Midland, Texas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

City of Midland
—  City  —
Clockwise from top: Midland's skyline as seen from Hogan Park; Midland High Bulldogs on a Friday night football game; Road-side sign seen driving into Midland; Pumpjacks are a common sight around the Permian Basin

Nickname(s): The Tall City
Motto: "The Sky's the Limit"
Location within the state of Texas
Coordinates: 32°0′18″N 102°5′57″W / 32.005°N 102.09917°W / 32.005; -102.09917Coordinates: 32°0′18″N 102°5′57″W / 32.005°N 102.09917°W / 32.005; -102.09917
CountryUnited States United States
State Texas
CountiesMidland, Martin
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • City CouncilMayor Wes Perry
Michael Trost
John James
Scott Dufford
Jerry Morales
Jeff Sparks
Vicky Hailey
 • City ManagerCourtney Sharp
 • City71.5 sq mi (185.2 km2)
 • Land71.3 sq mi (184.7 km2)
 • Water0.2 sq mi (0.5 km2)
Elevation2,782 ft (848 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City111,147
 • Density1,558.9/sq mi (601.8/km2)
 • Metro274,002
Time zoneCST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes79701-12
Area code(s)432
FIPS code48-48072[2]
GNIS feature ID1341547[3]
Jump to: navigation, search
City of Midland
—  City  —
Clockwise from top: Midland's skyline as seen from Hogan Park; Midland High Bulldogs on a Friday night football game; Road-side sign seen driving into Midland; Pumpjacks are a common sight around the Permian Basin

Nickname(s): The Tall City
Motto: "The Sky's the Limit"
Location within the state of Texas
Coordinates: 32°0′18″N 102°5′57″W / 32.005°N 102.09917°W / 32.005; -102.09917Coordinates: 32°0′18″N 102°5′57″W / 32.005°N 102.09917°W / 32.005; -102.09917
CountryUnited States United States
State Texas
CountiesMidland, Martin
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • City CouncilMayor Wes Perry
Michael Trost
John James
Scott Dufford
Jerry Morales
Jeff Sparks
Vicky Hailey
 • City ManagerCourtney Sharp
 • City71.5 sq mi (185.2 km2)
 • Land71.3 sq mi (184.7 km2)
 • Water0.2 sq mi (0.5 km2)
Elevation2,782 ft (848 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City111,147
 • Density1,558.9/sq mi (601.8/km2)
 • Metro274,002
Time zoneCST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes79701-12
Area code(s)432
FIPS code48-48072[2]
GNIS feature ID1341547[3]
Downtown Midland from West Ohio Avenue facing east

Midland is a town in and the county seat of Midland County, Texas, United States,[4] on the Southern Plains of the state's western area. A small portion of the city extends into Martin County. As of the 2010 census, the population of Midland was 111,147, and a 2011 estimate of 113,931, making it the twenty-eighth most populous city in the state of Texas. Due to the oil boom in Midland, certain officials have estimated the population to be hovering around 155,000 to 165,000.[5] It is the principal city of the Midland, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Midland County. The metropolitan area is also a component of the larger Midland–Odessa, Texas Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 274,002 as of July 1, 2010.[1] People in Midland are called Midlanders.

Midland was originally founded as the midway point between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railroad in 1881. The city has received national recognition as the hometown of former First Lady Laura Bush, and the onetime home of former President George H.W. Bush, former President George W. Bush, and former First Lady Barbara Bush.



Midland was originally established in June 1881 as Midway Station, on the Texas and Pacific Railway. It earned its name because of its central location between Fort Worth and El Paso, but because there were already other towns in Texas by the name of Midway, the city changed its name to Midland in January 1884 when it was granted its first Post Office. Midland became the county seat of Midland county in March 1885 when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County. By 1890 it had become one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state. The city was first incorporated in 1906, and by 1910 the city established its first fire department along with a new water system.[6]

Sand storm that passed over Midland, Texas, February 20, 1894 at 6:00 p.m. Windmills and houses visible just below the whirling sand.

Midland was forever changed by the discovery of oil in the Permian Basin in 1923 when the Santa Rita No. 1 well began producing in Reagan County, followed shortly by the Yates Oil Field in Iraan, Texas. Soon, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the West Texas oil fields. During the second world war Midland was the largest bombardier training base in the country. A second boom period began after the Second World War, with the discovery and development of the Spraberry Trend, still ranked as the third-largest oil field in the United States by total reserves.[7] Yet another boom period occurred during the 1970s, with the high oil prices associated with the oil and energy crises of that decade. Today, the Permian Basin produces one fifth of the nation's total petroleum and natural gas output.

Midland's economy still relies heavily on petroleum; however, the city has also diversified to become a regional telecommunications and distribution center. By August 2006, a busy period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were almost 2,000 more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them.

John Howard Griffin wrote a history of Midland, Land of the High Sky (1959).

D. Lance Lunsford wrote The Rainbow's Shadow: True Stories of Baby Jessica's Rescue & the Tragedies That Followed,[8] which was published in 2006.

Avery v. Midland County

In 1967 the U.S. Supreme Court heard the case of Avery v. Midland County. Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioner's Court. The county districts geographically quartered the county, but the city of Midland, in the northwestern quarter, accounted for 97% of the county's population. A judge, elected on an at-large basis, provided a fifth vote, but the result was that the three rural commissioners, representing only three percent of the county's population, held a majority of the votes.

The majority of the U.S. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection clause. The dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Court's policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Court's constitutional authority.


Midland is located at 32°0′18″N 102°5′57″W / 32.005°N 102.09917°W / 32.005; -102.09917 (32.005072, −102.099239),[9] in the Permian Basin in the plains of West Texas.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 71.5 square miles (185.2 km²), of which 71.3 square miles (184.7 km²) is land and 0.2 square mile (0.5 km²) (0.28%) is water.


Midland features a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh or BSk) with long, hot summers and short, moderate winters. The city is occasionally subject to cold waves during the winter, but typically does not see cold winters. Midland receives approximately 14.6 inches (370 mm) of precipitation per year, much of which falls in the summer. Highs exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on 101 days per year, and 100 °F (38 °C) on 16 days.[10]

Climate data for Midland, Texas
Record high °F (°C)84
Average high °F (°C)57.4
Average low °F (°C)30.3
Record low °F (°C)−8
Precipitation inches (mm).56
Snowfall inches (cm)2.1
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)
Source: National Weather Service [10]''


Bank of America Building is Midland's tallest building.

Nicknamed "The Tall City", Midland has long been known for its downtown skyline. Most of downtown Midland’s major office buildings were built during a time of major Permian Basin oil and gas discoveries. The surge in energy prices in the mid-1980s set about a building boom for Downtown Midland. For many years, the 22-story Wilco Building in downtown Midland was the tallest building between Fort Worth and Phoenix. Today, Midland's tallest building is the 24-story Bank of America Building which stands at a height of 332 feet (101 m). Four buildings over 500 feet (150 m) tall were planned in the 1980s, including one designed by world famous architect I.M. Pei.[11] The great Oil Bust of the mid-1980s, however, killed any plans for future skyscrapers. As of today, five of the forty downtown skyscrapers in Midland are completely vacant.[citation needed]

View of the Summit Building and Independence Plaza from the WNB Tower's tenth floor.

Because of the revival of the energy-driven economy, a move is currently underway to bring mixed-use development to the downtown area. This has resulted in the on-going demolition of several older buildings and the plans for replacement of several more. At the beginning of 2008, the Permian Building and Gihl's Tower were demolished. Today, there are parking lots where the two buildings once stood. On November 8, 2008 the 14-story Midland Savings Building, built in 1959, was imploded. The building once housed Texaco's Midland office, which later moved to the Heritage Building. Crews have since begun the demolition of the Metro and First National Bank buildings, located on the same block. The Summit Building, 300 N. Marienfeld, in mid-2008 became the first building in the Midland area to be depicted on Google Earth in a 3D mode. The GIS Division of the City of Midland has a long-range plan to render more of the downtown area in the new rendering.

Midland Culture


Midland College is home to the McCormick Gallery, located inside the Allison Fine Arts Building, on the college's main campus. Throughout the year, changing exhibits at the McCormick feature works of MC students and faculty, visiting artists, and juried exhibits from the Arts Assembly of Midland [3]. The McCormick is also home to the Studio 3600 Series,[12] established in 2006 to "spotlight selected art students and provide them the opportunity to exhibit key works that identify the style they have crafted over a period of time."

Performing arts

The Midland-Odessa Symphony & Chorale (MOSC) has performed in the Permian Basin for over 45 years, and is the region's largest orchestral organization, presenting both Pops and Masterworks concerts throughout the year. Composed of professional musicians from the area as well as Lubbock, San Angelo and other surrounding cities, the MOSC also is home to three resident chamber ensembles, the Lone Star Brass, Permian Basin String Quartet and West Texas Winds. These ensembles are made up of principal musicians in the orchestra, who come to the area from across the United States.

The Chateau Club on Wall Street hosted some musical greats in the early seventies. Managed by D.M. Williams, Club Chateau's house band consisted of a line up of some of the nation's best known R&B artists from such well known singing groups as The Coasters, The Drifters, and The Shirelles. The band was led by blues great Johnny Heartsman. Heartsman was a master of the Hammond B3 organ, guitar, and flute. Local talent consisted of drummer Jeff Colvin and guitarist Larry Grubb. Heartsman hosted a Sunday afternoon jam session. It was one Sunday that young West Texan, Jay Boy Adams wandered in to the Sunday afternoon jam. Williams and Heartsman hired him on the spot. Adams was not yet twenty one. He remained as the regular guitar player and singer for the next two years. Adams will regularly credit his time with The Heartsman Trio as his learning ground and credit Heartsman as a major influence in his musical development.

The Midland Community Theatre (MCT) has been entertaining the Permian Basin since 1946 with musicals, comedies, dramas, mysteries, children's theatre and melodramas. MCT produces 15 shows each year in three performance spaces - Davis Theatre I (485 seats) and Mabee Theatre II (155 seats), located in the Cole Theatre, and the annual fundraiser Summer Mummers in the historic Yucca Theatre. MCT has an extensive education program, including the Pickwick Players (teen performance troupe), Theatre School programs and OutReach classes. MCT operates with a professional staff of 20 and depends upon the hard work and dedication of hundreds of volunteers in the Permian Basin to produce shows throughout the year. MCT is a member of the American Association of Community Theatre, and hosted the 2006 AACT International Theatrefest.


Sitting on the southern edge of the Llano Estacado and located near the center of the Permian Basin oil fields, Midland's economy has long been focused on petroleum exploration and extraction. Providing more information about this industry is the Permian Basin Petroleum Museum, located on the outskirts of town near Interstate 20. The museum houses numerous displays on the history, science, and technology of oil and gas development. The Permian Basin Petroleum Museum houses a collection of race cars designed by Jim Hall, a long time Midland resident who pioneered the use of aerodynamic downforce in the design of Formula One cars.

Main Street of Midland, Texas during the town's frontier days.

Midland is also home to The Museum of the Southwest. The Museum features a collection of paintings by various members of the Taos Society of Artists and Karl Bodmer as well as engravings by John J. and John W. Audubon. Located within the same museum complex are the separate Children's Museum and the Marian W. Blakemore Planetarium. The Museum of the Southwest is housed in the Turner Mansion, the historic 1934 home of Fred and Juliette Turner.

Headquartered in Midland is the Commemorative Air Force (CAF). Associated with the CAF is the American Airpower Heritage Museum. The museum, accredited by the American Association of Museums, displays and preserves World War II artifacts and memorabilia, as well as a collection of original WWII nose art panels. As part of the museum tour, visitors can see 14-20 aircraft on display in the CAF hangar. A research library and archives house a significant oral history collection and give the public access to the museum's information resources.

On display at the Midland County Historical Museum are reproductions of the "Midland Man", the skeleton of a Clovis female found near the city in 1953 .[13] Analysis of the remains by Dr. Curtis R. McKinney using uranium-thorium analysis showed that the bones are 11,600 ± 800 years old. Presenting his findings at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in 1992, Dr. McKinney said, "[T]he Midland Woman was related to the earliest ancestors of every Indian who lives today, and she is very likely the only representative of those who created the Clovis cultures."


Midland is home to the Midland RockHounds, a Texas League minor league baseball team. It is the Double-A affiliate of the Oakland Athletics. The Rockhounds have played their home games in Citibank Ballpark since 2002.

West Texas United Sockers is an American soccer team founded in 2008. The team is a member of the United Soccer Leagues Premier Development League (PDL), the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, in the Mid South Division of the Southern Conference. The team plays its home games at the Grande Communications Stadium in Midland, Texas.

Midland is home to the West Texas Drillers (Adult Tackle Football) of the Minor Professional Football League. The Drillers were established in 2009. The Drillers play their home games at Grande Communications Stadium in Midland, Texas.

Midland College is a member of the Western Junior College Athletic Conference, and fields teams in baseball, men's basketball, women's basketball, men's golf, softball and volleyball. Midland College has won 20 national championships in sports since 1975, as well as produced 192 All-Americans.

Plans have been made to develop a 35 court tennis facility named the Bush Tennis Center.

Midland is also home to the Midland Mad Dog Rugby Club, which competes in the Texas Rugby Union as a division III team.




Midland is served by 10 local television stations: KMID - an ABC affiliate, KWES-TV - an NBC affiliate, KOSA - a CBS affiliate and a MyNetwork TV affiliate on their digital cable TV station, KPEJ-TV - a Fox affiliate, KPBT - a PBS affiliate, KWWT - The CW Television Network affiliate, KUPB - a Univision affiliate, KTLE-LP - a Telemundo affiliate, and K69IT- a Multimedios Television affiliate. It also has one local religious television station: KMLM-DT- a God's Learning Channel affiliate that is a worldwide institution offering pro-Israel programming. Midland is also served by one local newspaper, the Midland Reporter-Telegram.

Many major motion pictures have been filmed in and around Midland, including Hangar 18, Waltz Across Texas, Fandango, Blood Simple, Hard Country, Friday Night Lights, The Rookie, The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, Everybody's Baby: The Rescue of Jessica McClure (which featured, as extras, many participants in the actual rescue and its coverage), and others.

In the Heroes television series, the Midland-Odessa area is a focal point for many of the first season's episodes, serving as the home for the Bennet family as well as the location of a recurring restaurant, the Burnt Toast Diner.


Historical populations
U.S. Census Bureau[14] Texas Almanac[15]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 111,149 people, 41,268 households, and 32,607 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,558.9 people per square mile (550.6/km²). There were 47,562 housing units at an average density of 667.1 per square mile (231.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 75.51% White, 8.37% African American, 0.63% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 12.49% from other races, and 1.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.99% of the population.

There were 41,268 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.3% were non-families. 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.19.

In the city the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $39,320, and the median income for a family was $48,290. Males had a median income of $37,566 versus $24,794 for females. The per capita income for the city in 2007 was $52,294.[16] In 2000, about 10.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 8.0% of those age 65 or over.


Local government

The former Midland County Courthouse on Wall Street looking north from the Midland Doubletree towers

According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $57.3 million in Revenues, $53.0 million in expenditures, $363.4 million in total assets, $133.9 million in total liabilities, and $75.0 million in cash and investments.[17]

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[18]

City DepartmentDirector
City ManagerCourtney Sharp
City AttorneyKeith Stretcher
City SecretaryAmy M. Turner
Chief of PolicePrice Robinson
Fire ChiefRobert Isbell
Finance DirectorRobert McNaughton
Community Services DirectorTina Jauz
Director of AirportsMarv Esterly
Director of UtilitiesStuart Purvis
Director of General ServicesRobert Patrick
Director of Development ServicesRick Crownover

State and federal representation

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the headquarters of Parole Division Region V in Midland; the Midland District Parole Office is in the Region V headquarters.[19]

The United States Postal Service operates the Midland Main Post Office on the grounds of Midland International Airport.[20] The other four post offices are Claydesta,[21] Downtown Midland,[22] Graves,[23] and Village.[24]


According to the City's 2008 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[25] the top ten employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1Midland Independent School District2,826
2Warren Equipment Companies1,920
3Midland Memorial Hospital and Medical Center1,500
4Dawson Geophysical1,200
5Midland College1,200
6City of Midland962
7Patterson Drilling UTI750
8AT&T Wireless600
9Midland County583
10Key Energy Services500


Colleges and Universities

Midland is the home of Midland College, which offers a variety of over 50 programs of study for associate degrees and certificates to more than 6,000 students who enroll each semester. MC offers programs in Health Sciences, Information Technology, and Aviation, including a Professional Pilot Training program. Midland College is one of only three community colleges in Texas approved to offer a Bachelor's Degree in Applied Technology. Dr. Steve Thomas is Midland College's current president.

Midland is also the home for the Physician Assistant program offered by the Texas Tech University Health Science Center located on the campus of Midland College. The entry-level graduate program awards a Master of Physician Assistant Studies following 27 months of intensive academic and clinical training.


Midland is the home to three local public high schools: Midland High School, Robert E. Lee High School and Early College High School (ECHS) at Midland College, all three of which are part of the Midland Independent School District. College-bound graduates of the first two high schools typically attend state universities - Texas A&M, Texas Tech, the University of Texas, Texas State and Abilene Christian University being some of the most popular. In recent years however, members of the graduating classes of Midland High and Lee have gone on to attend Harvard, Columbia, Northwestern, NYU and Yale .

There is no such data for the third school, ECHS, at this time. It is a new school, and welcomed its first freshman class on August 24, 2009. The goal for ECHS is that, by the time "the students receive their high school diploma, they will also have an associate’s degree from Midland College."[26]

There are also many private schools in Midland including: Hillcrest School, Hillander, Midland Classical Academy, Midland Christian School, Midland Montessori, St. Ann's School, and Trinity School of Midland, amongst others. Midland is also home to three charter schools; Richard Milburn Academy, Premier High School, and Midland Academy Charter School.






Midland was the site of the 2012 Midland train wreck, in which a train collided with a parade float carrying wounded military veterans, killing 4.

Midland also has city-wide public bus services provided for the Midland-Odessa Urban Transit District by Midland-Odessa Transit Management, otherwise known as E-Z Rider.

Sister cities

Midland has five sister cities around the world.[28]

Notable residents


  1. ^ a b "Table 2. Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (CBSA-EST2007-02)" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-03-27. Archived from the original on 2008-06-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20080604052459/http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metro_general/2007/CBSA-EST2007-02.csv. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  5. ^ "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010". US Census Bureau. 2010. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_QTPL&prodType=table. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  6. ^ Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hdm03 (accessed April 11, 2010).
  7. ^ Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields (Department of Energy)
  8. ^ "The Rainbow's Shadow: True Stories of Baby Jessica's Rescue & the Tragedies That Followed". Amazon.ca. http://www.amazon.ca/dp/0975566784. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  9. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  10. ^ a b "National Weather Service Midland". Srh.noaa.gov. 2012-03-07. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/maf/?n=cli_maf_records_averages. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  11. ^ "List of Architectural designs, including MGF Building by I. M. Pei". Uwm.edu. 2012-04-03. http://www.uwm.edu/SARUP/faculty/cardillo.htm. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ "Historic plaque - Midland Man : The Portal to Texas History". Texashistory.unt.edu. http://texashistory.unt.edu/data/UNT/TP/2005-08/meta-pth-5326.tkl. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  14. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFPopulation?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=16000US4848072&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US48%7C16000US4801000&_street=&_county=midland&_cityTown=midland&_state=04000US48&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=population_0&ds_name=null&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  15. ^ http://www.texasalmanac.com/population/population-city-history.pdf%7CTexas Almanac
  16. ^ Personal Income for Metropolitan Areas, 2007 http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/mpi/2008/xls/mpi0808.xls
  17. ^ City of Midland CAFR Retrieved 2009-06-24
  18. ^ City of Midland CAFR p. x Retrieved 2009-06-24
  19. ^ "Parole Division Region V." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 21, 2010.
  20. ^ "Post Office Location - MIDLAND." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  21. ^ "Post Office Location - CLAYDESTA." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  22. ^ "Post Office Location - DOWNTOWN MIDLAND." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  23. ^ "Post Office Location - GRAVES." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  24. ^ "Post Office Location - VILLAGE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  25. ^ City of Midland CAFR p. 132 Retrieved 2009-06-24
  26. ^ "Early College High School a 'once-in-a-lifetime' chance for students". Mywesttexas.com. http://www.mywesttexas.com/articles/2009/08/20/news/top_stories/early_college_high_school_bts.txt. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  27. ^ "KMDD - Midland Airpark". AirNav. http://www.airnav.com/airport/KMDD. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  28. ^ "Article referencing Midland's sister cities". Midlandtexas.gov. http://www.midlandtexas.gov/midland/didyouknow/september_didyouknow.html. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  29. ^ [2]
  30. ^ "Celebrated for the Least of Reasons: Larry L. King's Letters". The Austin Chronicle. http://www.austinchronicle.com/books/1999-10-15/74211/. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  31. ^ March 04, 1991 (2003-04-05). "W.C. Liedtke; Co-Founder of Pennzoil". Articles.latimes.com. http://articles.latimes.com/1991-03-04/news/mn-91_1_liedtke-family. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  32. ^ "American airplanes: Pl - Py". Aerofiles.com. http://aerofiles.com/_pl.html. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  33. ^ Hamilton Tiger-Cats :: Official Site of the Tiger-Cats

External links