Midway Atoll

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Battle of Midway (Japanese air raid).jpg
Burning oil tanks during the Battle of Midway
LocationSand Island, Midway Islands, United States Minor Outlying Islands
ArchitectUnited States Navy
Governing bodyUnited States Fish and Wildlife Service[11]
NRHP Reference #87001302
Significant dates
Added to NRHP

May 28, 1987[12]

Designated NHLDMay 28, 1987[11]
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"Midway Island" redirects here. For the unincorporated community in Virginia, see Midway Island, Virginia. For the Canadian islands, see North Midway Island and South Midway Island.
Midway Atoll's location in the Pacific.

Midway Atoll (/ˈmɪdw/; also called Midway Island and Midway Islands; Hawaiian: Pihemanu Kauihelani) is a 2.4-square-mile (6.2 km2) atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. As its name suggests, Midway is roughly equidistant between North America and Asia, and lies almost halfway around the world longitudinally from Greenwich, UK. It is near the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago, about one-third of the way from Honolulu, Hawaii to Tokyo, Japan.

Midway Atoll is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States, and the former home of the Naval Air Facility Midway (former ICAO PMDY). For statistical purposes, Midway is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands. It is less than 140 nautical miles (259 km; 161 mi) east of the International Date Line, about 2,800 nautical miles (5,200 km; 3,200 mi) west of San Francisco, and 2,200 nautical miles (4,100 km; 2,500 mi) east of Tokyo. The Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, encompassing 590,991.50 acres (239,165.77 ha)[1] of land and water (mostly water) in the surrounding area, is administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Approximately 40 to 60 members of the Service live on the Atoll.

Midway was the focal point of the Battle of Midway, one of the most important battles of the Pacific Campaign in World War II. The battle, fought between June 4 and 6, 1942 near the islands, saw the United States Navy defeat a Japanese attack against the Midway Islands, marking a turning point in the war in the Pacific Theater.

Travel to the atoll in 2013 was not possible even through organized tour companies or as a Fish and Wildlife Service volunteer. Due to budget cuts in the US government's 2013 fiscal budget, visitor and volunteer programs have been suspended. The visitor program (which reopened the atoll to visitors in January 2008) hosted 332 visitors in 2012.[2][3][4][5][6] The tours have focused on the ecology of Midway and its military history. The economy is derived solely from governmental sources and tourist fees. All food and manufactured goods are imported. The refuge and most of its surrounding area are part of the larger Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

Geography and geology[edit]

Sand Island1,200486
Eastern Island334135
Spit Island62
Midway Atoll1,540623

Midway Atoll is part of a chain of volcanic islands, atolls, and seamounts extending from Hawaii up to the tip of the Aleutian Islands and known as the Hawaii-Emperor chain. It consists of a ring-shaped barrier reef and several sand islets. The two significant pieces of land, Sand Island and Eastern Island, provide a habitat for millions of seabirds. The island sizes are shown in the table above, but according to other sources[citation needed], Sand Island measures 1,250 acres (510 ha) in area and the lagoon within the fringing rim of coral reef 9,900 acres (4,000 ha). The atoll, which has a small population (approximately 60 in 2014,[7] but no indigenous inhabitants), is designated an insular area under the authority of the United States Department of the Interior.

Midway was formed roughly 28 million years ago when the seabed underneath it was over the same hotspot from which the Island of Hawaii is now being formed. In fact, Midway was once a shield volcano perhaps as large as the island of Lana'i. As the volcano piled up lava flows building the island, its weight depressed the crust and the island slowly subsided over a period of millions of years, a process known as isostatic adjustment.

As the island subsided, a coral reef around the former volcanic island was able to maintain itself near sea level by growing upwards. That reef is now over 516 feet (157 m) thick[8] (in the lagoon, 1,261 feet (384 m), comprised mostly post-Miocene limestones with a layer of upper Miocene (Tertiary g) sediments and lower Miocene (Tertiary e) limestones at the bottom overlying the basalts). What remains today is a shallow water atoll about 6 miles (9.7 km) across.


The atoll has some 20 miles (32 km) of roads, 4.8 miles (7.7 km) of pipelines, one port on Sand Island (World Port Index Nr. 56328, MIDWAY ISLAND), and an airfield. As of 2004, Henderson Field airfield at Midway Atoll, with its one active runway (rwy 06/24, around 8,000 feet (2,400 m) long) has been designated as an emergency diversion airport for aircraft flying under ETOPS rules. Although the FWS closed all airport operations on November 22, 2004, public access to the island was restored from March 2008.[9]

Eastern Island Airstrip is a disused airfield in use by U.S. forces during the Battle of Midway. It is mostly constructed of Marsden Matting and was built by the United States Navy Seabees.

Unique among the Hawaiian islands, Midway observes UTC-11 (also known as Samoa Time), eleven hours behind Coordinated Universal Time and one hour behind the state of Hawaii.

360 degree panoramic view the low lying landscape of Eastern Island, Midway Atoll


Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  

Midway has no indigenous inhabitants and was uninhabited until the nineteenth century.

Nineteenth century[edit]

The atoll was sighted on July 5, 1859, by Captain N.C. Middlebrooks, though he was most commonly known as Captain Brooks, of the sealing ship Gambia. The islands were named the "Middlebrook Islands" or the "Brook Islands". Brooks claimed Midway for the United States under the Guano Islands Act of 1856, which authorized Americans to occupy uninhabited islands temporarily to obtain guano. On August 28, 1867, Captain William Reynolds of the USS Lackawanna formally took possession of the atoll for the United States;[10] the name changed to "Midway" some time after this. The atoll became the first Pacific island annexed by the U.S. government, as the Unincorporated Territory of Midway Island, and administered by the United States Navy. Midway is the only island in the entire Hawaiian archipelago that was not later part of the State of Hawaii.

The buildings of the Commercial Pacific Cable Company date back to 1903 (2008).

The first attempt at settlement was in 1871, when the Pacific Mail Steamship Company started a project of blasting and dredging a ship channel through the reef to the lagoon using money put up by the United States Congress. The purpose was to establish a mid-ocean coaling station to avoid the high taxes imposed at ports controlled by the Hawaiians. The project was shortly a complete failure, and the USS Saginaw evacuated the last of the channel project's work force in October 1871. The ship ran aground at Kure Atoll, stranding everyone. All were rescued with the exception of four of the five persons who sailed to Kauai in an open boat to seek help.

Early twentieth century[edit]

Midway Atoll in November 1941, looking west.

In 1903, workers for the Commercial Pacific Cable Company took up residence on the island as part of the effort to lay a trans-Pacific telegraph cable. These workers introduced many non-native species to the island, including the canary, cycad, Norfolk Island pine, she-oak, coconut, and various deciduous trees; along with ants, cockroaches, termites, centipedes, and countless others.

Later that year, President Theodore Roosevelt placed the atoll under the control of the United States Navy, which on January 20, 1903 opened a radio station in response to complaints from cable company workers about Japanese squatters and poachers. Between 1904 and 1908 Roosevelt stationed 21 Marines on the island to end wanton destruction of bird life and keep Midway safe as a U.S. possession, protecting the cable station.

In 1935, operations began for the Martin M-130 flying boats operated by Pan American Airlines. The M-130s island-hopped from San Francisco to China, providing the fastest and most luxurious route to the Far East and bringing tourists to Midway until 1941. Only the very wealthy could afford a trip, which in the 1930s cost more than three times the annual salary of an average American.

With Midway on the route between Honolulu and Wake Island, the flying boats landed in the atoll and pulled up to a float offshore in the lagoon. Tourists transferred to a small powerboat that ferried them to a pier, then rode in "woody" wagons to the Pan Am Hotel or the "Gooneyville Lodge", named after the ubiquitous "Gooney birds" (albatrosses).

World War II[edit]

Battle of Midway (Japanese air raid).jpg
Burning oil tanks during the Battle of Midway
LocationSand Island, Midway Islands, United States Minor Outlying Islands
ArchitectUnited States Navy
Governing bodyUnited States Fish and Wildlife Service[11]
NRHP Reference #87001302
Significant dates
Added to NRHP

May 28, 1987[12]

Designated NHLDMay 28, 1987[11]
Main article: Battle of Midway

The location of Midway in the Pacific became important to the military. Midway was a convenient refueling stop on transpacific flights, and was also an important stop for Navy ships. Beginning in 1940, as tensions with the Japanese were rising, Midway was deemed second only to Pearl Harbor in importance to protecting the U.S. west coast. Airstrips, gun emplacements and a seaplane base quickly materialized on the tiny atoll.[14]

The channel was widened, and Naval Air Station Midway was completed. Architect Albert Kahn designed the Officer's quarters, the mall and several other hangars and buildings. Midway was also an important submarine base.[14]

Midway's importance to the U.S. was brought into focus on December 7, 1941 with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Midway was attacked for the first time on December 7, 1941, and the Japanese force was successfully repulsed in the first American victory of the war. A Japanese submarine bombarded Midway on February 10, 1942.[14]

Four months later, on June 4, 1942, a naval battle near Midway resulted in the U.S. Navy exacting a devastating defeat on the Japanese Navy. Four Japanese fleet aircraft carriers, the Akagi, Kaga, Hiryu and Soryu, were sunk, along with the loss of hundreds of Japanese aircraft, losses that the Japanese would never be able to replace. The U.S. lost the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-5), along with a number of its carrier- and land-based aircraft that were either shot down by Japanese forces or bombed on the ground at the airfields. The Battle of Midway was, by most accounts, the beginning of the end of the Japanese Navy's control of the Pacific Ocean.

Korean and Vietnam Wars[edit]

From August 1, 1941 to 1945, it was occupied by U.S. military forces. In 1950, the Navy decommissioned Naval Air Station Midway, only to re-commission it again to support the Korean War. Thousands of troops on ships and aircraft stopped at Midway for refueling and emergency repairs. From 1968 to September 10, 1993, Midway Island was a Naval Air Facility.

During the Cold War, the U.S. established an underwater listening post at Midway to track Soviet submarines. The facility remained secret until its demolition at the end of the Cold War. U.S. Navy WV-2 (EC-121K) "Willy Victor" radar aircraft flew night and day as an extension of the Distant Early Warning Line, and antenna fields covered the islands.

With about 3,500 people living on Sand Island, Midway also supported the U.S. troops during the Vietnam War. In June 1969, President Richard Nixon held a secret meeting with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu at the Officer-in-Charge house or "Midway House".

Civilian handover[edit]

In 1978, the Navy downgraded Midway from a Naval Air Station to a Naval Air Facility and large numbers of personnel and dependents began leaving the island. With the war in Vietnam over, and with the introduction of reconnaissance satellites and nuclear submarines, Midway's significance to U.S. national security was diminished. The World War II facilities at Sand and Eastern Islands were listed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 28, 1987 and were simultaneously added as a National Historic Landmark.[11]

As part of the Base Realignment and Closure process, the Navy facility on Midway has been operationally closed since September 10, 1993, although the Navy assumed responsibility for cleaning up environmental contamination at Naval Air Facility Midway.

2011 tsunami[edit]

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March caused many deaths among the bird population on Midway.[15] It was reported that a 1.5 m (5 ft) high wave completely submerged the atoll's reef inlets and Spit Island, killing more than 110,000 nesting seabirds at the National Wildlife Refuge.[16] However, scientists on the island do not think it will have long-term negative impacts on the bird populations.

A U.S. Geological Survey study found that the Midway Atoll, Laysan, and Pacific islands like them could become inundated and unfit to live on during this century.[17][18]

National Wildlife Refuge[edit]

Video of Spinner Dolphins taken at Midway Atoll

Midway was designated an overlay National Wildlife Refuge on April 22, 1988 while still under the primary jurisdiction of the Navy.

From August 1996, the general public could visit the atoll through study ecotours.[19] This program ended in 2002,[20] but another visitor program was approved and began operating in March 2008.[9][21] This program operated through 2012, but was suspended for 2013 due to budget cuts.[22]

On October 31, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 13022, which transferred the jurisdiction and control of the atoll to the United States Department of the Interior. The FWS assumed management of the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. The last contingent of Navy personnel left Midway on June 30, 1997 after an ambitious environmental cleanup program was completed.

On September 13, 2000, Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt designated the Wildlife Refuge as the Battle of Midway National Memorial.[23]

On June 15, 2006, President George W. Bush designated the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as a national monument. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument encompasses 105,564 square nautical miles (139,798 sq mi; 362,074 km2), and includes 3,910 square nautical miles (5,178 sq mi; 13,411 km2) of coral reef habitat.[24] The Monument also includes the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, and the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.

In 2007, the Monument's name was changed to Papahānaumokuākea (Hawaiian pronunciation: [ˈpɐpəˈhaːnɔuˈmokuˈaːkeə]) Marine National Monument.[25] The National Monument is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the State of Hawaii.


Albatrosses at Midway Atoll.

Midway Atoll is a critical habitat in the central Pacific Ocean. A number of native species rely on the island which is now home to 67–70% of the world's Laysan Albatross population, and 34–39% of the global Black-footed Albatross.[26]

While Midway supports nearly three million birds, each seabird species has carved out a specific site on the atoll in which to nest. Seventeen different species of seabird can be found, the rarest of which is the Short-tailed Albatross, otherwise known as the “Golden Gooney.” Fewer than 2,200 are believed to exist due to excessive feather hunting in the late nineteenth century.[27] The Fish and Wildlife Service has recently re-introduced the endangered Laysan Duck (Midway is part of its assumed pre-historic range) to the Atoll.

Over 250 different species of marine life are found in the 300,000 acres (120,000 ha) of lagoon and surrounding waters. The critically endangered Hawaiian monk seals raise their pups on the beaches. Monk seals are benthic foragers and rely on the Midway Atoll’s reef fish, squid, octopus and crustaceans. Green sea turtles, another threatened species, occasionally nest on the island. The first was found in 2006 on Spit Island and another in 2007 on Sand Island. A resident pod of 300 spinner dolphins live in the lagoons and nearshore waters.[28]

The islands of Midway Atoll have been extensively altered as a result of human habitation. Starting in 1869 with the project to blast the reefs and create a port on Sand Island, the ecology of Midway has been changing.

A number of invasive exotics have been introduced. Ironwood trees from Australia were planted to act as windbreaks. Seventy-five percent of the 200 species of plants on Midway were introduced. Recent efforts have focused on removing non-native plant species.

Lead paint on the buildings still poses an environmental hazard (avian lead poisoning) to the albatross population of the island. The cost of stripping the paint is estimated to be $5 million.[29] Paint removal is expected to be finished by 2017.[30]


Marine debris with Laysan Albatross chicks.

Midway Atoll, in common with all the Hawaiian Islands, receives substantial amounts of marine debris from the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Consisting of ninety percent plastic, this debris accumulates on the beaches of Midway. This garbage represents a hazard to the bird population of the island. Twenty tons of plastic debris washes up on Midway every year with five tons of that debris being fed to Albatross chicks.[31] The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service estimates at least 100 lbs of plastic washes up every week.[32]

Of the 1.5 million Laysan Albatrosses that inhabit Midway, nearly all are found to have plastic in their digestive system.[33] Approximately one-third of the chicks die.[34] The reasons for these deaths is attributed to the albatrosses confusing brightly colored plastic with marine animals (such as squid and fish) for food.[35]

Because albatross chicks do not develop the reflex to regurgitate until they are four months old, they cannot expel the plastic pieces. Albatrosses are not the only species to suffer from the plastic pollution; sea turtles and monk seals also consume the debris.[35] All kinds of plastic items wash upon the shores, from cigarette lighters to toothbrushes and toys. An albatross on Midway can have up to 50% of its intestinal tract filled with plastic.[32]


The usual method of reaching Sand Island, Midway Atoll's only populated island, is on chartered aircraft landing at Sand Island's Henderson Field.

Henderson Field functions as an emergency diversion point runway for transpacific flights.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ USFWS Lands Report, September 30, 2007
  2. ^ Visiting Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge[dead link]. FWS Website, November 16, 2012.
  3. ^ Volunteer at Midway Atoll NWR[dead link]. FWS Website, November 16, 2012.
  4. ^ [1]. Star-Advertiser, November 16, 2012
  5. ^ [2]. Galapagos Travel Website, November 16, 2012.
  6. ^ [3]. Photo Safaris Website, November 16, 2012.
  7. ^ Hawaii: Midway Atoll - TripAdvisor
  8. ^ Ladd, Tracey, & Gross, 1967
  9. ^ a b "Midway Atoll Program to Reopen in March" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. January 11, 2008. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. 
  10. ^ "GAO/OGC-98-5 - U.S. Insular Areas: Application of the U.S. Constitution". U.S. Government Printing Office. November 7, 1997. Retrieved March 23, 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c "World War II Facilities at Midway". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  12. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2008-04-15. 
  13. ^ NHL designations
  14. ^ a b c History.com — History Made Every Day — American & World History
  15. ^ Brandon Keim (March 15, 2011). "Midway’s Albatrosses Survive the Tsunami". Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Tsunami washes away feathered victims west of Hawaii". CNN. 19 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  17. ^ "Storm Surges, Rising Seas Could Doom Pacific Islands This Century: Atolls and other low-lying islands in the Pacific Ocean may not slip under the waves but they will likely become uninhabitable due to overwashing waves" ClimateWire and Scientific American April 12, 2013
  18. ^ http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1069/of2013-1069.pdf
  19. ^ "Study Tours of Midway Island". New York Times. July 7, 1996. Retrieved September 16, 2007. 
  20. ^ Pandion Systems, Inc. (April 12, 2005). "Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Visitor program market analysis and feasibility study" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved September 16, 2007. [dead link] (Page 1).
  21. ^ "Interim Visitor Services Plan Approved". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. December 8, 2006. Retrieved September 16, 2007. [dead link]
  22. ^ Ecotourism ends at Midway Atoll Hawaii News, Honolulu, Honolulu News, Sports, Editorial, Features, Travel and Business - Honolulu Star-Advertiser - Hawaii Newspaper
  23. ^ Battle of Midway National Memorial. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. March 22, 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2012. [dead link]
  24. ^ Questions and Answers About the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument
  25. ^ "Papahānaumokuākea: A Sacred Name, A Sacred Place". Archived from the original on February 7, 2008. Retrieved March 29, 2008. ;
    Hawaiian pronunciation is given here.Archived March 6, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Midway's albatross population stable | The Honolulu Advertiser | Hawaii's Newspaper
  27. ^ "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service — Birds of Midway Atoll". August 19, 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2009. [dead link]
  28. ^ "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service — Marine Life of Midway Atoll". August 19, 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2009. [dead link]
  29. ^ Elizabeth Shogren (December 29, 2006). "Midway, a Protected Area, Is Also Underfunded". Retrieved September 16, 2007. 
  30. ^ "Settlement ensures federal cleanup of lead paint at Midway Atoll to protect Laysan Albatross". Associated Press. June 18, 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2012. [dead link]
  31. ^ Plastic-Filled Albatrosses Are Pollution Canaries in New Doc Wired. June 29, 2012. Accessed 6-11-13
  32. ^ a b "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service — Marine Debris: Cigarette Lighters and the Plastic Problem on Midway Atoll". Retrieved June 28, 2013. [dead link]
  33. ^ Chris Jordan (November 11, 2009). "Midway: Message from the Gyre". Retrieved November 13, 2009. 
  34. ^ "Q&A: Your Midway questions answered". BBC News. March 28, 2008. Retrieved April 5, 2010. 
  35. ^ a b McDonald, Mark. "The Fatal Shore Awash in Plastic". Retrieved June 28, 2013. 
  36. ^ "747 Delta Jet Lands At Midway Refuge" on YouTube. KITV 4 News. June 18, 2011.
  37. ^ "Incident: United B772 over Pacific on Jul 11th 2014, haze on board". Retrieved 11 July 2014. 


Further reading[edit]

Natural history[edit]

Military histories[edit]


  1. ^ Kellogg, P. P. (July 1961). "Review". The Auk (University of California Press on behalf of the American Ornithologists’ Union) 78 (3): 453–454. JSTOR 4082302. 
  2. ^ J. A. A. (July 1909). "Review: Mearns on Philippine Birds". The Auk (University of California Press on behalf of the American Ornithologists’ Union) 26 (3): 326–327. JSTOR 4070832. 
  3. ^ Howell, Thomas R. (January 1971). "Review: The Albatross of Midway Island". Ecology (Ecological Society of America) 52 (1): 191–192. JSTOR 1934758. 
  4. ^ Kenyon, Karl W. (June 1971). "Review". The Wilson Bulletin (Wilson Ornithological Society) 83 (2): 210–211. JSTOR 4160093. 
  5. ^ Wright, Gilbert (December 1970). "Review". The American Biology Teacher (University of California Press on behalf of the National Association of Biology Teachers) 32 (9): 562. doi:10.2307/4443277. JSTOR 4443276. 
  6. ^ Goldingham, C. S. (September 1956). "Review". Pacific Affairs (Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia) 29 (3): 275–276. JSTOR 2753482. 
  7. ^ Pineau, Roger (August 1956). "Review". The Far Eastern Quarterly (Association for Asian Studies) 15 (4): 599–600. JSTOR 2941938. 
  8. ^ Brown, Giles T. (November 1955). "Review". Pacific Historical Review (University of California Press) 24 (4): 423–424. JSTOR 3635342. 
  9. ^ Buchanan, Russell (February 1950). "Review". Pacific Historical Review (University of California Press) 19 (1): 83–84. JSTOR 3635123. 
  10. ^ Prange, Gordon W. (April 1950). "Review". The American Historical Review (The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the American Historical Association) 55 (3): 642–645. JSTOR 1843555. 
  11. ^ H. G. T. (July 1950). "Review". International Affairs (Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Royal Institute of International Affairs) 26 (3): 412–413. JSTOR 2607721. 
  12. ^ Ohmae, Toshikazu (Winter 1949). "Review". Military Affairs (Society for Military History) 13 (4): 242–245. JSTOR 1982743. 
  13. ^ Braisted, William R. (February 1951). "Review". The Far Eastern Quarterly (Association for Asian Studies) 10 (2): 213–215. JSTOR 2049111. 
  14. ^ Boyd, Carl L. (Autumn 1967). "Review". Military Affairs (Society for Military History) 31 (3): 156–157. JSTOR 1984669. 
  15. ^ Wukovits, John F. (April 2006). "Review". The Journal of Military History (Society for Military History) 70 (2): 537–538. doi:10.1353/jmh.2006.0144. JSTOR 4137998. 
  16. ^ Falk, Stanley R. (June 1983). "Review". The Journal of American History (Organization of American Historians) 70 (1): 192–193. JSTOR 1890615. 
  17. ^ Reynolds, Clark G. (October 1984). "Review". Military Affairs (Society for Military History) 48 (4): 210. JSTOR 1987738. 
  18. ^ Coox, Alvin D. (Winter 1985–1986). "Review". Pacific Affairs (Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia) 58 (4): 703–705. JSTOR 2758498. 
  19. ^ Ramsey, Russell W. (March 1993). "Review". The Journal of American History (Organization of American Historians) 79 (4): 1734–1736. JSTOR 2080394. 
  20. ^ a b Roskill, S. W. (Summer 1962). "Review". Pacific Affairs (Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia) 35 (2): 176. JSTOR 2753254. 
  21. ^ Saville, A. W. (Summer 1961). "Review". Military Affairs (Society for Military History) 25 (1): 35–37. JSTOR 1984225. 
  22. ^ Goodspeed, Hill (July 2000). "Review". The Journal of Military History (Society for Military History) 64 (3): 884–886. JSTOR 120923. 
  23. ^ Barlow, Jeffrey G. (December 2000). "Review". Isis (The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science Society) 91 (4): 814–815. doi:10.1086/385004. JSTOR 236879. 
  24. ^ Guilmartin, John F., Jr. (October 2000). "Review". Technology and Culture (The Johns Hopkins University Press on behalf of the Society for the History of Technology) 41 (4): 841–843. doi:10.1353/tech.2000.0155. JSTOR 25147631. 

External links[edit]