From then its only utility has been land survey, before it was the standard mile. From 1893 its exact length in meters was: 3600/3937 x 1760
01,852nautical mileinternationaltoday1 minute of arcMeasured at a circumference of 40,000 km. Abbreviation: NM, nm
01,852.3(for comparison)1 meridian minute
01,853.181nautical mileTurkey
01,855.4(for comparison)1 equatorial minuteAlthough the NM was defined on the basis of the minute, it varies from the equatorial minute, because at that time the circumferences of the equator was only able to be estimated at 40,000 km
02,220Gallo-Roman leagueGallo-Roman culture1.5 milesUnder the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus’, this replaced the Roman mile as the official unit of distance in the Gallic and Germanic provinces, although there were regional and temporal variations.[79]
02,470Sardinia, Piemont
03,898French lieue (post league)France2000 "body lengths"
04,000general or metric league
04,190legueMexico[80]= 2500 tresas = 5000 varas
04,444.8landleuge1/25° of a circle of longitude
04,452.2lieue communeFranceUnits of measurement in France before the French Revolution
04,513leguaChile,[80] (Guatemala, Haiti)= 36 cuadros = 5400 varas
04,828English land leagueEngland3 miles
Germanic rasta, also doppelleuge
(double league)
05,000légua novaPortugal[80]
05,196leguaBolivia[80]= 40 ladres
05,152legua argentinaArgentina, Buenos Aires[80]= 6000 varas
05,200Bolivian leguaBolivia
05,500Portuguese leguaPortugal
05,510Ecuadorian leguaEcuador
(state league)
05,556Seeleuge (nautical league)1/20° of a circle of longitude
3 nautical miles
05,570leguaSpain and ChileSpanish customary units
05,572leguaKolumbien[80]= 3 Millas
05,572.7leguePeru[80]= 20,000 feet
05,572.7legua antigua
old league
Spain[80]= 3 millas = 15,000 feet
05,590léguaBrazil[80]= 5,000 varas = 2,500 bracas
05,600Brazilian leguaBrazil
05,840[81]Dutch mileHolland
06,197légua antigaPortugal[80]= 3 milhas = 24 estadios
06,687.24legua nueva
new league, since 1766
Spain[80]= 8000 Varas
(state survey mile)
07,409(for comparison)4 meridian minutes
07,419.2Kingdom of Hanover
07,419.4Duchy of Brunswick
07,420.439geographic mile1/15 equatorial grads
07,421.6(for comparison)4 equatorial minutes
07,467.6Russia7 werstObsolete Russian units of measurement
07,500kleine / neue Postmeile
(small/new postal mile)
Saxony1840German Empire, North German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Russia
(German state mile)
Denmark, Hamburg, Prussiaprimarlly for Denmark defined by Ole Rømer
(post mile)
Austro-HungaryAustrian units of measurement
07,850MilăRomaniaActually, Romania uses the International Nautical Mile, i.e. 1,852m and called Milă Marină[82]
09,062mittlere Post- / Polizeimeile
(middle post mile or police mile)
09,206.3Electorate of Hesse
09,261.4(for comparison)5 meridian minutes
09,277(for comparison)5 equatorial minutes
09,323alte Landmeile
(old state mile)
09,347alte Landmeile
(old state mile)
10,000metric mile, Scandinavian mileScandinaviastill commonly used today, e. g. for road distances.; equates to the myriameter
10,044große Meile
(great mile)
11,113.7(for comparison)6 meridian minutes
11,132.4(for comparison)6 equatorial minutes
11,299milNorwaywas equivalent to 3000 Rhenish rods.

Similar units:


Even in English-speaking countries that have moved from the Imperial to the metric system (for example, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand), the mile is still used in a variety of idioms. These include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., s.v. mile 1.
  2. ^ File:Naypyitaw Tollbooth.jpg
  3. ^ "Speed limits". UK Metric Association. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  4. ^ Maximum posted speed limits (US) IIHS. Retrieved 14 September 2011
  5. ^ Hayner, Jeff (2012-11-29). "ASAA planning 1.2 mile swim in Pago Pago harbor". Samoa News. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  6. ^ "The Nassau Guardian". The Nassau Guardian. 2012-08-29. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  7. ^ Jerome Williams (2013-08-30). "Pawpa Brown Race results". Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  8. ^ "Mt. bikers compete in Anegada". 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  9. ^ a b "Paddling 300 miles for NCVO". 2013-06-04. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  10. ^ "Bronze medal for Falklands football at Island Games in Bermuda". 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  11. ^ "Find the culprit!!!". Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  12. ^ "Navy evacuates patient from cruise ship 50 miles off Guam". 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  13. ^ l
  14. ^ [1][dead link]
  15. ^ "The Voice - The national newspaper of St. Lucia since 1885". 2008-02-08. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  16. ^ "Peace Corps Volunteer runs 49 miles from Petit Bordel to Georgetown". 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  17. ^ "And I would walk 50 miles...". 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  18. ^ "104 Square Miles, but is it ours?". The St. Kitts-Nevis Observer. 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  19. ^ "Provo has a new club". 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  20. ^ AARON GRAY (Daily News Staff) (2012-02-27). "Butler outduels archrival to win 8 Tuff Miles". Virgin Islands Daily News. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  21. ^ Weights and Measures Act, accessed February 2012, Act current to 2012-01-18. Canadian units (5) The Canadian units of measurement are as set out and defined in Schedule II, and the symbols and abbreviations therefor are as added pursuant to subparagraph 6(1)(b)(ii).
  22. ^ Weights and Measures Act
  23. ^ Transportation Safety Board of Canada, accessed February 2012, Rail Report - 2010 - Report Number R10E0096. Other Factual Information (See Figure 1). 2. Assignment 602 travelled approximately 12 car lengths into track VC-64 and at a speed of 9 mph struck a stationary cut of 46 empty cars (with the air brakes applied) that had been placed in the track about 2½ hours earlier. Canadian railways have not been metricated and therefore continue to measure trackage in miles and speed in miles per hour.
  24. ^ Hastings Racecourse Fact Book Like Canadian railways, Canadian race tracks etc, have not been metricated and continue to measure distance in miles, furlongs, and yards (see page 18 of the fact book).
  25. ^ Environment Canada, accessed February 2012. Environment Canada (Canada's government sanctioned weather bureau), unlike Australia's Bureau of Meteorology etc, offers an imperial option alongside the metric. This is in full compliance with Canadian law and would not otherwise be available if the mile (and indeed all other imperial measurements) did not still have legal recognition in Canada.
  26. ^ a b c T.F. Hoad, ed. (1996). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283098-8. 
  27. ^ Karl Ernst Georges, ed. (1910). Kleines deutsch-lateinisches Handwörterbuch [Small German-Latin Pocket Dictionary] (in German). Hannover and Leipzig: Hahnsche Buchhandlung. p. 1660. Retrieved May 26, 2011. 
  28. ^ Smith (1875), p. 171.
  29. ^ a b c Rowlett (2005). s.v. mil [4].
  30. ^ Rowlett (2005), s.v meile.
  31. ^ Rowlett (2005). s.v. milha.
  32. ^ (Croatian) "Centuries of Natural Science in Croatia : Theory and Application". Kartografija i putopisi.
  33. ^ (Croatian) Vijenac Mrvice s banskoga stola
  34. ^ a b c Klein (1974, corrected 1988), p. 69.
  35. ^ a b c Andrews, J.H. (September 15, 2003). "Sir Richard Bingham and the Mapping of Western Ireland". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (Dublin: Royal Irish Academy) 103C (3): 70, fn.35. 
  36. ^ Norgate, Martin; Norgate, Jean (1998). "Morden's Hampshire 1695". Old Hampshire Mapped. Hampshire County Council. ISBN 18597513422 Check |isbn= value (help). Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  37. ^ Morden, Robert (1695). "Dorsetshire". Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  38. ^ Edinburgh 2000 visitors' guide. Collins. 1999. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-004-49017-5. 
  39. ^ a b "mile". Dictionary of the Scottish Language – Scottish National Dictionary. 
  40. ^ "Act for a standard of miles" (June 16, 1685). APS viii: 494, c.59. RPS 1685/4/83.
  41. ^ Union with England Act 1707 (c. 7), art. 17.
  42. ^ "fall, faw". Dictionary of the Scottish Language – Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue. 
  43. ^ James A. H. Murray, ed. (1908). "mile". A New Dictionary of English on Historical Principles. Vol. 6, part 2: M. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 436. 
  44. ^ a b Petty, William (1769) [1691]. "XIII: Several miscellany remarks and intimations concerning Ireland, and the several matters aforementioned". Tracts, chiefly relating to Ireland. The political anatomy of Ireland (2nd ed.). Dublin: Boulter Grierson. p. 375. "Eleven Irish miles makes 14 English, according to the proportion of the Irish perch of 21 feet, to the English of 16 and a half." 
  45. ^ Ordnance Survey Ireland. "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved February 17, 2009. 
  46. ^ Rowlett, Russ (2001). "Irish mile". How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 
  47. ^ Andrews, John Harwood (1975). A Paper Landscape – The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century Ireland. Clarendon Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-19-823209-8. 
  48. ^ Andrews, John; Ferguon, Paul (1995). "22: Maps of Ireland". In Helen Wallis, Anita McConnell. Historian's Guide to Early British Maps: A Guide to the Location of Pre-1900 Maps of the British Isles Preserved in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Cambridge University Press. pp. 72–4. ISBN 0-521-55152-8. 
  49. ^ Storrie, Margaret C. (September 1969). "William Bald, F. R. S. E., c. 1789-1857; Surveyor, Cartographer and Civil Engineer". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society) (47): 205–231. JSTOR 621743. 
  50. ^ Montgomery, Bob (November 17, 2004). "Past Imperfect; Milestones: Silent Witness to Our Transport History". The Irish Times. p. 34. Retrieved May 25, 2009. 
  51. ^ Austin Bourke, P. M. (March 1965). "Notes on Some Agricultural Units of Measurement in Use in Pre-Famine Ireland". Irish Historical Studies (Irish Historical Studies Publications Ltd) 14 (55): 236–245. JSTOR 30005524. 
  52. ^ Smith, Angèle (1998). "Landscapes of Power in Nineteenth Century Ireland: Archaeology and Ordnance Survey Maps". Archaeological Dialogues (Cambridge University Press) 5 (5): 69–84. doi:10.1017/S1380203800001173. 
  53. ^ Austin, Alfred (1900). Spring and Autumn in Ireland. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons. p. 4. Retrieved May 25, 2009. 
  54. ^ McMorris, Jenny; main author Lynda Mugglestone (2000). "Appendix I: OED Sections and Parts". Lexicography and the OED: Pioneers in the Untrodden Forest. Oxford University Press. p. 230. ISBN 0-19-823784-7. "Mesne–Misbirth December 1906" 
  55. ^ Inglis, Harry R. G. (1902). 'Royal' Road Book of Ireland. Edinburgh: Gall and Inglis. p. 14. 
  56. ^ "Safer roads". The Irish Times. October 22, 1926. p. 6. Retrieved May 25, 2009. 
  57. ^ "Irish miles or English? Novel defence made at Bray". The Irish Times. November 27, 1937. p. 5. Retrieved May 25, 2009. 
  58. ^ "Carriage of Merchandise by Road". Questions. Oral Answers. Dáil Éireann debates 214. Oireachtas. February 23, 1965. p. col.836. Retrieved May 26, 2009. 
  59. ^ "mile, n.1 (draft revision)". Oxford English Dictionary (online edition). Oxford University Press. March 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2009. 
  60. ^ Green, Jonathon (2005). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang (2nd ed.). Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 774. ISBN 0-304-36636-6. 
  61. ^ Statutes at large from the first year of King Edward the fourth to the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth 2. 1763. p. 676. Retrieved 29 November 2011. 
  62. ^ Bigg, P. H.; Anderton, Pamela (1964). "The United Kingdom Standards of the Yard in Terms of the Metre". British Journal of Applied Physics 15 (3): 291–300. Bibcode:1964BJAP...15..291B. doi:10.1088/0508-3443/15/3/308. 
  63. ^ Barbrow & Judson, (1976), pp. 16–17, 20.
  64. ^ 1,760 yards × 0.9144 m/yard, according to the Weights & Measures Act 1985. Schedule I, Part VI
  65. ^ Astin, A. V.; Karo, H. A.; Mueller, F. H. (June 25, 1959). "Refinement of Values for the Yard and the Pound". Federal Register. Doc. 59-5442. When reading the document it helps to bear in mind that 999,998 = 3,937 × 254.
  66. ^ [2].
  67. ^ Thompson and Taylor 2008, B.6.
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  69. ^ Schedule to the Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976.
  70. ^ Survey of India, "National Map Policy – 2005".
  71. ^ Rowlett (2005). s.v. mile.
  72. ^ Maloney, (1978), 34.
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  74. ^ International Bureau of Weights and Measures (2006), The International System of Units (SI) (8th ed.), p. 127, ISBN 92-822-2213-6 .
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  76. ^ Rowlett (2005). s.v. radar mile.
  77. ^ Tina Butcher et al. ed. (2007) Appendix C, p. C-13.
  78. ^ Leopold Carl Bleibtreu: Handbuch der Münz-, Maß- und Gewichtskunde und des Wechsel-Staatspapier-, Bank- und Aktienwesens europäischer und außereuropäischer Länder und Städte. Verlag von J. Engelhorn, Stuttgart, 1863, p. 332
  79. ^ Pre-metric units of length
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  82. ^
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