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Mikmaq State Flag (vertical).svg
Grand Council Flag of the Mi'kmaq Nation.[1] Although the flag is meant to be displayed hanging vertically as shown here, it is quite commonly flown horizontally, with the star near the upper hoist.
Total population
Regions with significant populations

Canada (New Brunswick,some people of this tribe live in

Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec), United States (Maine)
English, Mi'kmaq, French
Christianity, Mi'kmaq traditionalism and spirituality, others
Related ethnic groups
other Algonquian peoples
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For other uses, see Mi'kmaq (disambiguation).
Mikmaq State Flag (vertical).svg
Grand Council Flag of the Mi'kmaq Nation.[1] Although the flag is meant to be displayed hanging vertically as shown here, it is quite commonly flown horizontally, with the star near the upper hoist.
Total population
Regions with significant populations

Canada (New Brunswick,some people of this tribe live in

Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec), United States (Maine)
English, Mi'kmaq, French
Christianity, Mi'kmaq traditionalism and spirituality, others
Related ethnic groups
other Algonquian peoples
Mi'kma'ki: Divided into seven districts

The Mi'kmaq (also Micmac and other variants) (English /ˈmɪkmæk/; Mi'kmaq:  [miːɡmax]),[2][3][4] usually pronounced "Migmaw" in Canadian English[citation needed], are a First Nations people, indigenous to Canada's Maritime Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. They call this region Mi'kma'ki. Others today live in Newfoundland and the northeastern region of Maine. The nation has a population of about 40,000 (plus about 25,000 in the Qalipu First Nation in Labrador[5][6]), of whom nearly 11,000 speak the Mi'kmaq language.[7][8] Once written in Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing, it is now written using most letters of the standard Latin alphabet.

The Grand Council (also known as Santé Mawiómi) was the traditional senior level of government for the Mi'kmaq people until Canada passed the Indian Act (1876) to require First Nations to establish representative elected governments. After implementation of the Indian Act, the Grand Council adopted a more spiritual function. The Grand Council was made up of representatives from the seven district councils in Mi'kma'ki.

On September 26, 2011 the Government of Canada announced the recognition of Canada's newest Mi'kmaq First Nations Band, the Qalipu First Nations in Newfoundland and Labrador. The new band, which is landless, has accepted 25,000 applications to become part of the band.[9] The number of applications received by the application deadline on November 30, 2012 exceeded 100,000. The majority of these have yet to be processed.[10] Its members are recognized as Status Indians, joining other organized Mi'kmaq bands recognized in southeast Canada.[11][12]


The ethnonym has traditionally been spelled Micmac in English, but natives have used different spellings: Mi’kmaq (singular Mi’kmaw) by the people of Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, Miigmaq (Miigmao) by those of New Brunswick, Mi’gmaq by the Listuguj Council in Quebec, or Mìgmaq (Mìgmaw) in some native literature.[13]

Until the 1980s, "Micmac" remained the most common spelling in English. Although still used, for example in Ethnologue, this spelling has fallen out of favour in recent years. Most scholarly publications now use the more accurate spelling Mi'kmaq, and it has been adopted by media[14] as the spelling Micmac is now considered to be "colonially tainted".[13] The Míkmaq prefer to use one of the three current Míkmaq orthographies when writing the language.[15]

Lnu (the adjectival and singular noun, previously spelled "L'nu"; the plural is Lnúk, Lnu’k, Lnu’g, or Lnùg) is the term the Mi'kmaq use for themselves, their autonym, meaning "human being" or "the people".[16]

Various explanations exist for the origin of the term Mi'kmaq. The Mi'kmaw Resource Guide states that "Mi'kmaq" means "the family":

The definite article "the" suggests that "Mi'kmaq" is the undeclined form indicated by the initial letter "m". When declined in the singular it reduces to the following forms: nikmaq - my family; kikmaq - your family; wikma - his/her family. The variant form Mi'kmaw plays two grammatical roles: 1) It is the singular of Mi'kmaq and 2) it is an adjective in circumstances where it precedes a noun (e.g. mi'kmaw people, mi'kmaw treaties, mi'kmaw person, etc.)[17]

The Anishinaabe refer to the Mi'kmaq as Miijimaa(g), meaning "The Brother(s)/Ally(ies)", with the use of the nX prefix m-, opposed to the use of n1 prefix n- (i.e. Niijimaa(g), "my brother(s)/comrade(s)") or the n3 prefix w- (i.e. Wiijimaa(g), "brother(s)/compatriot(s)/comrade(s)").[18]

Other hypotheses include the following:

The name "Micmac" was first recorded in a memoir by de La Chesnaye in 1676. Professor Ganong in a footnote to the word megamingo (earth), as used by Marc Lescarbot, remarked "that it is altogether probable that in this word lies the origin of the name Micmac." As suggested in this paper on the customs and beliefs of the Micmacs, it would seem that megumaagee the name used by the Micmacs, or the Megumawaach, as they called themselves, for their land, is from the words megwaak, "red", and magumegek, "on the earth", or as Rand recorded, "red on the earth," megakumegek, "red ground," "red earth." The Micmacs, then, must have thought of themselves as the Red Earth People, or the People of the Red Earth. Others seeking a meaning for the word Micmac have suggested that it is from nigumaach, my brother, my friend, a word that was also used as a term of endearment by a husband for his wife... Still another explanation for the word Micmac suggested by Stansbury Hagar in "Micmac Magic and Medicine" is that the word megumawaach is from megumoowesoo, the name of the Micmacs' legendary master magicians, from whom the earliest Micmac wizards are said to have received their power.[19]

Members of the Mi'kmaq historically referred to themselves as Lnu, but used the term níkmaq (my kin) as a greeting.[20] The French initially referred to the Mi'kmaq as Souriquois"[21] and later as Gaspesiens or (through English) "Mickmakis". The British originally referred to them as Tarrantines.[22]


Pre-contact culture[edit]

Archaeologist Dean Snow states that the fairly deep linguistic split between the Mi'kmaq and the Eastern Algonquians to the southwest suggest an independent prehistoric sequence emphasizing maritime orientation in an area with relatively few major river systems.[23] According to ethnologist T. J. Brasser with climate unfavorable for agriculture, small semi-nomadic bands of a few patrirelated families subsisted on fishing and hunting, and weakly developed leadership did not extend beyond hunting parties.[24]

Food and hunting[edit]

The Mi'kmaq lived in an annual cycle between dispersed interior winter camps and larger coastal communities during the summer. The spawning runs of March began the convergence on smelt spawning streams. This was followed by harvesting spawning herring, gathering waterfowl eggs, and hunting geese. By May the seashore offered abundant cod and shellfish, and coastal breezes brought relief from the biting black flies, stouts, midges and mosquitoes of the interior. Autumn frost killed the biting insects during the September harvest of spawning American eels, allowing dispersal back into the interior in smaller groups to hunt moose and caribou.[25] The most important animal hunted by the Mi'kmaq was the moose, which was used in every part: for example, the meat was processed for food, the skin for clothing, tendons and sinew for cordage, bones for carving and tools. Other animals hunted/trapped included deer, caribou, bear, rabbit, beaver, porcupine and small animals. Bear teeth and claws were used in regalia. Porcupine quills were used in decorative beadwork done by women. The weapon used most for hunting was the bow and arrow. The Mi'kmaq made their bows from maple. The Mi'kmaq people would store lobsters in the ground for later consumption.[citation needed]The Mi’kmaq ate fish of all kinds, such as like salmon, sturgeon, lobster, squid, shellfish, and eels, as well as seabirds and their eggs. They hunted marine mammals: porpoises, whales, walrus, and seals.[26]

Hunting a moose[edit]

The moose was the most important animal to the Mi'kmaq. It was their second main source of meat, clothing and cordage, which were all crucial commodities. The Mi'kmaq usually hunted moose in groups of 3 to 5 men. Before the moose hunt, the Mi'kmaq would starve their dogs for two days to make them fierce in helping to finish off the moose. To kill the moose, they would injure it first, by using a bow and arrow or other weapons. After it was down, they would move in to finish it off with spears and their dogs. The guts would be fed to the dogs. During this whole process, the men would try to direct the moose in the direction of the camp, so that the women would not have to go as far to drag the moose back. A boy became a man in the eyes of the community after he had killed his first moose. It was only then that he had earned the right to marry.

First contacts[edit]

The Mi'kmaq territory was the first portion of North America to be heavily exploited for European resource extraction. Reports by John Cabot and Portuguese explorers encouraged visits by Portuguese, Spanish, Basque, French, and English fishermen and whalers beginning in the early years of the 16th century. Early European fishermen salted their catch at sea and sailed directly home; but camps were established ashore for dry-curing cod as early as 1520 and became the preferred preservation method during the second half of the century.[27] These camps made trade arrangements with Mi'kmaq fishermen; and trading rapidly expanded to include furs. The value of the fur trade changed Mi'kmaq social perspectives. Desire for trade goods encouraged devoting a larger portion of the year away from the coast trapping in the interior. Trapping non-migratory animals like beaver increased awareness of territoriality. Trader preferences for good harbors seasonally concentrated greater numbers of Mi'kmaq in fewer summer rendezvous locations, encouraging establishment of larger bands lead by the ablest trade negotiators.[28]


The Mi'kmaq territory was divided into seven traditional "districts". Each district had its own independent government and boundaries. The independent governments had a district chief and a council. The council members were band chiefs, elders, and other worthy community leaders. The district council was charged with performing all the duties of any independent and free government by enacting laws, justice, apportioning fishing and hunting grounds, making war, suing for peace, etc.

The Seven Mi'kmaq Districts are :

Note : The orthography between parentheses is the one used in the Gespe'gewa'gi area.

In addition to the district councils, there was a Grand Council or Santé Mawiómi. The Grand Council was composed of Keptinaq (captains in English), who were the district chiefs. There were also Elders, the Putús (Wampum belt readers and historians, who also dealt with the treaties with the non-natives and other Native tribes), the women's council, and the Grand Chief. The Grand Chief was a title given to one of the district chiefs, who was usually from the Mi'kmaq district of Unamáki or Cape Breton Island. This title was hereditary and usually passed on to the Grand Chief's eldest son. The Grand Council met on a little island on the Bras d'Or lake in Cape Breton called "Mniku." Today the site is within the reserve called Chapel Island or Potlotek. To this day, the Grand Council still meets at Mniku to discuss current issues within the Mi'kmaq Nation.


Mi'kmaq encampment, Sydney, Cape Breton Island
Mi'kmaq at Turtle Grove (Tufts Cove) settlement, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, ca. 1871.

Mi'kmaq people lived in structures called wigwams. Saplings, which were usually spruce, were cut down and bent over a circle drawn on the ground. These saplings were lashed together at the top, and then covered with birch bark. The Mi'kmaq had two different sizes of wigwams. The smaller size could hold 10-15 people and the larger size 15-20 people. Wigwams could be either conical or domed in shape.

On June 24, 1610, Grand Chief Membertou converted to Catholicism and was baptised. He concluded an alliance with the French Jesuits which affirmed the right of Mi'kmaq to choose Catholicism and\or Mi'kmaw tradition. The Mi'kmaq, as allies with the French, were amenable to limited French settlement in their midst. They began what became a flourishing fur trade.

17th and 18th centuries[edit]

Colonial wars[edit]

Mi'kmaq People (1865)

In the wake of King Phillips War between English colonists and Native Americans in southern New England (which included the first military conflict between the Mi'kmaq and New England), the Mi'kmaq became members of the Wapnáki (Wabanaki Confederacy), an alliance with four other Algonquian-language nations: the Abenaki, Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, and Maliseet.[29]

The Wabanaki Confederacy were allied with French colonists in Acadia. Over a period of seventy-five years, during six wars in Mi'kma'ki (Acadia and Nova Scotia), the Mi'kmaq fought to keep the British from taking over the region (See the four French and Indian Wars as well as Father Rale's War and Father Le Loutre's War). France lost military control of Acadia in 1710, and political claim (apart from Cape Breton) by the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht with England. But, the Mí'kmaq were not included in the treaty and never conceded any land to the British.

In 1715 the Mi'kmaq were told that the British now claimed their ancient territory by the Treaty of Utrecht, which the Mi'kmaq were no party to. They formally complained to the French commander at Louisbourg about the French king transferring the sovereignty of their nation when he did not possess it. They were only then informed that the French had claimed legal possession of their country for a century, on account of laws decreed by kings in Europe, that no land could be legally owned by any non-Christian, and that such land was therefore freely available to any Christian prince who claimed it. Mi'kmaw historian Daniel Paul observes that

If this warped law were ever to be accorded recognition by modern legalists they would have to take into consideration that, after Grand Chief Membertou and his family converted to Christianity in 1610, the land of the Mi'kmaq had become exempt from being seized because the people were Christians. However, it's hard to imagine that a modern government would fall back and try to use such uncivilized garbage as justification for non-recognition of aboriginal title.[30]

Along with Acadians, the Mi'kmaq used military force to resist the founding of British (Protestant) settlements by making numerous raids on Halifax, Dartmouth, Lawrencetown and Lunenburg. During the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War between France and Britain in Europe, the Mi'kmaq assisted the Acadians in resisting the British during the Expulsion. The military resistance was reduced significantly with the French defeat at the Siege of Louisbourg (1758) in Cape Breton.


The Mí'kmaq signed a series of peace and friendship treaties with Great Britain. The first was after Father Rale's War (1725). The nation historically consisted of seven districts, which was later expanded to eight with the ceremonial addition of Great Britain at the time of the 1749 treaty.

Chief Jean-Baptiste Cope signed a Peace Treaty in 1752 on behalf of the Shubenacadie Mi'kmaq.[31] With the signing of various treaties, the 75 years of regular warfare ended in 1761 with the Burying the Hatchet ceremony.

According to historian John G. Reid, although the treaties of 1760-61 contain statements of Mi'kmaw submission to the British crown, he believes that the Mi'kmaw intended a friendly and reciprocal relationship. This is based on what is known of the surrounding discussions, combined with the strong evidence of later Mi'kmaw statements. The Mi'kmaw leaders who represented their people in the Halifax negotiations in 1760 had clear goals: to make peace, establish secure and well-regulated trade in commodities such as furs, and begin an ongoing friendship with the British crown. In return, they offered their own friendship and a tolerance of limited British settlement, although without any formal land surrender.[32] To fulfill the reciprocity intended by the Mi'kmaq, any additional British settlement of land would have to be negotiated, and accompanied by giving presents to the Mi'kmaq. (There was a long history of Europeans giving Mi'kmaq people presents to be accommodated on their land, starting with the first colonial contact.) The documents summarizing the peace agreements failed to establish specific territorial limits on the expansion of British settlements, but assured the Mi’kmaq of access to the natural resources that had long sustained them along the regions’ coasts and in the woods. Their conceptions of land use were quite different. The Mi'kmaq believed they could share the land, with the British growing crops, and their people hunting as usual and getting to the coast for seafood.[33]

Mi'kmaq People (1873)

The arrival of the New England Planters and United Empire Loyalists in greater number put pressure on land use and the treaties. This migration into the region created significant economic, environmental and cultural pressures on the Mi'kmaq. The Mi'kmaq tried to enforce the treaties through threat of force. At the beginning of the American Revolution, many Mi’kmaq and Maliseet tribes supported the Americans against the British. They participated in the Maugerville Rebellion and the Battle of Fort Cumberland in 1776. (Mí'kmaq delegates concluded the first international treaty, the Treaty of Watertown, with the United States soon after it declared its independence in July 1776. These delegates did not officially represent the Mi'kmaq government, although many individual Mi'kmaq did privately join the Continental army as a result.) In June 1779, Mi’kmaq in the Miramichi attacked and plundered some of the British in the area. The following month, British Captain Augustus Harvey, in command of the HMS Viper, arrived and battled with the Mi’kmaq. One Mi’kmaq was killed and 16 were taken prisoner to Quebec. The prisoners were eventually taken to Halifax. They were released on 28 July 1779 after signing the Oath of Allegiance to the British Crown.[34][35]

As their military power waned in the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Mi'kmaq people made explicit appeals to the British to honour the treaties and reminded them of their duty to give "presents" to the Mi'kmaq in order to occupy Mi'kma'ki. In response, the British offered charity or, the word most often used by government officials, "relief". The British said the Mi'kmaq must give up their way of life and begin to settle on farms. Also, they were told they had to send their children to British schools for education.[36]

The Treaties did not gain legal status until they were enshrined into the Canadian Constitution in 1982. Every October 1, "Treaty Day" is now celebrated by Nova Scotians.


During this time period two colonial figures were honoured at their deaths by the Mi'kmaq. Two hundred Mi'kmaq chanted their death song at the burial of Governor Michael Francklin. [37] They also celebrated the life of Pierre Maillard.[38]

19th and 20th centuries[edit]

Mic-Mac hockey sticks[edit]

Mi'kmaq making hockey sticks from hornbeam trees (Carpinus caroliniana) in Nova Scotia about 1890.

The Mi'kmaq practice of playing hockey appeared in recorded colonial histories from as early as the 18th century. Since the nineteenth century, the Mi'kmaq were credited with inventing the ice hockey stick.[39] The oldest known hockey stick was made between 1852 and 1856. Recently, it was appraised at $4 million US and sold for $2.2 million US. The stick was carved by Mi’kmaq from Nova Scotia, who made it from Hornbeam, also known as ironwood.[40]

In the mid-nineteenth century, the Starr Manufacturing Company began to sell the Mic-Mac hockey sticks nationally and internationally.[41] Hockey became a popular sport in Canada in the 1890s.[42] Throughout the first decade of the twentieth century, the Mic-Mac Hockey Stick was the best-selling hockey stick in Canada. By 1903, apart from farming, the principal occupation of the Mi'kmaq on reserves throughout Nova Scotia, and particularly on the Shubenacadie, Indian Brook and Millbrook Reserves, was producing the Mic-Mac Hockey Stick.[41] The department of Indian Affairs for Nova Scotia noted in 1927, that the Mi'kmaq remained the "experts" at making hockey sticks.[43] The Mi'kmaq continued to make hockey sticks until the 1930s, when the product was industrialized.[44]

21st century[edit]

On August 31, 2010, the governments of Canada and Nova Scotia signed an historic agreement with the Mi'kmaq Nation, establishing a process whereby the federal government must consult with the Mi'kmaq Grand Council before engaging in any activities or projects that affect the Mi'kmaq in Nova Scotia. This covers most, if not all, actions these governments might take within that jurisdiction. This is the first such collaborative agreement in Canadian history including all the First Nations within an entire province.[45]

First Nation subdivisions[edit]

Mi'kmaw names in the following table are spelled according to several orthographies. The Mi'kmaw orthographies in use are Míkmaw pictographs, the orthography of Silas Tertius Rand, the Pacifique orthography, and the most recent Smith-Francis orthography. The latter has been adopted throughout Nova Scotia and in most Mi'kmaw communities.

CommunityProvince/StateTown/ReserveEst. Pop.Mi'kmaq name
Abegweit First Nation Prince Edward IslandScotchfort, Rocky Point, Morell396Epekwitk
Acadia First Nation Nova ScotiaYarmouth996Malikiaq
Annapolis Valley First Nation Nova ScotiaCambridge Station219Kampalijek
Aroostook Band of Micmac MainePresque Isle920Ulustuk
Bear River First Nation Nova ScotiaBear River272Lsetkuk
Buctouche First Nation New BrunswickBuctouche80Puktusk
Burnt Church First Nation New BrunswickBurnt Church 141,488Eskinuopitijk
Chapel Island First Nation Nova ScotiaChapel Island576Potlotek
Eel Ground First Nation New BrunswickEel Ground844Natuaqanek
Eel River Bar First Nation New BrunswickEel River Bar589Ugpi'gangij
Elsipogtog First Nation New BrunswickBig Cove3000+Lsipuktuk
Eskasoni First Nation Nova ScotiaEskasoni3,800+Wékistoqnik
Fort Folly First Nation New BrunswickDorchester105Amlamkuk Kwesawék
Micmacs of Gesgapegiag QuebecGesgapegiag1,174Keskapekiaq
Nation Micmac de Gespeg QuebecFontenelle490Kespék
Glooscap First Nation Nova ScotiaHantsport360Pesikitk
Indian Island First Nation New BrunswickIndian Island145Lnui Menikuk
Lennox Island First Nation Prince Edward IslandLennox Island700Lnui Mnikuk
Listuguj Mi'gmaq First Nation QuebecListuguj Mi'gmaq First Nation3,166Listikujk
Membertou First Nation Nova ScotiaSydney1,051Maupeltuk
Metepenagiag Mi'kmaq Nation New BrunswickRed Bank527Metepnákiaq
Miawpukek First Nation Newfoundland and LabradorConne River2,366Miawpukwek
Qalipu First Nation Newfoundland and LabradorNewfoundland and Labrador21,429[5]Qalipu[46][47]
Millbrook First Nation Nova ScotiaTruro1400Wékopekwitk
Pabineau First Nation New BrunswickBathurst214Kékwapskuk
Paq'tnkek First Nation Nova ScotiaAfton500Paqtnkek
Pictou Landing First Nation Nova ScotiaTrenton547Puksaqtéknékatik
Indian Brook First Nation Nova ScotiaIndian Brook (Shubenacadie)2,120Sipekníkatik
Wagmatcook First Nation Nova ScotiaWagmatcook623Waqmitkuk
Waycobah First Nation Nova ScotiaWhycocomagh900Wékoqmáq


1500     4,500Estimation
1600     3,000Estimation
1700     2,000Estimation
1750     3,000Estimation
1800     3,100Estimation
1900     4,000Census
1940     5,000Census
1960     6,000Census
1972     10,000Census
1998   15,000SIL
2006   20,000Census

The pre-contact population is estimated at 3,000-30,000.[48] In 1616, Father Biard believed the Mi'kmaq population to be in excess of 3,000, but he remarked that, because of European diseases, there had been large population losses during the 16th century. Smallpox and other endemic European infectious diseases, to which the Mi'kmaq had no immunity, wars and alcoholism led to a further decline of the native population. It reached its lowest point in the middle of the 17th century. Then the numbers grew slightly again, before becoming apparently stable during the 19th century. During the 20th century, the population was on the rise again. The average growth from 1965 to 1970 was about 2.5%.


In the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador, October is celebrated as Mi'kmaq History Month. The entire Nation celebrates Treaty Day annually on October 1. This was first signified in the year, 1752, with the Peace and Friendship Treaty (also called the Treaty of 1752) signed by Jean-Baptiste Cope of Shubenacadie and the king's representative. It was stated that the natives would be given gifts annually,"as long as they continued in Peace."[49]

Religion and folklore[edit]

A dancer in the Mi'kmaq celebration

In Mi'kmaq religion, evil and wickedness among men is what causes them to kill each other. This causes great sorrow to the creator-sun-god, who weeps tears that become rains sufficient to trigger a deluge. The people attempt to survive the flood by traveling in bark canoes, but only a single old man and woman survive to populate the earth.[50] The Mi'kmaq people had three levels of oral traditions: religious myths, legends, and folklore. Myths are used to tell the stories of the earliest possible time, which includes their creation stories. Other myths account for the organization of the world and society; for instance, how men and women were created and why they are different from one another. These myths were powerful symbolically and as the expression of how things came to be and should be.

Legends are oral traditions related to particular places. Legends can involve the recent or distant past, but are most important in linking people and specific places in the land.

The people also tell folktales, which involve all the people. They are understood to be fictional These traditional tales also give moral or social lessons to youth, and are told for amusement about the way people are. Good storytellers were highly prized by the Mi'kmaq,[51] as they are in every culture, which develop many means to tell their stories.

See also: Glooscap


The Mi'kmaq people have been commemorated in numerous ways, including the HMCS Micmac (R10), and place names such as Lake Micmac, and the Mic Mac Mall.[52]

Notable Mi'kmaq[edit]







Spiritual sites[edit]

One spiritual capital of the Mi'kmaq nation is Mniku, the gathering place of the Míkmaq Grand Council or Santé Mawiómi, Chapel Island in Bras d'Or Lake of Nova Scotia. The island is also the site of the St. Anne Mission, an important pilgrimage site for the Mi'kmaq. The island has been declared a historic site.[54]


Maps showing the approximate locations of areas occupied by members of the Wabanaki Confederacy (from north to south):

In popular culture[edit]

The history of the Mi'kmaq feature in the Syfy television series Haven.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Flags of the World
  2. ^ Native Languages of the Americas: Mi'kmaq (Mi'kmawi'simk, Mi'kmaw, Micmac, Míkmaq)
  3. ^ Lockerby, E. (2004). Ancient Mi’kmaq Customs: A Shamans Revelations. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 24(2), 403-423. see note 2
  4. ^ Sock, S., & Paul-Gould, S. (2011). Best Practices and Challenges in Mi’kmaq and Maliseet/Wolastoqi Language Immersion Programs.
  5. ^ a b Qalipu First Nations Official Website http://qalipu.ca/membership-programs-and-services/membership/
  6. ^ http://www.thewesternstar.com/News/Local/2013-01-17/article-3158443/Protest-against-Qalipu-application-process-planned-for-Monday/1. Western Star, 13 Jan. 2013. Web. 3 Mar. 2013.
  7. ^ Indigenous Languages Spoken in the United States
  8. ^ Statistics Canada 2006
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Sheppard, Brendan. "Update on Enrolment Process," Qalipu Mi'kmaq First Nation Band., 17 Jan. 2013. Web. <http://qalipu.ca/>.
  11. ^ "Government of Canada announces creation of Qalipu Mi'kmaq First Nation Band", Market Watch, 26 September 2011
  12. ^ Qalipu First Nations Official Website
  13. ^ a b Emmanuel Metallic et al., 2005, The Metallic Mìgmaq-English Reference Dictionary
  14. ^ Anne-Christine Hornborg, Mi'kmaq Landscapes (2008), p. 3
  15. ^ "It is now the preferred choice of our People." Daniel Paul, We Were Not the Savages, 2000, p. 10
  16. ^ The Nova Scotia Museum's Míkmaq Portraits database
  17. ^ Mi'kmaw Resource Guide, Eastern Woodlands Publishing (1997)
  18. ^ Weshki-ayaad, Lippert, Gambill (2009). Freelang Ojibwe Dictionary
  19. ^ cited in Paul to Marion Robertson, Red Earth: Tales of the Micmac, with an introduction to their customs and beliefs (1965) p. 5.
  20. ^ Johnston, A. J. B. (2013). Ni'n na L'nu: The Mi'kmaq of Prince Edward Island. Acorn Press. p. 96. 
  21. ^ Relations des Jésuites de la Nouvelle-France
  22. ^ Lydia Affleck and Simon White. "Our Language". Native Traditions. Retrieved 2006-11-08. 
  23. ^ Snow, p.69
  24. ^ Brasser, p.78
  25. ^ Bock, pp.109&110
  26. ^ http://museum.gov.ns.ca/
  27. ^ Brasser, pp.79&80
  28. ^ Brasser, pp.83&84
  29. ^ The allied tribes occupied the territory which the French named Acadia. The tribes ranged from present-day northern and eastern New England in the United States to the Maritime Provinces of Canada. At the time of contact with the French (late 16th century), they were expanding from their maritime base westward along the Gaspé Peninsula /St. Lawrence River at the expense of Iroquoian-speaking tribes. The Mi'kmaq name for this peninsula was Kespek (meaning "last-acquired").
  30. ^ Daniel Paul, We Were Not the Savages pp 74-75.
  31. ^ Historian William Wicken notes that there is controversy about this assertion. While there are claims that Cope made the treaty on behalf of all the Mi'kmaq, there is no written documentation to support this assertion (See William Wicken. Mi'kmaq Treaties on Trial: History, Land, and Donald Marshall Jr, University of Toronto Press, 2002, p. 184)
  32. ^ John Reid. Nova Scotia: A Pocket History, Fernwood Press. 2009. p. 23
  33. ^ Plank, Unsettled Conquest, p. 163
  34. ^ Sessional papers, Volume 5 By Canada. Parliament July 2 - September 22, 1779; Wilfred Brenton Kerr. The Maritime Provinces of British North America and the American Revolution, p. 96
  35. ^ Among the annual festivals of the old times, now mostl lost, was the celebration of St. Aspinquid's Day; he was known as the Indian Saint. St. Aspinquid appeared in the Nova Scotia almanacks from 1774 to 1786. The festival was celebrated on or immediately after the last quarter of the moon in the month of May, when the tide was low. The townspeople assembled on the shore of the North West Arm and shared a dish of clam soup, the clams being collected on the spot at low water. There is a tradition that in 1786, soon after the American Revolutionary War, when there were threats of American invasion of Canada, agents of the US were trying to recruit supporters in Halifax. As people were celebrating St. Aspinquid with wine, they suddenly hauled down the Union Jack and replaced it with the Stars and Stripes [US flag]. This was soon reversed, but public officials quickly left, and St. Aspinquid was never after celebrated at Halifax. (See Akins. History of Halifax, p. 218, note 94)
  36. ^ Reid. p. 26
  37. ^ Memoir of Michael Franklin Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, p. 38
  38. ^ "Burial celebration of Pierre Maillard", Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society. Vol. 1, p. 44
  39. ^ Brian Cutherbertson, "The Starr Manufacturing Company: Skate Exporter to the World", Journal of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society, Vol. 8, 2005, p. 60
  40. ^ [2]
  41. ^ a b Brian Cutherbertson The Starr Manufacturing Company: Skate Exporter to the World. Journal of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society, Vol. 8, 2005, p. 61
  42. ^ Cutherbertson, p. 58
  43. ^ Cutherbertson (2005), "The Starr Manufacturing Company", p. 73
  44. ^ Cutherbertson (2005), "The Starr Manufacturing Company", p. 63
  45. ^ "Mi'kmaq of Nova Scotia, Province of Nova Scotia and Canada Sign Landmark Agreement", Market Wire, August 2010
  46. ^ 'Government of Canada Announces the Creation of the Qalipu First Nation Band' by Marketwire http://www.marketwatch.com/story/government-of-canada-announces-the-creation-of-the-qalipu-mikmaq-first-nation-band-2011-09-26
  47. ^ Press Release September 26, 2011 http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/26/idUS146921+26-Sep-2011+MW20110926
  48. ^ Dickshovel - Micmac
  49. ^ Treaty of 1752|http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/al/hts/tgu/pubs/pft1752/pft1752-eng.asp
  50. ^ Canada's First Nations - Native Creation Myths, University of Calgary
  51. ^ [3]
  52. ^ Bates, George T. (1961). Megumaage: the home of the Micmacs or the True Men. A map of Nova Scotia. 
  53. ^ See www.danielnpaul.com
  54. ^ CBCnews. Cape Breton Míkmaq site recognized


18th-19th centuries[edit]

Documentary film[edit]

External links[edit]