Michelle Bachelet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Michelle Bachelet
Executive Director of UN Women
Incumbent
Assumed office
14 September 2010
Preceded byPosition established
President of Chile
In office
11 March 2006 – 11 March 2010
Preceded byRicardo Lagos
Succeeded bySebastián Piñera
President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations
In office
23 May 2008 – 10 August 2009
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byRafael Correa
Minister of National Defense
In office
7 January 2002 – 1 October 2004
PresidentRicardo Lagos
Preceded byMario Fernández
Succeeded byJaime Ravinet
Minister of Health
In office
11 March 2000 – 7 January 2002
PresidentRicardo Lagos
Preceded byÁlex Figueroa
Succeeded byOsvaldo Artaza
Personal details
BornVerónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria
(1951-09-29) 29 September 1951 (age 61)
Santiago, Chile
Political partySocialist Party
Spouse(s)Jorge Leopoldo Dávalos Cartes
Children3
ResidenceNew York City, United States
Alma materUniversity of Chile
ReligionNone (Agnosticism)
Signature
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Michelle Bachelet
Executive Director of UN Women
Incumbent
Assumed office
14 September 2010
Preceded byPosition established
President of Chile
In office
11 March 2006 – 11 March 2010
Preceded byRicardo Lagos
Succeeded bySebastián Piñera
President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations
In office
23 May 2008 – 10 August 2009
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byRafael Correa
Minister of National Defense
In office
7 January 2002 – 1 October 2004
PresidentRicardo Lagos
Preceded byMario Fernández
Succeeded byJaime Ravinet
Minister of Health
In office
11 March 2000 – 7 January 2002
PresidentRicardo Lagos
Preceded byÁlex Figueroa
Succeeded byOsvaldo Artaza
Personal details
BornVerónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria
(1951-09-29) 29 September 1951 (age 61)
Santiago, Chile
Political partySocialist Party
Spouse(s)Jorge Leopoldo Dávalos Cartes
Children3
ResidenceNew York City, United States
Alma materUniversity of Chile
ReligionNone (Agnosticism)
Signature

Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈtʃel vatʃeˈlet]; born September 29, 1951) is a Social Democrat politician who was President of Chile from 11 March 2006 to 11 March 2010. She was the first female president of her country. In September 2010 Bachelet was appointed as the head of UN Women by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.

Bachelet won the 2006 presidential election in a runoff, beating center-right businessman and former senator Sebastián Piñera (who eventually succeeded Bachelet as President) with 53.5% of the vote. She campaigned on a platform of continuing Chile's free-market policies, while increasing social benefits to help reduce the gap between rich and poor.[1]

Bachelet, a pediatrician and epidemiologist with studies in military strategy, served as Health Minister and Defense Minister under her predecessor, President Ricardo Lagos. She is a separated mother of three and describes herself as an agnostic.[2] As well as her native Spanish, she speaks English, German, Portuguese and French, with varying levels of fluency.[3][4]

Contents

Family background

Bachelet is the second child of archaeologist Ángela Jeria Gómez and Air Force Brigadier General Alberto Bachelet Martínez. Her paternal great-great-grandfather, Louis-Joseph Bachelet Lapierre, was a French wine merchant from Chassagne-Montrachet who emigrated to Chile with his Parisian wife, Françoise Jeanne Beault, in 1860 hired as a wine-making expert by the Subercaseaux vineyards in southern Santiago. Bachelet Lapierre's son, Germán—Michelle Bachelet's great-grandfather—was born in Santiago, Chile, in 1862, and married in 1891 to Luisa Brandt Cadot, a Chilean of French-Swiss origin, giving birth in 1894 to Michelle Bachelet's grandfather Alberto Bachelet Brandt. Her maternal great-grandfather, Máximo Jeria Chacón, of alleged Greek heritage, was the first person to receive a degree in agronomic engineering in Chile and founded several agronomy schools in the country.[5] He married Lely Johnson, the daughter of an English physician working in Chile. Their son, Máximo Jeria Johnson, married Angela Gómez Zamora. Their union produced five children, the fourth of whom became Michelle Bachelet's mother.[6]

Early life and career

Childhood years

Bachelet was born in Santiago, and spent many of her childhood years traveling around her native Chile, moving with her family from one military base to another. She lived and attended primary school in Quintero, Cerro Moreno, Antofagasta and San Bernardo. In 1962 she moved with her family to the United States, where her father was assigned to the military mission at the Chilean Embassy in Washington, DC, USA. Her family lived for almost two years in Bethesda, Maryland, where she attended Western Junior High School (now Westland Middle School) and learned to speak English fluently.[7] Returning to Chile in 1964, she graduated from high school in 1969 at Liceo Nº 1 Javiera Carrera, a prestigious girls' public school, finishing near the top of her class.[8][9] There she was president of her class, a member of the school's choir and volleyball teams, and part of a theater group and a music band called Las Clap Clap which she helped found, that toured around several school festivals. She entered medical school at the University of Chile in 1970, after obtaining one of the highest national scores in the university admission test.[8][9] She originally wanted to study sociology or economics, but was prevailed upon by her father to study medicine instead.[10] She has said she opted for medicine because it was "a concrete way of helping people cope with pain" and "a way to contribute to improve health in Chile."[3]

Detention and exile

Facing growing food shortages, the government of Salvador Allende placed Bachelet's father in charge of the Food Distribution Office. When General Augusto Pinochet came to power in the 11 September 1973 coup, General Bachelet, refusing exile, was detained at the Air War Academy under charges of treason. Following months of daily torture at Santiago's Public Prison on 12 March 1974, he suffered a cardiac arrest that resulted in his death. On 10 January 1975, Bachelet and her mother were detained at their apartment by two DINA agents, who blindfolded them and drove them to Villa Grimaldi, a notorious secret detention center in Santiago, where they were separated and subjected to interrogation and torture.[11] Some days later they were transferred to Cuatro Álamos ("Four Poplars") detention center, where they were held until the end of January. Later in 1975, thanks to sympathetic connections in the military, both were exiled to Australia, where Bachelet's older brother Alberto had moved in 1969.[8]

In May 1975, Bachelet left Australia and later moved to East Germany, to an apartment assigned to her by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) government in Am Stern, Potsdam; her mother joined her a month later, living separately in Leipzig. In October 1976 she began working at a communal clinic in the Babelsberg neighborhood, as a preparation step to continue her medical studies at an East German university. During this period she met architect Jorge Leopoldo Dávalos Cartes, another Chilean exile, whom she married in 1977. In January 1978 she went to Leipzig to learn German at the Karl Marx University's Herder Institute (now the University of Leipzig). Her first child with Dávalos, Jorge Alberto Sebastián, was born there in June 1978. She returned to Potsdam in September 1978 to continue her medical studies at the Humboldt University of Berlin for two years. Five months after enrolling as a student, however, she obtained authorization to return to her country.[12]

Return to Chile

In February 1979, Bachelet returned to Chile from East Germany. Her medical school credits from the GDR were not transferred, forcing her to resume her studies from where she had left off before fleeing the country.[citation needed] She graduated as M.D. on January 7, 1983.[13] She wished to work in the public sector wherever attention was most needed, applying for a position as general practitioner; her petition was, however, rejected by the military government on "political grounds."[3] Instead, because of her academic performance and published papers, she earned a scholarship to specialize in pediatrics and public health at Roberto del Río Children's Hospital (1983–1986). During this time she also worked at PIDEE (Protection of Children Injured by States of Emergency Foundation), a non-governmental organization helping children of the tortured and missing in Santiago and Chillán. She was head of the foundation's Medical Department between 1986 and 1990. Some time after her second child with Dávalos, Francisca Valentina, was born in February 1984, she and her husband legally separated. Between 1985 and 1987, Bachelet had a romantic relationship with Alex Vojkovic Trier,[14] an engineer and spokesman for the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front, an armed group which among other activities attempted to assassinate Pinochet in 1986. This affair turned into a minor issue during her presidential campaign, during which she argued that she never supported any of Vojkovic's activities.[5]

In 1990, after democracy was restored in Chile, Bachelet worked for the Ministry of Health's West Santiago Health Service and was a consultant for the Pan-American Health Organization, the World Health Organization and the German Corporation for Technical Cooperation. While working for the National AIDS Commission (Conasida) she became romantically involved with Aníbal Hernán Henríquez Marich, a fellow physician—and right-wing Pinochet supporter—who fathered her third child, Sofía Catalina, in December 1992; their relationship ended, however, a few years later. Between March 1994 and July 1997, Bachelet worked as Senior Assistant to the Deputy Health Minister. Driven by an interest in civil-military relations, in 1996 Bachelet began studies in military strategy at the National Academy of Political and Strategic Studies (ANEPE) in Chile, obtaining first place in her class.[3] Her student achievement earned her a presidential scholarship, permitting her to continue her studies in the United States at the Inter-American Defense College in Washington, D.C., completing a Continental Defense Course in 1998. That same year she returned to Chile to work for the Defense Ministry as Senior Assistant to the Defense Minister. She subsequently graduated from a Master's program in military science at the Chilean Army's War Academy.

Political life

Involvement in politics

In her first year as a university student (1970), Bachelet became a member of the Socialist Youth (then presided by future deputy and later disappeared physician Carlos Lorca, who has been cited as her political mentor[15]), and was an active supporter of the Popular Unity. In the immediate aftermath of the coup, she and her mother worked as couriers for the underground Socialist Party directorate that was trying to organize a resistance movement; eventually almost all of them were captured and disappeared.[16] Following her return from exile she became politically active during the second half of the 1980s, fighting—though not on the front line—for the re-establishment of democracy in Chile.[citation needed] In 1995 she became part of the party's Central Committee, and from 1998 until 2000 she was an active member of the Political Commission.

In 1996 Bachelet ran against future presidential adversary Joaquín Lavín for the mayorship of Las Condes, a wealthy Santiago suburb and a right-wing stronghold. Lavín won the 22-candidate election with nearly 78% of the vote, while she finished fourth with 2.35%. At the 1999 presidential primary of the Concert of Parties for Democracy (CPD), Chile's governing coalition from 1990 to 2010, she worked for Ricardo Lagos's nomination, heading the Santiago electoral zone.

Work as minister

Bachelet, as Minister of Defense, meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld in 2002

On March 11, 2000 Bachelet—virtually unknown at the time—was appointed Minister of Health by President Ricardo Lagos. She began an in-depth study of the public health-care system that led to the AUGE plan a few years later. She was also given the task of eliminating waiting lists in the saturated public hospital system within the first 100 days of Lagos's government. She reduced waiting lists by 90%, but was unable to eliminate them completely[5] and offered her resignation, which was promptly rejected by the President. Controversially, she allowed free distribution of the morning-after pill for victims of sexual abuse.

On January 7, 2002 Bachelet was appointed Defense Minister, becoming the first woman to hold this post in a Latin American country and one of the few in the world. While Minister of Defense she promoted reconciliatory gestures between the military and victims of the dictatorship, culminating in the historic 2003 declaration by General Juan Emilio Cheyre, head of the army, that "never again" would the military subvert democracy in Chile. She also oversaw a reform of the military pension system and continued with the process of modernization of the Chilean armed forces with the purchasing of new military equipment, while engaging in international peace operations.

A moment which has been cited as key to Bachelet's chances to the presidency came in mid-2002 during a flood in northern Santiago where she, as Defense Minister, led a rescue operation on top of an amphibious tank, wearing a cloak and military cap.[5][17][18]

Presidential candidacy

Bachelet during a television debate in 2005.

In late 2004, following a surge of her popularity in opinion polls, Bachelet was established as the only CPD figure able to defeat Lavín, and she was asked to become the Socialists' candidate for the presidency.[19] She was at first hesitant to accept the nomination as it was never one of her goals, but finally agreed because she felt she could not disappoint her supporters.[20] On October 1 of that year she was freed from her government post in order to begin her campaign and to help the CPD at the municipal elections held later that month. On January 28, 2005 she was named the Socialist Party's candidate for president.

An open primary scheduled for July 2005 to define the sole presidential candidate of the CPD was canceled after Bachelet's only rival, Christian Democrat Soledad Alvear, a cabinet member in the first three CPD administrations, pulled out early due to a lack of support within her own party and in opinion polls.

At the December 2005 election, Bachelet faced the center-right candidate Sebastián Piñera (RN), the right-wing candidate Joaquín Lavín (UDI) and the leftist candidate Tomás Hirsch (JPM). As predicted by opinion polls, she failed to obtain the absolute majority needed to win the election outright, winning 46% of the vote. In the runoff election on January 15, 2006, Bachelet faced Piñera, and won the presidency with 53.5% of the vote, thus becoming her country's first female elected president and the first woman who was not the wife of a previous head of state or political leader to reach the presidency of a Latin American nation in a direct election.[21]

On January 30, 2006, after being declared President-elect by the Elections Qualifying Court (Tricel), Bachelet announced her cabinet of ministers, which was unprecedentedly composed of an equal number of men and women, as was promised during her campaign. In keeping with the coalition's internal balance of power she named seven ministers from the Christian Democrat Party (PDC), five from the Party for Democracy (PPD), four from the Socialist Party (PS), one from the Social Democrat Radical Party (PRSD) and three without party affiliation. In the days that followed, she named the group of deputy ministers and regional intendants, following the same rule of "gender parity."

Presidency

The Bachelet Cabinet
OfficeNamePartyTerm
PresidentMichelle BacheletPSMar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010
InteriorAndrés ZaldívarDCMar. 11, 2006–Jul. 14, 2006
Belisario VelascoDCJul. 14, 2006–Jan. 4, 2008
Edmundo Pérez YomaDCJan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Foreign AffairsAlejandro FoxleyDCMar. 11, 2006–Mar. 13, 2009
Mariano FernándezDCMar. 13, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010
DefenseVivianne BlanlotPPDMar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007
José GoñiPPDMar. 27, 2007–Mar. 12, 2009
Francisco VidalPPDMar. 12, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010
FinanceAndrés VelascoInd.Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010
Secy. Gen. of
Presidency
Paulina VelosoPSMar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007
José Antonio Viera-GalloPSMar. 27, 2007–Mar. 10, 2010
Secy. Gen. of
Government
Ricardo Lagos WeberPPDMar. 11, 2006–Dec. 6, 2007
Francisco VidalPPDDec. 6, 2007–Mar. 12, 2009
Carolina ToháPPDMar. 12, 2009–Dec. 14, 2009
Pilar ArmanetPPDDec. 18, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010
EconomyIngrid AntonijevicPPDMar. 11, 2006–Jul. 14, 2006
Alejandro FerreiroDCJul. 14, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008
Hugo LavadosDCJan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Social Dev.Clarisa HardyPSMar. 11, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008
Paula QuintanaPSJan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
EducationMartín ZilicDCMar. 11, 2006–Jul. 14, 2006
Yasna Provoste (impeached)DCJul. 14, 2006–Apr. 3, 2008
René Cortázar (interim)DCApr. 3, 2008Apr. 18, 2008
Mónica JiménezDCApr. 18, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
JusticeIsidro SolísPRSDMar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007
Carlos MaldonadoPRSDMar. 27, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010
LaborOsvaldo AndradePSMar. 11, 2006–Dec. 10, 2008
Claudia SerranoPSDec. 15, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Public WorksEduardo BitránPPDMar. 11, 2006–Jan. 11, 2008
Sergio BitarPPDJan. 11, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
HealthMaría Soledad BarríaPSMar. 11, 2006–Oct. 28, 2008
Álvaro ErazoPSNov. 6, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Housing &
Urbanism
Patricia PobleteDCMar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010
AgricultureÁlvaro RojasDCMar. 11, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008
Marigen HornkohlDCJan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
MiningKaren PoniachikInd.Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008
Santiago GonzálezPRSDJan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Transport &
Telecom
Sergio EspejoDCMar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007
René CortázarDCMar. 27, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010
National AssetsRomy SchmidtPPDMar. 11, 2006–Jan. 6, 2010
Jacqueline WeinsteinPPDJan. 6, 2010–Mar. 11, 2010
EnergyKaren PoniachikInd.Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 29, 2007
Marcelo TokmanPPDMar. 29, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010
WomenLaura AlbornozDCMar. 11, 2006–Oct. 20, 2009
Carmen AndradePSOct. 20, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010
Culture & the
Arts
Paulina UrrutiaInd.Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010
EnvironmentAna Lya UriartePSMar. 27, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010
Bachelet waving with other leaders at the inauguration ceremony in Valparaíso.

First days

Bachelet was sworn in as President of the Republic of Chile on March 11, 2006 in a ceremony held in a plenary session of the National Congress in Valparaíso which was attended by many foreign heads of states and delegates.[18]

Most of Bachelet's first three months as president were spent working on 36 measures she had promised during her campaign to implement during her first 100 days in office. They ranged from simple presidential decrees, such as providing free health care for older patients, to complex bills to reform the social security system and the electoral system.

For her first state visit, Bachelet chose Argentina, arriving in Buenos Aires on 21 March. There she met with president Néstor Kirchner, with whom she signed strategic agreements in energy and infrastructure, including the possibility of launching a bidding process to operate the Transandine Railway.[22]

Domestic affairs

Social policies

In March 2006 Bachelet created an advisory committee to reform the pension system, which was headed by former budget director Mario Marcel.[23] The commission issued its final report in July 2006,[24] and in March 2008 Bachelet signed the bill into law. The new legislation established a Basic Solidarity Pension (PBS) and a Solidarity Pension Contribution (APS), guaranteeing a minimum pension for the 60% poorest segment of the population, regardless of their contribution history.[25] The reform also grants a bonus to female pensioners for every child born alive.[26]

In October 2006 Bachelet enacted legislation to protect subcontracted employees, which would benefit an estimated 1.2 million workers.[27] In June 2009 she introduced pay equality legislation, guaranteeing equal pay for equal work in the private sector, regardless of gender.[28]

In September 2009 Bachelet signed the "Chile Grows with You" plan into law, providing comprehensive social services to vulnerable children from ages zero to six. That law also established a social welfare management framework called the "Intersectoral Social Protection System", made up of subsystems, such as "Chile Solidario" and "Chile Grows with You".[29]

Between 2008 and 2010 the Bachelet administration delivered a so-called "literary briefcase" (a box of books including encyclopedias, dictionaries, poetry works and books for both children and adults) to the 400 thousand poorest families with children attending primary school from first to fourth grade.[30] In March 2009, Bachelet launched the "I Choose my PC" program, awarding free computers to poor seventh graders with excellent academic performance attending government-subsidized schools.[31] During 2009 and 2010 Bachelet delivered layettes to all babies born in public hospitals, which are about 80% of total births.[32][33]

In January 2010, Bachelet promulgated a law allowing the distribution of emergency contraception pills in public and private health centers, including to persons under 14, without parental consent. The law also requires high schools to add a sexual education program to their curriculum.[34]

Student protests

Bachelet's first political crisis came in late April 2006, when massive high school student demonstrations—unseen in three decades—broke out throughout the country, demanding a rise of quality levels in public education. In June Bachelet sought to dampen the student protests by setting up an 81-member advisor committee, including education experts from all political backgrounds, representatives of ethnic groups, parents, teachers, students, school owners, university rectors, people from diverse religious denominations, etc. Its purpose was to propose changes to the country's educational system and serve as a forum to share ideas and views. The committee issued its final report in December 2006.[35]

In August 2009 Bachelet signed the education reform bill into law, which created two new regulatory bodies: a Superintendency on Education and a Quality Agency.[36]

Transantiago

During her presidency Bachelet opened 18 new subway stations in Santiago, nine in 2006, one in 2009 and eight in 2010.[37][38] In December 2009 Bachelet announced the construction of a new subway line in Santiago, to be operational in 2014[39] (the date was later changed to mid-2016[40]).

In February 2007 Santiago's transport system was radically altered with the introduction of Transantiago, designed under the previous administration.[21] The system was nearly unanimously condemned by the media, the users and the opposition, significantly damaging her popularity, and leading to the sacking of her Transport minister. On her decision not to abort the plan's start, she said in April 2007 she was given erroneous information which caused her to act against her "instincts."[41]

In September 2008 Chile's Constitutional Court declared a US$400 million loan by the Inter-American Development Bank to fund the transport system unconstitutional. Bachelet —who had been forced to ask for the loan after Congress had refused to approve funds for the beleaguered program in November 2007— made use of an emergency clause in the Constitution that grants funds equivalent to 2% of the fiscal budget.[42] In November 2008 she invoked the emergency clause again after Congress once again denied funds for the system for 2009.

2010 earthquake

On 27 February 2010, on the last week of summer vacations[43] and less than two weeks before Bachelet's term expired, Chile was ravaged by an 8.8-magnitude earthquake that killed more than 500 people, toppled apartment buildings and bridges and triggered tsunamis that wiped away entire fishing villages. Bachelet and the government were criticized for a "slow response" to the disaster, which hit on a Saturday at 3:34 in the morning[21] and left most of the country without electricity, phone or Internet access.[44][45][46] Bachelet declared a "state of catastrophe" and on Sunday afternoon sent military troops to the most affected areas in an effort to quell scenes of looting and arson.[21] She also imposed night curfews in the most affected cities.[47] She was criticized for not deploying the troops fast enough.[48][49]

Human rights

In January 2009 Bachelet opened the Museum of Memory in Santiago, documenting the horrors of Pinochet's 16-and-a-half year dictatorship.[50] In November she promulgated a law (submitted to Congress during the previous administration) creating the National Institute for Human Rights, with the goal protecting and promoting human rights in the country.[51] The law also allowed for the reopening of the Rettig and Valech commissions for 18 months.[52]

Other legislation passed

In August 2008 Bachelet signed a freedom of information bill into law, which became effective in April 2009.

In January 2010 Bachelet enacted a law creating the Ministry for the Environment. The new legislation also created the Environmental Evaluation Service and the Superintendency for the Environment.[53][54]

Economy

Bachelet was widely credited for resisting calls from politicians from her own coalition to spend the huge copper revenues to close the country's income gap.[21][55] Instead in 2007 she created the Economic and Social Stabilization Fund, a sovereign wealth fund which accumulates fiscal surpluses which are above 1% of GDP.[56] This strategy allowed her to finance new social policies and provide economic stimulus packages when the 2008 financial crisis hit the country.[21]

During Bachelet's four years in office the economy grew at an average of 3.3% (2.1% in per capita terms), with a high of 5.8% in 2006 and a negative growth of 0.9% in 2009, due to the global financial crisis. The minimum wage was increased at an average of 2% per year in real terms (the lowest of any president since 1990), while unemployment hovered between seven and eight percent during her first three years and rose to nearly 11% during 2009. Inflation averaged 4.5% during her term, reaching close to 9% during 2008, due to an increase in food prices.[57] Absolute poverty fell from 13.7% in November 2006 to 11.5% in November 2009.[58]

Political issues

Bachelet began her term with an unprecedented absolute majority in both chambers of Congress—before appointed senators were eliminated in the 2005 constitutional reforms the CPD never had a majority in the Senate—but she was soon faced with internal opposition coming from a number of dissatisfied lawmakers from both chambers of Congress, the so-called díscolos ("disobedient," "ungovernable"), which jeopardized the coalition's narrow—and historic[59]—Congress majority on a number of key executive-sponsored bills during much of her first half in office, and forced her to negotiate with a right-wing opposition she saw as being obstructionist.[60][61] During the course of 2007 the CPD lost its absolute majority in both chambers of Congress, as several senators and deputies from that coalition became independent.

In December 2006 former dictator Augusto Pinochet died. Bachelet decided not to grant him a state funeral, an honour bestowed upon constitutionally elected Chilean presidents, but a military funeral as former commander-in-chief of the Army appointed by President Salvador Allende. She also refused to declare an official national day of mourning, but did authorize flags at military barracks to fly at half staff. Pinochet's coffin was also allowed to be draped in a Chilean flag. Bachelet did not attend his funeral saying it would be "a violation of [her] conscience" and sent Defense Minister, Vivianne Blanlot.[62]

In April 2008, her Education Minister Yasna Provoste was impeached by Congress for her handling of a scandal involving mismanagement of school subsidies. Her conviction —the first for a minister in 36 years[63]— was controversial and highly politicized.[64][65]

Foreign relations

Bachelet with former Argentine president Néstor Kirchner.

Argentina

During her first year in office Bachelet faced continuing problems from neighbors Argentina and Peru. In July 2006 she sent a letter of protest to Argentine president Néstor Kirchner after his government issued a decree increasing export tariffs of natural gas to Chile, which was considered by Bachelet to be a violation of a tacit bilateral agreement. A month later a long-standing border dispute resurfaced after Argentina published some tourist maps showing contested territory in the south—the Southern Patagonian Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Patagónico Sur)—as Argentine, violating an agreement not to define a border over the area.

Peru

In early 2007 Peru accused Chile of unilaterally redefining their shared sea boundary in a law, passed by Congress, which detailed the borders of the new administrative region of Arica and Parinacota. The impasse was resolved by the Chilean Constitutional Tribunal, which declared the particular section of the law unconstitutional. In March 2007, the Chilean state-owned—but editorially independent—television channel TVN cancelled the broadcast of a documentary about the War of the Pacific after a cautionary call was made to the stations' board of directors by Chilean Foreign Relations Minister Alejandro Foxley, apparently acting on demands made by the Peruvian ambassador to Chile;[citation needed] the show was finally broadcast in late May of that year. In August 2007 the Chilean government filed a formal diplomatic protest to Peru and summoned home its ambassador, after Peru published an official map claiming a part of the Pacific Ocean that Chile considers its sovereign territory. Peru said this was just another step in its plans to bring the dispute to the International Court of Justice in The Hague. In January 2008 Peru asked the court to consider the dispute, prompting Bachelet to summon home the Chilean ambassador in Lima for consultations.[66]

UN voting deadlock

Chile's October 16, 2006 vote in the United Nations Security Council election—with Venezuela and Guatemala deadlocked in a bid for the two-year, non-permanent Latin American and Caribbean seat on the Security Council—developed into a major ideological issue in the country and was seen as a test for Bachelet. The governing coalition was divided between the Socialists, who supported a vote for Venezuela, and the Christian Democrats, who strongly opposed it. The day before the vote the president announced (through her spokesman) that Chile would abstain, citing as reason a lack of regional consensus over a single candidate, ending months of speculation. In March 2007 Chile's ambassador to Venezuela, Claudio Huepe, revealed in an interview with teleSUR that Bachelet personally told him that she initially wanted to vote for Venezuela, but then "there were a series of circumstances that forced me to abstain."[67] The government quickly recalled Huepe and accepted his resignation.

Bachelet with Evo Morales and Lula da Silva at a Union of South American Nations summit in 2008.

Unasur

In May 2008 Bachelet became the first President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) and in September she called for an urgent summit, after Bolivian President Evo Morales warned of a possible coup attempt against him. The presidents of Bolivia, Ecuador, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Brasil and Colombia, and the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, met with Bachelet at the La Moneda Palace in Santiago, where they agreed to send two commissions to Bolivia: one to mediate between the executive and the opposition, and another to investigate the killings in Pando Department.[68]

Cuba visit

In February 2009 Bachelet visited Cuba and met with Fidel Castro. There she urged the United States to put an end to the embargo. No Chilean head of state had visited the country in 37 years.[69].

Progressive Leaders summit

In March 2009, Bachelet hosted in Viña del Mar, the "Progressive Leaders Summit", meeting with U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Presidents Tabaré Vázquez of Uruguay, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of Brazil and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina. The reunion garnered some media interest because it took place six days before the highly-anticipated G-20 Summit in London.[70][71]

Trade

Continuing the coalition's free-trade strategy, in August 2006 Bachelet promulgated a free trade agreement with the People's Republic of China (signed under the previous administration of Ricardo Lagos), the first Chinese free-trade agreement with a Latin American nation; similar deals with Japan and India were promulgated in August 2007. In October 2006, Bachelet promulgated a multilateral trade deal with New Zealand, Singapore and Brunei, the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership (P4), also signed under Lagos' presidency. She also held free-trade talks with other countries, including Australia, Vietnam, Turkey and Malaysia. Regionally, she signed bilateral free trade agreements with Panama, Peru and Colombia.

Other policy

In October 2007 Bachelet granted an amnesty to undocumented migrants from other Latin American countries. The measure was expected to benefit around 15,000 Peruvians and 2,000 Bolivians.[72] In December 2007 Bachelet signed in Bolivia a trilateral agreement with the presidents of Brazil and Bolivia to complete and improve a 4,700 km road to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, via Arica and Iquique in Chile and Santos in Brazil. In May 2008, following months of intense lobbying, Chile was elected as member of the United Nations Human Rights Council, obtaining the largest vote among Latin American countries.[73] In December 2009 Chile became the first country in South America and second in Latin America after Mexico to receive an invitation to join the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[74] Bachelet signed the accession agreement in January 2010,[75] but it formally became a member in May 2010, after she had left office.[76]

Popularity

Job-approval ratings.

Bachelet enjoyed an approval rating above 50% for her first three months in office, during the so-called "honeymoon period." Her popularity fell during the students protests that year, hovering in the mid 40s. In July she had a disastrous public relations incident when a group of residents she was visiting in the southern city of Chiguayante who were affected by a landslide berated her publicly on television, accusing her of using their tragedy to boost her falling popularity. One woman demanded that she leave the scene so rescue efforts could continue.[77][78] In July, after only four months in office, Bachelet was forced to reshuffle her cabinet, in what was the fastest ministerial adjustment since 1990.[79]

Bachelet's popularity dipped further in her second year, reaching a low of 35% approval, 46% disapproval in September 2007. This fall was mainly attributed to the Transantiago fiasco.[1] That same month she had a second negative incident when a group of earthquake and tsunami victims she was visiting in the southern region of Aisén received her bearing black flags, and accused her of showing up late.[80][81] The city mayor, who told Bachelet to "go to hell", later apologized.[82][83] During the next 12 months her approval ratings did not improve.

At the onset of the crisis in September 2008 Bachelet's popularity was at a low 42%, but gradually her job approval ratings began to rise. When she left office in March 2010 her popular support was at a record 84%, according to conservative polling institute Adimark GfK.[84] The Chilean Constitution does not allow a president to serve two consecutive terms[21] and Bachelet endorsed CPD candidate Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle for the December 2009 election.[85]

Post-presidential career

In April 2010, Bachelet inaugurated her own think-tank, "Fundación Dialoga". Its headquarters are located in Providencia, a suburb of Santiago.[86]

On 14 September 2010, Bachelet was appointed as head of the newly created body UN Women by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. She took office on 19 September 2010.

Bachelet is a member of the Club of Madrid, the world’s largest forum of former heads of state and government.[87]

Bachelet has not ruled out a return to the presidency at the next elections in 2013.[88] The well-respected CEP poll, released in May 2012, suggested 51% of voters want her to become the next president, head and shoulders above any other would-be candidate.[89]

Honours

Awards and media recognition

Honorary degrees

Orders

Documentaries

Publications

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b "/ Life & Arts - First among unequals: Chile’s president". Ft.com. 2007-09-29. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/2af1a9be-6b14-11dc-9410-0000779fd2ac.html#axzz1XRDFjYu9. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  2. ^ Correa, Raquel (April 3, 2005). "Title unknown" (in Spanish). El Mercurio. Archived from the original on 2008-07-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080706185310/http://www.mujeresconbachelet.cl/Pages/EntrevistasCorrea.html. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
  3. ^ a b c d "Biografía Michelle Bachelet" (in Spanish). Gobierno de Chile. Archived from the original on 2008-03-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20080312235635/http://www.gobiernodechile.cl/viewPresidenta.aspx?Idarticulo=22478. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
  4. ^ "Biographical Sketch: Michelle Bachelet". UN Women. http://www.unwomen.org/about-us/directorate/executive-director/biographical-sketch-michelle-bachelet/. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  5. ^ a b c d "Biografías de Líderes Políticos CIDOB: Michelle Bachelet Jeria" (in Spanish). Fundació CIDOB. March 9, 2007. http://www.cidob.org/es/documentacion/biografias_lideres_politicos/america_del_sur/chile/michelle_bachelet_jeria. Retrieved 2007-05-18.
  6. ^ "Familia Jeria (Geria)". Genealog.cl. http://www.genealog.cl/Chile/J/Jeria/#JeriaJohnson,Maximo. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  7. ^ Rohter, Larry (January 16, 2006). "Woman in the News; A Leader Making Peace With Chile's Past". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10C10FA3F5B0C758DDDA80894DE404482. Retrieved 2006-01-16.
  8. ^ a b c "La vida de la primera Presidenta de Chile" (in Spanish). La Nación. January 16, 2006. http://www.lanacion.cl/prontus_noticias/site/artic/20060116/pags/20060116011432.html. Retrieved 2006-01-16.
  9. ^ a b "Los años de Alvear y Bachelet en el Liceo 1" (in Spanish). La Tercera. October 10, 2004. http://www.latercera.cl/medio/articulo/0,0,3255_5714_93568820,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-25.[dead link]
  10. ^ "Biografía de Michelle Bachelet" (in Spanish). La Nación. http://www.lanacion.cl/prontus_noticias/site/artic/20060115/pags/20060115211311.html. Retrieved 2006-01-15.
  11. ^ Davison, Phil (December 12, 2005). "Single mother poised to be Chilean President". The Independent (London). http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/article332446.ece. Retrieved 2005-12-12.
  12. ^ "Las huellas de Bachelet en Alemania Oriental" (in Spanish). La Tercera. April 9, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-07-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20060708054735/http://www.tercera.com/medio/articulo/0,0,3255_66602343_199370524,00.html. Retrieved 2006-04-09.
  13. ^ Registro Nacional de Prestadores Individuales de Salud, Superintendencia de Salud.
  14. ^ "La historia del ex frentista que fue pareja de Bachelet" (in Spanish). La Tercera. July 10, 2005. Archived from the original on 2006-04-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20060427025539/http://www.latercera.cl/medio/articulo/imprimir/0,0,3255_66602343_147819372,00.html. Retrieved 2005-07-10.
  15. ^ "El libro que emocionó a Bachelet" (in Spanish). Qué Pasa. Archived from the original on 2008-01-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20080112195658/http://www.latercera.cl/medio/articulo/0,0,38039290_101111578_310776715,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  16. ^ "Las historias clandestinas de Bachelet" (in Spanish). La Tercera. December 9, 2007. http://papeldigital.info/ltrep/. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ a b "Asumió Bachelet e hizo historia - 12.03.2006 - lanacion.com". Lanacion.com.ar. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/788220-asumio-bachelet-e-hizo-historia. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  19. ^ Franklin, Jonathan (November 22, 2005). "'All I want in life is to walk along the beach, holding my lover's hand'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/chile/story/0,13755,1648008,00.html. Retrieved 2005-11-22.
  20. ^ Santa María, Orietta (January 19, 2006). "'Estuve una semana encerrada en un cajón, vendada, atada'" (in Spanish). Las Últimas Noticias. Archived from the original on 2006-05-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20060527103325/http://www.lun.com/modulos/catalogo/paginas/2006/01/19/LUCST09LU1901.htm. Retrieved 2006-01-19.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Barrionuevo, Alexei (2010-03-11). "Michelle Bachelet - The New York Times". Topics.nytimes.com. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/b/michelle_bachelet/index.html. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  22. ^ "Presidentes Bachelet y Kirchner firmaron acuerdo estratégico". Emol.com. 2006-03-21. http://www.emol.com/noticias/internacional/2006/03/21/214249/presidentes-bachelet-y-kirchner-firmaron-acuerdo-estrategico.html. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  23. ^ "Comisión Reforma Previsional será encabezada por Mario Marcel - Terra". Economia.terra.cl. http://economia.terra.cl/noticias/noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200603131723_INV_29130464. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  24. ^ "Comisión Marcel propone equiparar edad de jubilación de hombres y mujeres". Emol.com. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2006/07/06/224273/comision-marcel-propone-equiparar-edad-de-jubilacion-de-hombres-y-mujeres.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  25. ^ Incentives under the New Pension Solidarity Pillar in Chile, Eduardo Fajnzylber. March 2010.
  26. ^ "Bono por hijo nacido vivo - Superintendencia de Pensiones - Gobierno de Chile". Safp.cl. http://www.safp.cl/573/article-6018.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  27. ^ "Presidenta Bachelet promulgó la ley de Subcontratación". Cooperativa.cl. 2006-10-16. http://www.cooperativa.cl/prontus_nots/site/artic/20061016/pags/20061016121658.html. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  28. ^ "nacion.cl - Bachelet promulgĂł ley sobre igualdad de sueldos entre hombres y mujeres". Lanacion.cl. 2009-06-02. http://www.lanacion.cl/prontus_noticias_v2/site/artic/20090602/pags/20090602121046.html. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  29. ^ Law 20,379, Chile Library of Congress.
  30. ^ Publicado por Cauquenesnet.com. "Cauquenesnet.com - Día-Noticias: Bachelet comenzó la entrega del Maletín Literario". Dianoticias.cauquenesnet.com. http://dianoticias.cauquenesnet.com/2008/04/bachelet-comenz-la-entrega-del-maletn.html. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  31. ^ "Enlaces - CET - Ministerio de Educación". Enlaces.cl. http://www.enlaces.cl/index.php?t=44&i=2&cc=686.218&tm=3. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  32. ^ BioBioChile. "BioBioChile - Presidenta Michelle Bachelet inicia entrega de ajuares a reciĂŠn nacidos". Biobiochile.cl. http://www.biobiochile.cl/2009/09/30/presidenta-michelle-bachelet-inicia-entrega-de-ajuares-a-recien-nacidos.shtml. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  33. ^ "3TV - Bachelet inició entrega de ajuares para recién nacidos (01/10/09)". 3tv.cl. http://www.3tv.cl/index.php?m=video&v=6888. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  34. ^ Law 20,418, Chile Library of Congress.
  35. ^ "nacion.cl - Bachelet recibe informe de educaciĂłn agradeciendo labor del Consejo". Lanacion.cl. 2006-12-11. http://www.lanacion.cl/prontus_noticias/site/artic/20061211/pags/20061211124623.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  36. ^ "Bachelet promulgó la nueva Ley General de Educación". Cooperativa.cl. http://www.cooperativa.cl/bachelet-promulgo-la-nueva-ley-general-de-educacion/prontus_nots/2009-08-17/131658.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  37. ^ "Bachelet inaugura Línea 4 A de Metro de Santiago". Emol.com. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2006/08/16/228249/bachelet-inaugura-linea-4-a-de-metro-de-santiago.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  38. ^ "Ministerio de Transportes y Telecomunicaciones - Gobierno de Chile | PRESIDENTA MICHELLE BACHELET INAUGURÓ EXTENSIÓN DE LA LÍNEA 2 NORTE DEL METRO QUE BENEFICIA A MÁS DE 670.000 PERSONAS". Mtt.gob.cl. 2007-01-30. http://www.mtt.gob.cl/prontus_mtt/site/artic/20070130/pags/20070130181013.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  39. ^ "Bachelet anuncia construcción de nueva línea del Metro". Emol.com. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2009/12/29/391418/bachelet-anuncia-construccion-de-nueva-linea-del-metro.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  40. ^ http://www.cooperativa.cl/prontus_nots/site/artic/20110713/asocfile/20110713083004/hes_2011070105671_1.pdf
  41. ^ "Belisario Velasco afirma que Bachelet también conoció informe del Metro que advertía colapso del Transantiago" (in Spanish). La Tercera. July 30, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20071219104438/http://www.latercera.cl/medio/articulo/0,0,3255_5664_285592518,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
  42. ^ "UPDATE: Chile Govt To Use Emergency Funding For Transit System". Forexdaily.org.ru. 2008-09-05. http://forexdaily.org.ru/Dow_Jones/page.htm?id=231796. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  43. ^ "MASIVO TERREMOTO DE MAGNITUD 8,8 SACUDE CHILE: 122 MUERTOS". El19digital.com. http://www.el19digital.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&catid=24:internacionales&id=10559:urgente-masivo-terremoto-de-magnitud-88-sacude-chile&Itemid=15. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  44. ^ "Ya son 723 los muertos por el fuerte terremoto de 8.8 grados que destruyó gran parte de Chile". Peru.com. http://www.peru.com/noticias/portada20100301/83678/Ya-son-723-los-muertos-por-el-fuerte-terremoto-de-88-grados-que-destruyo-gran-parte-de-Chile. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  45. ^ "Massive earthquake strikes Chile". BBC News. 2010-02-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8540289.stm. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  46. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (2010-03-01). "Chile Officials Call for Aid as Devastation Sinks In". Chile: NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/02/world/americas/02chile.html. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  47. ^ Hough, Andrew (2010-03-03). "Chile earthquake: President Michelle Bachelet 'failed to grasp scale of devastation'". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/southamerica/chile/7361122/Chile-earthquake-President-Michelle-Bachelet-failed-to-grasp-scale-of-devastation.html. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  48. ^ "Chile's Leader Faces Criticism Over Quake Response". NPR. 2010-03-03. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=124285980. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  49. ^ Por Editor EA en Marzo 7, 2010 (2010-03-07). "Chile: Michelle Bachelet impresionada con objetos saqueados tras terremoto". Informe21.com. http://informe21.com/actualidad/chile-michelle-bachelet-impresionada-objetos-saqueados-terremoto. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  50. ^ "The Politics of Memory Museums". The Daily Beast. 2010-03-31. http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/03/31/the-art-of-darkness.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  51. ^ BioBioChile. "BioBioChile - Presidenta Bachelet promulga ley que crea el Instituto Nacional de Derechos Humanos". Biobiochile.cl. http://www.biobiochile.cl/2009/11/24/presidenta-bachelet-promulga-ley-que-crea-el-instituto-nacional-de-derechos-humanos.shtml. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  52. ^ post. "Mandatario recibió en La Moneda el segundo informe de la Comisión Valech | Política". La Tercera. http://www.latercera.com/noticia/politica/2011/08/674-387056-9-mandatario-recibio-en-la-moneda-el-segundo-informe-de-la-comision-valech.shtml. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  53. ^ "Bachelet promulgó ley que crea ministerio de Medio Ambiente | NACIONAL". latercera.com. 2010-07-31. http://latercera.com/contenido/680_216969_9.shtml. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  54. ^ "Chile: New Law Creates Ministry for the Environment, Other Environmental Agencies - Global Legal Monitor - Law Library of Congress (Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401817_text. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  55. ^ Rohter, Larry (2007-01-07). "Chile Copper Windfall Forces Hard Choices on Spending - New York Times". Chile: Nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/07/world/americas/07chile.html. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  56. ^ "Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute - Social and Economic Stabilisation Fund - Chile". Swfinstitute.org. http://www.swfinstitute.org/fund/chile.php. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  57. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2012. International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=19&pr.y=9&sy=2005&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=228&s=NGDP_R%2CNGDPRPC%2CPCPI%2CLUR&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  58. ^ "Panorama social de América Latina". ECLAC. 2010. http://www.cepal.cl/publicaciones/xml/9/41799/PSE-panoramasocial2010.pdf.
  59. ^ Carlos Huneeus. "REFORMA ELECTORAL EN CHILE". p. 374. http://www.bibliojuridica.org/libros/6/2527/10.pdf.
  60. ^ "La Moneda fustigó el "obstruccionismo" de la derecha en 2006" (in Spanish). Radio Cooperativa. December 26, 2006. http://www.cooperativa.cl/p4_noticias/site/artic/20061226/pags/20061226143055.html. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
  61. ^ "Gobierno quiere debate "pausado y sin presiones"" (in Spanish). La Nación. November 22, 2007. http://lanacion2007.altavoz.net/prontus_noticias_v2/site/artic/20071121/pags/20071121215812.html. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
  62. ^ "Clashes Break out after Pinochet's death", Yahoo! News, 11 December 2006
  63. ^ "Americas | Chilean minister voted out of job". BBC News. 2008-04-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7351805.stm. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  64. ^ "La destitución de ministra por el Senado causa polémica en Chile". Eldeber.com.bo. 2008-04-18. http://www.eldeber.com.bo/2008/2008-04-18/vernotainternacional.php?id=080417224659. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  65. ^ Por José Sanhueza C.... "Las miradas de la política regional a la destitución de Yasna Provoste | La Opinon". Laopinon.cl. http://www.laopinon.cl/admin/render/noticia/14834. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  66. ^ "Americas | Chile-Peru spat over sea border". BBC News. 2008-01-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7194854.stm. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  67. ^ "Chilevisión Noticias Última Mirada". Chilevisión. March 13, 2007. http://www.chilevision.cl/. Retrieved 2007-03-13.
  68. ^ La Jornada (2008-09-17). "La cumbre de Unasur "abortó" un golpe contra Evo Morales, afirma Hugo Chávez - La Jornada". Jornada.unam.mx. http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2008/09/17/index.php?section=mundo&article=037n1mun. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  69. ^ "Bachelet condemns US embargo on Cuba | The Argentina Independent". Argentinaindependent.com. 2009-02-12. http://www.argentinaindependent.com/currentaffairs/newsroundups/roundupslatinamerica/bachelet-condemns-us-embargo-on-cuba-/. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  70. ^ "Cumbre de líderes progresistas finaliza hoy en Viña del Mar". Emol.com. 2009-03-28. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2009/03/28/351089/cumbre-de-lideres-progresistas-finaliza-hoy-en-vina-del-mar.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  71. ^ Conway, Edmund (2009-03-09). "G20 ministers set for clash over economic crisis solutions". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/g20-summit/4963944/G20-ministers-set-for-clash-over-economic-crisis-solutions.html. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  72. ^ "BBC Mundo | América Latina | Chile anuncia amnistía a inmigrantes". BBC News. 2007-10-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_7057000/7057528.stm. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  73. ^ Chile obtiene cupo en Consejo de Derechos Humanos de la ONU, El Mercurio, May 22, 2008.
  74. ^ "Chile invited to become a member of the OECD". Oecd.org. http://www.oecd.org/document/2/0,3343,en_2649_201185_44267356_1_1_1_1,00.html. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  75. ^ "BBC World Service - Business - Chile joins the OECD's economic club". Bbc.co.uk. 2010-01-12. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/business/2010/01/100112_chile_oecd_biz.shtml. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  76. ^ "Chile signs up as first OECD member in South America". OECD. January 11, 2010. http://www.oecd.org/document/1/0,3343,en_2649_34487_44365210_1_1_1_1,00.html. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
  77. ^ "Damnificados de Chiguayante acusan a Bachelet de abusar de la tragedia". Emol.com. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2006/07/12/224973/damnificados-de-chiguayante-acusan-a-bachelet-de-abusar-de-la-tragedia.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  78. ^ "Bachelet debió enfrentar la rabia de afectados por temporal en Chiguayante". Cooperativa.cl. 2006-07-12. http://www.cooperativa.cl/p4_noticias/site/artic/20060712/pags/20060712142230.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  79. ^ Ignacio Nieto. "Especiales Emol - Michelle Bachelet, a un año de su llegada a la Moneda". Emol.com. http://www.emol.com/especiales/michelle_bachelet_2007/conflictos.html. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  80. ^ "Con banderas negras protestan en Puerto Aisén por llegada de Bachelet". Emol.com. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/detalle/detallenoticias.asp?idnoticia=253435. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  81. ^ "Alcalde de Puerto Aysén: La Presidenta "se puede ir a la punta del cerro"". Cooperativa.cl. 2007-04-23. http://www.cooperativa.cl/p4_noticias/site/artic/20070423/pags/20070423081108.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  82. ^ "Alcalde insistió que Bachelet "le faltó el respeto" a la gente de Aysén". Cooperativa.cl. 2007-04-24. http://www.cooperativa.cl/alcalde-insistio-que-bachelet-le-falto-el-respeto-a-la-gente-de-aysen/prontus_nots/2007-04-24/190710.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  83. ^ "Alcalde de Aysén ofreció disculpas públicas a Bachelet". Cooperativa.cl. 2007-06-18. http://www.cooperativa.cl/alcalde-de-aysen-ofrecio-disculpas-publicas-a-bachelet/prontus_nots/2007-06-18/132756.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  84. ^ Washington, The (2010-03-12). "More quakes hit Chile as new president takes office". Washington Times. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/mar/12/more-quakes-hit-chile-as-new-president-takes-offic/. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  85. ^ "nacion.cl - Bachelet: "Inequí­vocamente apoyo a Frei como candidato"". Lanacion.cl. 2009-07-06. http://www.lanacion.cl/noticias/site/artic/20090706/pags/20090706092539.html. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  86. ^ BioBioChile (2011-08-16). "biobiochile - Bachelet inaugura Fundación Dialoga en contrapeso a la concentración de poderes existente en Chile". Biobiochile.cl. http://www.biobiochile.cl/2010/04/16/bachelet-inaugura-fundacion-dialoga-en-contrapeso-a-la-concentracion-de-poderes-existente-en-chile.shtml. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  87. ^ "Michelle Bachelet | Club de Madrid". Clubmadrid.org. http://www.clubmadrid.org/en/miembro/michelle_bachelet. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  88. ^ AlJazeeraEnglish. "Frost over the World - Michelle Bachelet - 25 Sep 09". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VW9kEcgXW20. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  89. ^ "Encuesta CEP: Bachelet lidera por lejos la carrera presidencial con 51% de las preferencias" (in Spanish). EMOL. 2012-05-10. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2012/05/10/539836/encuesta-cep.html. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  90. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #17 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. August 31, 2006. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2006/11/06women_Michelle-Bachelet_Z2QJ.html. Retrieved 2006-08-31.
  91. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #22 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. August 19, 2009. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2009/11/power-women-09_Michelle-Bachelet_Z2QJ.html. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
  92. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #25 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. August 27, 2008. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2008/11/biz_powerwomen08_Michelle-Bachelet_Z2QJ.html. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
  93. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #27 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. August 31, 2007. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2007/11/biz-07women_Michelle-Bachelet_Z2QJ.html. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
  94. ^ "Bachelet y De la Vega estrenan los premios Ramón Rubial · ELPAÍS.com". Elpais.com. 2007-01-11. http://www.elpais.com/articulo/pais/vasco/Bachelet/Vega/estrenan/premios/Ramon/Rubial/elpepuesppvs/20070111elpvas_9/Tes. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  95. ^ "The World's Most Influential People - The 2008 TIME 100 - Leaders & Revolutionaries - Michelle Bachelet". TIME. May 1, 2008. http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1733748_1733757_1735593,00.html. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
  96. ^ "Congreso Judío Mundial entrega Premio Shalom a Presidenta Bachelet". Emol.com. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/detalle/detallenoticias.asp?idnoticia=309030. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  97. ^ a b http://www.infobae.com/contenidos/407565-100897-0-Bachelet-abrió-la-cumbre-de-mujeres-en-Buenos-Aires
  98. ^ "Conmebol condecoró a Bachelet". Oem.com.mx. http://www.oem.com.mx/estO/notas/n1256813.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  99. ^ "Bachelet recibió el "Gran Collar Extraordinario" del Fútbol Sudamericano". Cooperativa.cl. http://www.cooperativa.cl/bachelet-recibio-el-gran-collar-extraordinario-del-futbol-sudamericano/prontus_nots/2009-07-23/125758.html. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  100. ^ "Ex Presidenta Bachelet recibirá el premio "Mujer del Bicentenario"". Cooperativa.cl. http://www.cooperativa.cl/ex-presidenta-bachelet-recibira-el-premio-mujer-del-bicentenario/prontus_nots/2010-04-08/155409.html. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  101. ^ "Chaves y Bachelet, premiados por la Federación de Mujeres Progresistas - El Correo de Andalucía" (in (Spanish)). Elcorreoweb.es. 2010-11-15. http://www.elcorreoweb.es/actualidad/108598/chaves/bachelet/premiados/federacion/mujeres/progresistas. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  102. ^ a b "Miami Honors Michelle Bachelet - Head of UN Women and Former President of Chile for Leadership" (PDF). http://www.miamigov.com/mayor/docs/PressReleases/Bachelet.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  103. ^ "Bachelet premiada en su lucha por los derechos humanos | Mundo". La Tercera. 2010-10-27. http://latercera.com/noticia/mundo/2010/10/678-302687-9-bachelet-premiada-en-su-lucha-por-los-derechos-humanos.shtml. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  104. ^ Posted on (2011-05-03). "Remarks by Michelle Bachelet on Receiving Women’s eNews’ Newsmaker of the Decade Award | | UN WomenUN Women". Unwomen.org. http://www.unwomen.org/2011/05/remarks-by-michelle-bachelet-on-receiving-womens-enews-newsmaker-of-the-decade-award/. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  105. ^ "Bachelet recibe distinción del Ministerio de Defensa argentino por su lucha a favor de la igualdad de género". EFE via El Mostrador. 2012-04-25. http://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/pais/2012/04/25/bachelet-recibe-distincion-del-ministerio-de-defensa-argentino-por-su-lucha-a-favor-de-la-igualdad-de-genero/.
  106. ^ M.D. (2012-05-18). "Colin Powell entrega condecoración a Bachelet y elogia su trayectoria" (in Spanish). La Tercera. http://papeldigital.info/lt/2012/05/18/01/paginas/004.pdf. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  107. ^ "La Republica | 12 de Abril del 2006". Larepublica.pe. http://www.larepublica.pe/archive/all/larepublica/20060412/pasadas/10/77246. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  108. ^ "Honoris causa a Bachelet". Lahora.com.gt. http://www.lahora.com.gt/index.php/nacional/guatemala/actualidad/61236-honoris-causa-a-bachelet. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  109. ^ "Oration given on 3 April 2008, presented at the Canning House Annual Lecture". essex.ac.uk. http://www.essex.ac.uk/honorary_graduates/or/2008/michelle-bachelet-oration.aspx/. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
  110. ^ "UPF awards Michelle Bachelet with a degree honoris causa - Graduate courses - ( UPF )". Upf.edu. http://www.upf.edu/postgrau/en/noticies/0516.html. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  111. ^ a b "Michelle Bachelet recibirá doble doctorado "honoris causa" en Argentina". Cooperativa.cl. http://www.cooperativa.cl/michelle-bachelet-recibira-doble-doctorado-honoris-causa-en-argentina/prontus_nots/2010-05-15/203252.html. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  112. ^ "Discurso de Michelle Bachelet al recibir Doctor Honoris Causa de la Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo". Dialoga.cl. 2011-08-23. http://www.dialoga.cl/2010/09/doctor-honoris-causa-de-la-universidad-internacional-menendez-pelayo/. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  113. ^ "UASD otorgará Doctorado Honoris Causa a Michelle Bachelet, ex presidenta de Chile". DiarioLibre.com. 2010-11-16. http://www.diariolibre.com/noticias_det.php?id=268527. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  114. ^ "Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris3 - Docteur Honoris Causa 2010 de l’Université Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3". Univ-paris3.fr. http://www.univ-paris3.fr/65561474/0/fiche___pagelibre/. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  115. ^ noticias. "La ex presidenta chilena Bachelet, doctora honoris causa por la Sorbona - Noticias internacionales en MSN Latino". Noticias.latino.msn.com. http://noticias.latino.msn.com/internacionales/articulos.aspx?cp-documentid=26294634. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  116. ^ "Michelle Bachelet 2012 Commencement Speech at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health". May 12, 2012. http://www.unwomen.org/2012/05/michelle-bachelet-2012-commencement-speech-at-columbia-university-mailman-school-of-public-health. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  117. ^ "Bachelet Jeria S.E. Verónica Michelle decorato di Gran Cordone". Presidenza della Repubblica. http://www.quirinale.it/elementi/DettaglioOnorificenze.aspx?decorato=244583. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
  118. ^ "Lithuanian Orders searching form" (in Lithuanian). Lithuanian Presidency. http://www.lrp.lt/lt/prezidento_veikla/apdovanojimai/apdovanojimai_256/p600.html. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  119. ^ "Comonwealth of Australia Gazette No. S160" (in English). Governor General of Australia.
  120. ^ PHOENIX Sendeplan Samstag, 18. März 2006, Bankkaufmann.com.
  121. ^ ¡REVOLUCIÓN! FILM SERIES: "LA HIJA DEL GENERAL (THE GENERAL'S DAUGHTER)". James Baker Institute.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Alex Figueroa
Minister of Health
2000–2002
Succeeded by
Osvaldo Artaza
Preceded by
Mario Fernández
Minister of National Defense
2002–2004
Succeeded by
Jaime Ravinet
New officePresident pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations
2008–2009
Succeeded by
Rafael Correa
Preceded by
Ricardo Lagos
President of Chile
2006–2010
Succeeded by
Sebastián Piñera