Michael Echanis

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Michael Echanis
Born(1950-11-16)16 November 1950
Nampa, Idaho
Died8 September 1978(1978-09-08) (aged 27)
OccupationMartial arts instructor, soldier, knife designer, author
Years active1969–78
Known fortactical knives, martial arts
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Michael Echanis
Born(1950-11-16)16 November 1950
Nampa, Idaho
Died8 September 1978(1978-09-08) (aged 27)
OccupationMartial arts instructor, soldier, knife designer, author
Years active1969–78
Known fortactical knives, martial arts

Michael Dick Echanis (November 16, 1950 – September 8, 1978) was a former enlisted soldier who served in "C" Company, 75th Ranger Infantry in Vietnam.[1] Echanis was an accomplished mixed martial artist, writer and editor. He died while working as a private security contractor in Nicaragua at the behest of the Nicaraguan National Guard. This account was first reported by Soldier of Fortune Magazine(SOF). SOF published the article after Echanis' death. Echanis had been the magazine's martial arts editor from 1974 - 1976.


Early life

Echanis was born in Nampa, Idaho and was of Basque descent. In private conversations Echanis offered his belief his Basque heritage and culture greatly influenced his abilities to endure hardship and pain. He enlisted in the US Army in 1969 upon graduation from Ontario High School although he graduated early and not with his class. His enlistment was one of two choices given him by a judge the small town of Ontario, Oregon, where the family lived. Echanis was well known by the Ontario Police Department for his pranks and offenses to include theft, vandalism and destruction of private property using homemade bombs.[2]

Military service

Echanis attended basic training at Fort Ord, California and went on to Airborne training at Fort Benning, Georgia. In 1970 he was sent to Vietnam as part of an Army Ranger unit.[3]

Echanis received the Combat Infantryman Badge (CIB), Purple Heart and Bronze Star with "V" device for his heroic actions during an ambush in which he is credited with saving the lives of his fellow soldiers. The closing paragraph of the Army's award narrative states:

"Spec 4 Echanis' aggressive spirit and undaunted courage were decisive in preventing the anhilation (sic) of the truck and its personnel. His actions, at the risk of his own life, were in the highest traditions of the military and reflect upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army."

Echanis had served roughly 3 weeks "in-country" in Vietnam before being seriously wounded in the head, left foot, ankle and calf when the truck he was in was ambushed in the An Khe pass in May 1970. During the intense firefight which the enemy opened with small arms and B-40 rocket fire, Echanis is described in his Bronze Star award narrative as being wounded four separate times. He is formally credited with killing at least one enemy soldier with his rifle at close range and while fully exposed to incoming enemy fire. Again, from the Army's narrative, "He [Echanis] was then wounded for a fourth time when he (sic) continued resistance then drew a hail of enemy fire".

He had only been in the Army for 15 months. He was evacuated stateside to the military hospital in San Francisco where he made a his recovery.[3] Encouraged and supported by his best friend Chuck Sanders the wounded soldier rehabilitated himself to the degree he could not only walk but run again. His doctors had offered neither would ever be possible due to significant nerve damage to his left lower leg. Echanis' cousin, Michael L Echanis, recalls the wounded veteran offered his injured leg was numb from the knee down. To prove his doctors wrong Echanis went to the nearby track one day and had Sanders "kidnap" the physician and bring him to where Echanis was. According to Randy Wanner, Echanis' assigned Hwa Rang Do instructor afterward, Echanis ran around the track much to the amazement of the doctor. Still, his wounding was so severe that Echanis, again stated by Wanner, was in a state of chronic pain and would wear soft tennis shoe like footwear to help ease the discomfort. He also used an insert in his left shoe to increase his stability and balance.[citation needed]

Echanis' military record shows during his short military career he did not attend/graduate Ranger School and although he participated in Phase One of the Special Forces Qualification Course he did not, for reasons unstated in the record, progress further than this.

Echanis did not have any combat experience post-Vietnam and prior to his contractor service in Nicaragua. His rank at the time of his wounding was as a Specialist 4th Class although his headstone at Ontario's Sunset Cemetery offers he was a Private First Class. His Bronze Star with "V" Device narrative, as published in 1971 by his hometown newspaper, correctly states Echanis was a Specialist 4th Class when wounded.[citation needed]. His DD214 (Discharge document) shows a disciplinary action while he was recoverying at Letterman Army Hospital that resulted in his being demoted one rank, or to Private First Class.

Martial arts

After his medical discharge in December 1970, Echanis returned home to Ontario where he discussed plans to attend the University of Oregon the following fall.[4] He began his study of Ninjitsu under Toshiro Nagato.[5] According to a family member Echanis trained for a short time as a boxer during this period. This was under Al Barros, who lived and trained fighters in Boise, Idaho (Michael L Echanis/Greg Walker 2012). Echanis took up weight lifting going from roughly 150 pounds to 210 over the course of a summer. Echanis fought several times as a boxer in the heavyweight class but left boxing to continue his study of the Eastern martial arts.

Echanis had become known as a colorful hand-to-hand combat instructor for the Special Forces, SEALs, and other military groups.[6] He and Chuck Sanders were childhood friends and Sanders was a qualified "Green Beret" and assigned to the 5th SFG(A). Echanis was given a high-ranking black sash in Hwa Rang Do and was the ascribed author of three military-oriented hand-to-hand combat books based on this Korean martial art. Echanis' rank as a "Sulsa", or the Hwa Rang Do equivalent of a Ninja, was given to him by Hwa Rang Do founder Joo Bang Lee. Echanis' involvement with Lee and Hwa Rang Do was less than three weeks in duration training wise, with most of his instruction provided by Lee's then senior Black Belt, Randy Wanner. According to Wanner Joo Bang Lee allowed that he (Wanner) could teach anything Echanis wished whenever he came through southern California. Wanner has stated Echanis was only interested in killing techniques when he trained with Randy. Bob Duggan, president of ESI in Colorado, has said he was present when Joo Bang Lee treated Echanis' injured leg in a holistic manner. However the association was primarily one of business between Echanis and Joo Bang Lee.[3]

An interview with Joo Bang Lee in Fighting Knives Magazine, conducted by Erik Remmen and Henry Taejoon Lee offered the following regarding both Echanis and the title of Sulsa - "[Mike Echanis]...came to me looking for the wrong things. He was all pride and ambition, wanting to learn how to become invincible. I saw that he had the burning desire necessary to overcome any obstacle to obtain his goal. So I first cured his leg which could not be used to full potential because of his gun shot wound, received from his tour in Vietnam. After he was healed, he learned the power of healing and became more appreciative of life which instilled in him the humility necessary to be a warrior with character, for humanity and not against it. I realized at that time he would be the best candidate to spread this art [HWD] in the U.S. military which I have always wanted to do since I came to the United States...so I trained him specifically in the ways of Amja (Art of the Shadows) and Un Shin Bop (Method of Invisibility) which was all in the training of becoming Sulsa (Korean counterpart to the Japanese Ninja which was created over a thousand years before the emergence of Ninjitsu)'(Greg Walker, Editor in Chief, Fighting Knives Magazine).

"When he had reached a proficient level, he contacted his friend in the Green Berets (Chuck Sanders) and I gave him permission to develop the Special Forces/Ranger Hand-to-Hand Combat/Special Weapons School for instructors...I had hoped Michael could have maintained Hwa Rang Do in the military where it would serve the greatest benefit, but unfortunately he died in 1978 and I have lost a good student and a good son."

Not being able to remain in southern California with the Hwa Rang Do organization he left to join his friend, Sergeant Chuck Sanders, in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Echanis could not re-enlist due to his medical discharge from the Army in 1971. Echanis developed a two week hand-to-hand Instructor combat course sponsored by the United States Army John F. Kennedy Center for Military Assistance at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The program was authorized in December 1975 and Echanis was formally appointed the "Senior Instructor and Advisor to the USAJFCENMA Hand to Hand Combat/Special Weapons School for Instructors" in a Memorandum For Record signed by Major Jerry C. Williams, then Chief, PSD, at the JFK Center. Although six such courses were to be presented only three took place and these in early 1976. Echanis' instruction style resulted in too many injured students. This same pattern was reported when he trained selected commandos from EEBI in Nicaragua for President Somoza's personal bodyguard detail. Echanis' combatives program was titled the "Hwarangdo Hand to Hand and Special Weapons Program".[7]


Echanis wrote three books about hand-to-hand combat:

The text and techniques content of this series were former Hwa Rang Do black belt Randy Wanner's composition with Echanis and Chuck Sanders posing for the pictures. Echanis was given authorial credit. Wanner described the photo shoot taking place during the day at O'Hara's studio and the three men staying at a cheap hotel nearby at night. Wanner recalled the film shoot as being a great deal of fun. Filming during the day and partying hard at night. The 3-book series was meant to give Echanis publishing credits as he had no previous training credentials and was, to include developing a relationship with Soldier of Fortune, seeking to establish himself as a subject matter authority in the private and military sectors. Echanis, through Joo Bang Lee, developed a swift and successful relationship with Black Belt Magazine which featured him (Echanis) on its covers and in stories.

The book series stemmed from Echanis losing a hoped for Saudi Arabian training contract due precisely to his lack of both a written program of instruction (POI) and his unknown status as a para military instructor. According to Randy Wanner there are over 3000 additional photos still in the archives at Black Belt. There were meant to be 6-9 books in the series. Wanner described himself as the only person who could put the photos with the text for the remaining books. Recent conversations with other former HWD Black Belts of that era dispute this. Michael De Alba, founder of Farang Mu Sul and someone who knew Echanis when he was with Joo Bang Lee in southern California, is one of these.[citation needed]

In the recent release of Black Belt Books' Echanis Collection, Henry Taejoon Lee offers in one of three forwards introducing the book that Echanis was unable to instruct civilian students in the art of HWD despite being given the opportunity to by Joo Bang Lee. "My father tried to give Echanis some training in teaching the art by placing him in charge of our school in La Habra, California. The students were constantly getting injured and sent to the hospitals...this type of behavior clearly demonstrated to my father that Echanis could not exist in the civilian sector, so he encouraged him to re-enlist."

Randy Wanner was part of the Echanis training team as well as his Hwa Rang Do link. He was the stateside logistics coordinator for Echanis when Echanis went to Nicaragua and the primary author of articles and books published in Echanis' name. After Echanis' death, Wanner and business partner Robert "Bob" Taylor collaborated on a video instructional program pertaining to gun disarming which received mixed reviews in the martial arts community. However, Colonel Robert K. Brown, publisher of Soldier of Fortune and another former Special Forces NCO and editor of Fighting Knives magazine, Greg Walker, both endorsed the training.


Echanis' liberty with other peoples' money was readdressed in 2010 in Spyderco Knives' booklet The Warrior Path. Written by Michael Janich in support of the Spyderco Warrior Knife project. Janich quotes from a Black Belt article (August 1988) where Bob Duggan (ESI International) alleged Echanis had stolen operating funds from the La Habra HWD school that was overseen by Randy Wanner. This, according to Duggan, to fund his trip out to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, where he hoped to become involved in military training. "Obviously it was something he [Echanis] had planned for months. Getting these contracts with the military takes years, and all sorts of connections. He knew all along that his goal was to train the Special Forces in the killing game. {Joo Bang] Lee was outraged, so hurt he couldn't believe it. It was a shattering experience for him." [8]

Echanis was historically a free style fighter and after his wounding and recovery he traveled the west coast challenging and successfully fighting a number of black belt ranked studio owners/operators in their own backyards. Echanis served as the Martial Arts Editor of Soldier of Fortune magazine from 1974 to 1976.[9] Echanis was vetted by now deceased San Francisco martial arts instructor SiGung Art Gitlin. This at the request of Soldier of Fortune publisher andeditor Robert K. Brown well before the 1978 printing of the SOF paid for book series. According to Gitlin he was to "smoke out" whether Echanis was just one many "ninjas" then coming on to SOF in the hopes of coverage or self promotion. SiGung Gitlin was very impressed by Echanis' martial arts abilities to include intense sparring and fighting. He commented in a phone interview years later with Fighting Knives and Full Contact editor and retired Special Forces NCO Greg Walker that he (Gitlin) was "most impressed by Echanis' heartfelt desire to discuss, train and then test martial arts theory and technique. If it didn't work Echanis wanted to know why".[citation needed]

Warrior knife

Although Echanis is tied to the development of the Warrior knife, now in a new evolution from Spyderco Knives, his input was minimal during the concept phase which took place while Echanis was alive. Wanner was the creative initial designer of the knife and was directly involved in the Al Mar Knives version and a further evolution under another specialty cutlery firm, REKAT, founded by Bob Taylor. Wanner had recommended to Echanis that he promote what would essentially be a HWD combat knife. This was to capitalize on the HWD knife fighting training he was receiving and the original "black book" from O'Hara in the 3 book series. Wanner, working with a custom knife maker at the time, created prototypes and Echanis is reported as offering his favoring of the emerging design. Taylor refined the original Warrior knife concept to the degree it could be both custom made and manufactured as a production product.

In an article written by Randy Wanner and titled (Circle of Stealth - Echanis' Revolutionary Sentry Removal Technique (Soldier of Fortune, October 1980, Pgs 37-39) Wanner, playing the role of the attacker, is seen using one of the prototype Warriors he'd had made for himself. Interestingly enough the "sentry" is outfitted with a Gerber MK2 fighting-utility knife, Echanis' blade of choice. However, Wanner himself refers to the knife he uses in this article as the "Echanis warrior knife" (SOF, October 80, Pg 39, Photo/Caption 2).

Echanis was already a strong proponent and user of the Gerber MK2 fighting knife which became available for troops in Vietnam. The Gerber became Echanis' most recognized personal weapon. Of interest is former Green Beret Al Mar's strong design input on the Gerber MK2 when he was at Gerber Legendary Blades. It was Mar who designed and successfully saw the serration feature incorporated into the MK2 knife which allowed it to be sold in the military PX system as a "survival knife" as opposed to a fighting knife. Echanis is credited by Bob Taylor for making a serration recommendation to Randy Wanner when the initial concept of the Warrior was be developed. No doubt based on his (Echanis) long time use of the Gerber MK2 with serration and the utility use such a serration offers. Taylor would work closely with Wanner/Al Mar to see the Warrior come out as a specialty production knife in the early 90s and then take over future evolutions of the knife under his own firm, REKAT. Taylor partnered with Spyderco in 2010 to see their version of the Warrior introduced.

The first comprehensive coverage of the AMK Warrior occurred when the knife was featured on the cover of "Battle Blades - A Professional's Guide to Combat/Fighting Knives" (Paladin Press, 1993, Pgs 137-141). Interviewed by its author for the chapter on the Warrior Wanner confirmed he'd handmade "a small number of knives and distributed them to close friends and associates". In the same interview Wanner credited Al Mar with bringing the Warrior into production as a specialty custom knife. "It it weren't for Al [Mar], the knife never would have been made," confirms Wanner. "He put a tremendous amount of time and money into the project (Pg 139)."

Nicaraguan military service

Prior to his death Echanis had been "frocked" with the rank of Major in the Nicaraguan military. A commissioned rank from then President Anastasio Somoza that allowed for Echanis to command his elite "Black Berets" commando unit and personal bodyguard to the Nicaraguan president and his extended family and to command combat troops in the field against Sandinista guerrilla forces. However his penchant for ruthless action with little regard for collateral damage (civilians) became a serious concern for some and Echanis' lack of formal military training and experience (going from a Specialist 4 in the United States Army with less than two years in service to a command rank of Major with his own elite unit) rankled a fair number of senior officers in the Nicaraguan military.[10]

Echanis is reported to have never been seen wearing his Nicaraguan rank and,in fact, ate in the Enlisted soldiers' mess. By his own account he wore a National Guard battle uniform when in the field training or conducting combat operations.

Echanis' rank as a major is described by Somoza in his 1980 book co-written with Jack Cox, Nicaragua Betrayed. Describing the Sandinista take-over of the Nicaraguan Congress in August 1978 by the FSLN Somoza describes "General Jose Ivan Allegrett and Major Mike Echanis stormed out of my office in anger. They wanted to lead the charge. These military men were afraid of nothing. With twelve to fourteen men they were going to take the Palace and, you know, they would have done it..."[10]

President Somoza would not sign off on such a fate for the estimated 1200 hostages the FSLN held at the Palace. Somoza's first cousin, Luis Pallais Debayle, was being held and had been wounded in the head when the 25 FSLN guerrillas assaulted the palace. He was on the phone with the US ambassador when Pastora's unit seized the Congress chamber. Also held was Jose Somoza Abrego, son of General Jose Somoza and nephew to the President. Somoza knew many of those at the palace and he knew their families. He knew the vast majority were everyday office workers and administrators. In his book he states the projected time of the assault itself - 18–20 minutes in duration - killed any further consideration of Echanis' plan. He would not have the blood of "300-400" people on his hands over a flawed military operation. In the end 59 convicted FSLN prisoners were released by the government and a half million dollar ransom was paid to the FSLN. Somoza, who graduated from the U.S. military academy at West Point in 1946 and had risen to the rank of General himself, well understood tactics, strategy, force and diplomacy to resolve delicate situations.[10]

Echanis' anger was in part based on the FSLN's successful repulsion of he and his commandos at the onset of the take-over. Arriving at the front of the palace Echanis' truck-borne commandos on their way to a firing range were effectively engaged by FSLN guerrillas with one of Echanis' captains in the lead vehicle was killed outright. FSLN Commander Eden Pastora, a hero of the Sandinista revolution, advised President Somoza by telephone that if the counter attack continued he would begin killing hostages. "Echanis, in communication with the Bunker by radio, wanted to assault the palace before the guerrillas could get organized, but he was ordered to pull back". Echanis did not know the FSLN had already captured and confined the Congress and were ready to kill all of them had he not obeyed the orders coming from the Bunker.[11]

The "Bunker" where President Somoza preferred to conduct his business from was roughly one mile south of the National Palace. It was not actually a bunker but an above ground complex. The National Palace housed the Congress (50 members) and the ministries of finance and the interior. Rage and emotion were driving Echanis' thought processes not clear, objective military thinking and planning. Eden Pastora's hand picked assault team were dressed in the distinct uniform and headgear of Echanis' "Black Berets". On August 22, 1978, Pastora's team gathered in the capital.[11][12]

The National Palace incident was over o at 10:00 AM on August 24, 1978. Echanis would give his final interview to Tom Fenton at AP ten days later. During the interview Echanis claimed forces within the National Guard were planning to kill Alegrett and him because of their growing intelligence operations. Echanis insisted the interview not be published unless he was killed. This interview, one of three over a period of several weeks, was incendiary in its content and embarrassing to the United States Government as well as to President Somoza.[13]


On September 8, 1978, Major Echanis/Chuck Sanders/Nguyen "Bobby" van Nguyen and General Alegrett would die in a tragic aircraft accident.[13][14] Michael Echanis and former LLDB Nguyen "Bobby" Van Nuygen are buried at St. Johns Catholic Cemetery (a.k.a. Sunset Cemetery) in Ontario, Oregon.[15]

Jon Ronson, author of The Men Who Stare At Goats, cites associates of Echanis who contend the explosion in the aircraft was from Echanis' attempt to bomb a Sandanista camp with hand grenades by throwing them from an opened window in the plane and that the recovered aircraft showed evidence of a hand grenade going off inside the cockpit. Ronson quotes sources that Echanis was peripherally involved with the US Army's alleged First Earth Battalion and Echanis was credited being the soldier who succeeded in stopping a test-goat's heart with projected psychic energy. However, Ronson discredits this myth later in his book and assigns the alleged success of the experiment to martial artist Guy Savelli who is quoted extensively in The Men Who Stare At Goats.[16]

Wanner said that when he heard of the team being killed, he was advised to go underground as no one in those early hours knew who was responsible or what else they might do. Wanner offered during one interview that notification of Echanis and the others being killed came from an official U.S. Government source and by phone. He took the warning seriously. Wanner would again disappear in southern California in the late 1990s. His fate is unknown to this day but those close to him offer it was not connected with the Mike Echanis/Nicaragua venture. Wanner had left the Hwa Rang Do community years before albeit under acrimonius circumstances as had many other notable HWD Black Belts. He had been working as an auto mechanic and law enforcement officer safety instructor when he dropped out of sight.[citation needed]

Retired Ranger/Special Forces Chief Warrant Officer Gary O'Neil was Echanis' squad leader in Vietnam. His Special Forces "A-Team" was operational in Nicaragua at the time Echanis was there and O'Neil would lead the body recovery effort in Lake Nicaragua where the plane crashed. O'Neil has shared that Echanis' body showed wounds consistent with hand grenade shrapnel and it was the conclusion of the dive team upon their inspection of the aircraft that indeed the ad hoc "bombing" effort was the cause of the aircraft being brought down. O'Neil and his team would escort Echanis' body back to Ontario, Oregon, for a funeral with full military honors.[citation needed]

Another source on scene at the time offers the hand grenades had been primed and placed in glass jars so they would detonate upon impact / the glass breaking. It was determined, more than likely, one of the jars broke inside the aircraft with the predictable result. There was a report alleging an altimeter detonated bomb had at one time been placed on the Aero Commander 114A but the device failed to explode. This attempt is properly attributed to a Sandinista plan to kill Jose Ivan "Pepe" Alegrett Perez in his role at the head Intelligence officer for the National Guard. This during the failed FSLN "final offensive" in 1979. A US adviser in-country at the time offers later learning the individual responsible for placing the alleged device was a Nicaraguan Air Force non-commissioned officer who was Alegrett's aircraft mechanic.[citation needed]

It was known almost immediately in Managua upon word of the aircraft exploding that hand grenades onboard were involved. Again, according to a US adviser in Managua at the time, "They [Alegrett and Company] were apparently checking out known Sandinista positions in a built up area near Sapoa (in southern Nicaragua) when the crash occurred. The word we started getting almost immediately in Managua was there were hand grenades being thrown from the plane involved."[citation needed]

O'Neil, who recovered a religious medal Echanis wore around his neck during the recovery operation, returned the item to the Echanis family which they recognized as having belonged to their son. The bodies of Echanis and Sanders were initially taken to a NIC hospital morgue (La EEBI y Michael Echanis, Monimbo, Edition 569, Oscar Mendieta) and from there moved to either a hangar or warehouse at the Managua International airport. Here U.S. eye-witness identification was made from two matching Hwa Rang Do tattoos on Echanis' inner forearms and another on his shoulder, according to retired Navy SEAL Skip Crane in a recent interview with Echanis historian Greg Walker. Crane was a good friend of Echanis' and was working at the U.S. Embassy in Managua at the time he helped properly identify the body.[citation needed]


  1. ^ "Vietnam Vet Earns Bronze Star for Heroic Action". Daily Argus-Observer. 
  2. ^ Janich, Michael (2011). "Michael D. Echanis: Hwa Rang Do’s American Mercenary". Black Belt. http://www.blackbeltmag.com/daily/self-defense-training/combatives/michael-d-echanis-hwa-rang-do%E2%80%99s-american-mercenary. 
  3. ^ a b c Todd, Tank (1972). Military Combative Masters of the 20th Century. Los Angeles: Lul Press. pp. 115-118. ISBN 9781411661967. 
  4. ^ "Vietnam Vet Earns Army Bronze Star for Heroic Action". Argus - Observer. February 1971. 
  5. ^ Gattegno, Ilan. "Toshiro Nagato: the gentle giant". USA Dojo. http://www.usadojo.com/biographies/nagato.htm. 
  6. ^ Zimmerman, Richard (1979), "The Echanis Enigma", Black Belt (Active Interest Media, Inc.) 17 (1): 81–83 
  7. ^ Koenig, Peter (January 1977). "America's Special Military Forces Learn Ancient Guerilla Tactics". Black Belt Magazine (Active Interest Media) 15 (1): 20-23. http://www.hwarangdo.com/Magazines/BBJan77-echanis.htm. 
  8. ^ Janich, Michael. The Warrior Path. Spyderco. p. 16. 
  9. ^ Koenig, Peter (January 1, 1977). "America’s Special Forces Learn Ancient Guerilla Tactics". Black Belt 15 (1): 19–23. 
  10. ^ a b c Somoza, Anastasio; Cox, Jack (1980). Nicaragua Betrayed. Western Islands. p. 166. ISBN 0-88279-235-0. 
  11. ^ a b Christian, Shirley (1986). Nicaragua, revolution in the family. Vintage Books. pp. 71–76. ISBN 978-0-394-74457-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=nEsxaiKFbvoC. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  12. ^ Ken Silverstein; Daniel Burton-Rose (2000). Private Warriors. Verso. pp. 151–. ISBN 978-1-85984-756-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=oPO8mP_Scu0C&pg=PA151. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  13. ^ a b Bernard Diederich (1989). Somoza and the legacy of U.S. involvement in Central America. Waterfront Press. pp. 186–197. ISBN 978-0-943862-42-2. 
  14. ^ Prensa Latina (1984). Prisma, Latin American focus. Prenza Latina. pp. 48–49. http://books.google.com/books?id=h89oAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  15. ^ Sunset Cemetery
  16. ^ Ronson, Jon (2004). The Men Who Stare at Goats. Simon & Schuster. pp. 20-24, 53. ISBN 978-0-330-37547-4. 

Further reading