Miglitol

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Miglitol
Structural diagram of miglitol.
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)
piperidine-3,4,5-triol
Clinical data
Trade namesGlyset
AHFS/Drugs.commonograph
MedlinePlusa601079
Licence dataUS FDA:link
Pregnancy cat.B3 (AU) B (US)
Legal status-only (US)
RoutesOral
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityDose-dependent
Protein bindingNegligible (<4.0%)
MetabolismNil
Half-life2 hours
ExcretionRenal (95%)
Identifiers
CAS number72432-03-2 YesY
ATC codeA10BF02
PubChemCID 441314
DrugBankDB00491
ChemSpider390074 YesY
UNII0V5436JAQW YesY
KEGGD00625 YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL1561 YesY
Chemical data
FormulaC8H17NO5 
Mol. mass207.224 g/mol
Physical data
Density1.458 g/cm³
Melt. point114 °C (237 °F)
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)
 
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Miglitol
Structural diagram of miglitol.
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)
piperidine-3,4,5-triol
Clinical data
Trade namesGlyset
AHFS/Drugs.commonograph
MedlinePlusa601079
Licence dataUS FDA:link
Pregnancy cat.B3 (AU) B (US)
Legal status-only (US)
RoutesOral
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityDose-dependent
Protein bindingNegligible (<4.0%)
MetabolismNil
Half-life2 hours
ExcretionRenal (95%)
Identifiers
CAS number72432-03-2 YesY
ATC codeA10BF02
PubChemCID 441314
DrugBankDB00491
ChemSpider390074 YesY
UNII0V5436JAQW YesY
KEGGD00625 YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL1561 YesY
Chemical data
FormulaC8H17NO5 
Mol. mass207.224 g/mol
Physical data
Density1.458 g/cm³
Melt. point114 °C (237 °F)
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Miglitol is an oral anti-diabetic drug that acts by inhibiting the ability of the patient to break down complex carbohydrates into glucose. It is primarily used in diabetes mellitus type 2 for establishing greater glycemic control by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates (such as disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides) into monosaccharides which can be absorbed by the body.[1]

Miglitol inhibits glycoside hydrolase enzymes called alpha-glucosidases. Since miglitol works by preventing digestion of carbohydrates, it lowers the degree of postprandial hyperglycemia. It must be taken at the start of main meals to have maximal effect.[2] Its effect will depend on the amount of non-monosaccharide carbohydrates in a person's diet.

In contrast to acarbose (another alpha-glucosidase inhibitor), miglitol is systemically absorbed; however, it is not metabolized and is excreted by the kidneys.

Recent study on rats by shrivastva et al showed that miglitol has antioxidant effect and hypocholesterolemic effect.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Migliotl: MedlinePlus Drug Information". MedlinePlus. National Institudes of Health. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  2. ^ "Glyset (miglitol) tablets label - Accessdata FDA". Drugs@FDA. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. August 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  3. ^ Shrivastava, Atul; Chaturvedi, Upma; Singh, Shiv Vardan; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Bhatia, Gitika (2013). "Lipid Lowering and Antioxidant Effect of Miglitol in Triton Treated Hyperlipidemic and High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats". Lipids 48 (6): 597–607. doi:10.1007/s11745-012-3753-3. PMID 23334955.