Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia

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Metropolitan Police of
the District of Columbia
Common nameMetropolitan Police Department
AbbreviationMPDC or MPD
Patch of the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia.png
Patch of the Metropolitan Police Department
Seal of the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia.png
Seal of the Metropolitan Police Department
MottoJustitia Omnibus
(English: Justice For All)
Agency overview
FormedAugust 6, 1861
Preceding agencyWashington City Police (daytime)

Auxiliary Guard (nighttime)

Legal personalityGovernmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Washington, D.C. locator map.svg
Map of Metropolitan Police of
the District of Columbia's jurisdiction.
Legal jurisdictionWashington D.C.
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersHenry J. Daly Building
300 Indiana Avenue NW
Officers3,800
Civilians460
Agency executiveCathy L. Lanier, Chief of Police
Facilities
District stations7, 2 Substations
Patrol carsFord Taurus (Police Interceptor), Chevrolet Impala (Police Package), Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor
Website
www.MPDC.DC.gov
 
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Metropolitan Police of
the District of Columbia
Common nameMetropolitan Police Department
AbbreviationMPDC or MPD
Patch of the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia.png
Patch of the Metropolitan Police Department
Seal of the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia.png
Seal of the Metropolitan Police Department
MottoJustitia Omnibus
(English: Justice For All)
Agency overview
FormedAugust 6, 1861
Preceding agencyWashington City Police (daytime)

Auxiliary Guard (nighttime)

Legal personalityGovernmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Washington, D.C. locator map.svg
Map of Metropolitan Police of
the District of Columbia's jurisdiction.
Legal jurisdictionWashington D.C.
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersHenry J. Daly Building
300 Indiana Avenue NW
Officers3,800
Civilians460
Agency executiveCathy L. Lanier, Chief of Police
Facilities
District stations7, 2 Substations
Patrol carsFord Taurus (Police Interceptor), Chevrolet Impala (Police Package), Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor
Website
www.MPDC.DC.gov

The Metropolitan Police of the District of Columbia (MPDC), referred to generally and officially as the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) or unofficially as the "D.C. Police", is the primary law enforcement agency of Washington, D.C. The MPD has a unique role among law enforcement in the United States in that it serves as a local police department, with county, state and Federal responsibilities, and is under a municipal government but operates under Federal authority.

The MPD was formed in 1861 by an act of the United States Congress. During its history it was involved in several notable cases including the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, the assassination of President James A. Garfield, the 1968 Washington, D.C. riots, and the September 11 terrorist attacks. Today the MPD is one of the ten largest local police departments in the United States and is at the forefront of providing police services to the District through community policing and modern technology.[1]

The MPD is organized into six bureaus that provide services including Patrol, Investigations, Internal Affairs, Homeland Security, Strategic Services, and Corporate Support. Within the Washington D.C., the MPD patrol seven police districts which are further divided into Police Service Areas. Since 2007, the department has been led by Chief of Police Cathy L. Lanier. She has been singled out in publications for her community oriented and technology-driven approach to policing that has helped modernize the MPD and lower crime rates.[2]

Duties[edit]

An MPDC cruiser at Pennsylvania Avenue near the U.S. Capitol in April 2009.

The Metropolitan Police Department is the primary law enforcement agency for Washington, D.C. It is responsible for providing police services to the District such as patrol and criminal investigations, and is also charged with protecting the President and Congress. As the capital of the United States, Washington is a Federal district and subject to the ultimate authority of the United States Congress, including the Metropolitan Police. The MPD has a unique role in that it serves as a local police department, with county, state and Federal responsibilities, and is under a municipal government but operates under Federal authority. They are responsible for operating the District's sex offender registry, approving all applications for motorcades, protests, demonstrations and other public events, and maintain the District's firearm registry.[3] The MPD's mission states:

It is the mission of the Metropolitan Police Department to safeguard the District of Columbia and protect its residents and visitors by providing the highest quality of police service with integrity, compassion, and a commitment to innovation that integrates people, technology and progressive business systems.[1]

The Metropolitan Police is the only law enforcement agency allowed under law to shut down roads within the District and is also responsible for the protection of the President of the United States. As such, MPD always leads the presidential motorcade when traveling in the District and, under certain circumstances, also leads outside the District in conjunction with local agencies. They work closely with the United States Secret Service in planning presidential routes and providing protection for the President, the First Family, the Vice President of the United States, visiting dignitaries and VIPs as well as protecting foreign embassies.[4]

Under the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, the President may take direct control of the MPD for Federal purposes such as during a 48 hour emergency. During longer periods of time, the President must provide to Congress in writing his reasons for continuing control of the MPD. This control can be extended at any time beyond 30 days if either the emergency continues or if Congress passes a law ordering it.[5]

The MPD is assisted by various federal law enforcement agencies, primarily the United States Park Police, the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division, and the United States Capitol Police. Under District law, the MPD has a mutual aid agreement with over 32 law enforcement agencies operating within the District. They are also assisted by the Federal Bureau of Investigations for evidence collection and task force investigations and they work closely with the United States Marshals Service which performs the functions of a county sheriff for the District. The MPD also works with the Metro Transit Police Department which has jurisdiction in the District, Maryland, and Virginia to protect the Washington Metro Transit Authority. The MPD is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "Metro" Police Department though this is actually the transit police.

History[edit]

19th century[edit]

As the US Civil War raged, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln took a personnel interest in the formation of the a regular police force for the nation's capital. Washington had quickly filled with soldiers, government employees, and citizens hoping to cash in on the war. The crowds, crime, and the constant threat of southern spies, had made the capital into a rowdy city barely under control. Formed by an act of the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Lincoln on August 8, 1861 the Metropolitan Police replaced the previous two forces, largely viewed as inept: the Washington City police, which was formed by the city council, and the Auxiliary Guard, which was formed by the U.S. Congress, as well as the constables assigned by the U.S. state of Maryland to patrol Washington County. After the formation of the Metropolitan Police Board, which was to govern the new police department, Lincoln sent a member of the board to study the New York City Police Department and its structure, itself modeled on the London Metropolitan Police Service.[6]

The Metropolitan Police Board unanimously chose one of its members, William Benning Webb who was commissioned as a Major in the army, to serve as the first Chief of Police, the formal title being "Major and Superintendent".[7] The Police Board initially divided the District into 10 precincts. The First Precinct constituted the portion of Washington County east of the Anacostia River, while the Second Precinct included the county territory north of Washington City and between the Anacostia and Rock Creek. The Third Precinct comprised the remainder of Washington County west of Rock Creek, including Georgetown and the island of Analostan in the Potomac River. The Fourth through Tenth precincts corresponded respectively with the First through Seventh wards of Washington City.[8] Beginning immediately, Superintendent Webb worked to organize the department which had an authorized strength of ten sergeants and as many patrolmen as needed, though not to exceed 150. The majority of the new department was hired by September with the Superintendent of Police salaried annually at $1,500, sergeants received $600, and patrolmen were paid $480. The officers worked 12 hour shifts, seven days a week with no holidays or vacation time. At first officers were issued no uniform or badges and had to purchase their own firearms. The US Capitol building was chosen as the back drop of the MPD badge a month later and today's badge has changed little from the original. The first arrest by an MPD officer was for public intoxication.[6]

At the urging of U.S. Marshal for the District of Columbia Ward Lamon and United States Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, President Lincoln agreed in November 1864 agreed to have bodyguards, though he felt that the President of the United States should not have found it necessary to have guards at all. Superintendent Webb had four MPD officers assigned the task of guarding the White House grounds and accompanying the president on his walks through the city. However Lincoln did not want this fact made public and the officer's orders were not made official and they wore plainclothes with their revolvers concealed. One of the officers, William H. Crook, the most well known of Lincoln's original guards, would go on to serve under five other administrations and wrote down his recollections in a book Through Five Administrations. He became close to Lincoln and accompanied him to Richmond, Virgina at Lincoln's request after the city was captured. Two officers would begin their shift at 8 a.m. till 4 p.m. They were then relieved by an officer who stay till midnight and was then himself relieved at 8 the next morning.[9]

In December 1864, A. C. Richards became Major and Superintendent, a post he would hold through the next 14 years.[10] Richards was present at Ford's Theater the night the President Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. In one of the lowest points of the MPD's history, the police officer who was to guard Lincoln that night, John Frederick Parker, had left his post at the door to Lincoln's box, presumably to get a drink at the bar across the street. Officer Crook, who had been on duty that day and had been relieved by Parker who was several hours late for his shift, would place blame in his book on Parker for Lincoln's death.[9]

After Booth had fled the theater, Major Richards, began organizing the activities for investigation until it was taken over by Secretary Stanton. In the hours immediately after the assassination, MPD officers enforced closures of all places of entertainment and helped seal off the city. They patrolled the streets on horses alongside members of the Military Provost. That night on April 14, 1865, an MPD detective entered into the daily blotter: At this hour the melancholy intelligence of the assassination of Mr. Lincoln President of the U.S. at Fords Theatre was brought to this office and the information obtained...goes to show that the assassin is a man named J. Wilks Boothe. It remains the most famous entry in the MPD's records. A tip provided to MPD detectives indicated that the Surratt boarding house at 614 H Street was linked to the assassination. The tip would lead to the eventual trial and execution of Booth's conspirators.[8]

In 1871, the first MPD officer was killed in the line of duty. On Friday, December 29, 1871, Officer Francis M. Doyle and several other officers attempted to gain entry to the house of a thief to recover stolen property. When they forced the door, the wife of the suspected thief fired at them striking Doyle in the chest and killing him instantly. Although the wife was arrested and tried for the murder, she was acquitted. Officer Doyle was a veteran of the Civil War, having served in the US Navy, and had been with the MPD for five years. He was 38 years old at the time of his death and was survived by his wife and three children.[11]

The MPD also has the unique historical fact of having arrested a sitting U.S. President. During his presidency, Ulysses S. Grant was known to speed in his horse and buggy on Washington's streets. The MPD had issued him three different citations for this offense. On the fourth occasion, President Grant was arrested on M Street for racing and his horse and buggy were confiscated. When brought to the station however, the officers became unsure if a sitting president could be formally charged if he had not been impeached. Grant was allowed to pay a fine but had to walk back to the White House.[12] In 1878, Congress abolished the Metropolitan Police Board and its duties were taken over by the newly formed DC Board of Commissioners, established by Congress to govern the entire District. That year as well, Thomas P. Morgan was named to replace Richards, who had resigned, as Major and Superintendent.[13] Although a police fund had been established during the MPD's first year to assist those officers injured in the line of duty,[14] Morgan would add to this by establishing a retirement fund for older officers who could no longer perform their duties.[13]

On July 2, 1881, the MPD took part in investigating the assassination of President James A. Garfield. The assassin, Charles J. Guiteau, approached Garfield at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station and fired his weapon twice, hitting Garfield. Though Garfield had no bodyguards, MPD Officer Patrick Kearney had been nearby and arrested Guiteau before he could leave the station. Kearney took Guiteau a few blocks away to the station to be booked where the small pistol that Guiteau had used was discovered inside his jacket pocket. The officials at the station at first refused to believe Kearney's claims that Guiteau had shot the president.[14] The detective blotter would note the shooting, investigation, and arrest as well as Garfield's death several weeks later.[8]

20th century[edit]

In the summer of 1918, Major and Superintendent Raymond W. Pulliam established a the Women's Bureau, originally directed by Marion O. Spingarn. The Women's Bureau was created to deal with issues involving juveniles, specifically girls, such as delinquency, investigating casework on juveniles, preventive welfare work to curb criminality in juveniles, and the supervision of movie theatres, dance halls, and similar places. Most of the officers in the Bureau in 1920 were trained as school teachers, nurses, or social workers, and included one lawyer. On October 7, 1918, Mina Van Winkle was appointed a police officer in the Women's Bureau. She was known to be extremely outspoken and was an ardent supporter of protection for girls and other women during the law enforcement and judicial process. In January 1919 Van Winkle became director of the Women's Bureau, a post she held till her death in 1932.[15]

Also in 1919, the MPD established a "School of Instruction" on the third floor of the 7th Precinct. This was the early forerunner to the Training Bureau and today's Metropolitan Police Academy. A group of 22 officers took a 30-day course in the fundamental duties of police officers, the law of arrest, and court procedures. BY 1930, an official training school was established. The school expanding the original course work to a three month period and additionally it brought in outside experts from various fields to instruct.[6]

In December 1951 Robert V. Murray became Major and Superintendent. He took the command of a demoralized department marred by embarrassments, corruption, and waning public support. During his 13 years as chief, Murray would be credited with making the most sweeping, and longest lasting changes in the MPD's history and is seen as bringing the department into the modern era of policing. One of his first acts was that he would make rounds of the various precincts, inspecting them and the officers where he promised his support. He developed a code of ethics for officers and created a new branch to investigate police corruption named the Internal Investigations Division the precursor to the Internal Affairs Division. Murray also made good on his promise to improve conditions for his department. By 1952 Murray had petitioned Congress to give his officers a ten percent raise, had turned the six day work week into a five day work week, and worked to have two officers per patrol car. He went on to improve the MPD's vehicle fleet, initiated the use of canines, radar, helicopters and experimented with hand held radios.[16]

In 1953 Congress passed the District Government Reorganization Act. It formally abolished the rank and title of Major and Superintended and replaced it with the position of Chief of Police. Murray would be the last Major and Superintended and the first Chief of Police of the MPD. Murray's reforms and efforts improved the images of the department which expanded to 3,000 officers. He and the MPD earned public accolades for their handling of the Transit strikes in the hot summers of 1955 and 1956, the March on Washington, and the funeral of President John F. Kennedy. One of his final major acts would be to fully integrate assignments. Specific assignments would not longer be held by only white officers and black officers would no longer be given only certain beats to work. While it did not eliminate racial tensions and discrimination, it moved the department forward towards racial equality.[16]

The 1968 Washington, D.C. riots in the aftermath of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. were the most devastating to the city and only ended when the National Guard was called out to assist the overwhelmed MPDC.[17]

On September 20, 1974 Officer Gail Cobb was shot and killed becoming the first female American police officer killed in the line of duty.[18]

Officers of the MPDC were also present at the assassination attempt of President Ronald Reagan during which one officer, Thomas Delahanty, was shot.[19] In the late 1980s and early 1990s Washington was hit by the crack epidemic and the homicide rates soared. The District soon became known as the "murder capital" of the nation.[20]

21st century[edit]

The MPD also responded to the September 11 attacks of 2001. Charles H. Ramsey, then Chief of Police stated in an interview:

We had just finished up a meeting when my chief of staff came in and told me I needed to go into his office and take a look at what was going on in New York. He had the Today Show on and he was looking at images of the first tower burning, the second tower had not yet been hit. I asked what happened and he said nobody seems to know. A small plane is the way it was described must have flown into the building. Everybody was still kind of not sure if it was an accident, on purpose or whatever and as we were standing there looking we actually saw the second plane strike the second tower, so we immediately knew that that was certainly no accident.

The MPD activated its newly built Command Information Center. Although it not officially opened yet, 9-11 became its first day of operations. While some equipment had been installed, other devices, such as phones, had not and had to be installed on the fly as emergency personnel arrived to respond. Officials from various agencies and department including the United States Park Police, United States Capitol Police, the FBI, Secret Service, and the FAA's military district arrived to respond. Around that time, they were notified that The Pentagon had been hit as well. Though the Pentagon is across the river in Arlington County, Virginia, MPD officers responded to assist with the emergency response. Additionally, officers in conjunction with the Park Police, locked down all Federal buildings along the National Mall including establishing a perimeter around the White House.[21]

Bo, the Obama family dog, sits in an MPD police cruiser in 2009.

The US Park Police had sent its two helicopters to respond to assist with operations at the Pentagon. Shortly thereafter, the flight control tower at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport was evacuated. Flight control of all airspace over the Washington metro area was turned over to the US Park Police helicopters who coordinated with NORAD. However, needing to assist with evacuating victims, the Park Police requested assistance from the MPD. Shortly thereafter, an MPD helicopter arrived and took over command and control of Washington's air space.[22]

That evening, after the majority of the population had arrived at home Washington's streets laid empty, Chief Ramsey, his Executive Assistant Chief Terry Gainer, FBI Director Robert Mueller, and Secret Service Director Brian L. Stafford, drove around DC to check security measures of the locked down city. While several officers also wanted to assist with efforts in New York, many had to remain in DC and the majority of the department worked 12 hour shifts several weeks after the attacks. Ramsey noted that at the time many, himself included, thought that there were more attacks to come.[21]

On January 2, 2007, Cathy L. Lanier took the post of Chief of Police. Lanier, who began her career as a Metropolitan Police patrol officer, became the first female chief of the department. In 2012 the city attained a lowered homicide rate not seen since 1961.[2]

On September 16, 2013, MPDC officers responded to the Washington Navy Yard for an active shooter. Two officers were shot, one of them in the legs, the other in his vest, before the suspect was killed by police.[23]

Structure[edit]

Cathy L. Lanier, the current Chief of Police

Police officers spend approximately three years learning their basic patrol duties and during that time period may also work as a member of the patrol district's vice unit or in a tactical unit if selected. After three years with Metropolitan Police Department, police officers may apply and compete for many specialized jobs including crime scene search officer, officer assigned to the Canine Unit, Emergency Response Team or Explosive Ordnance Disposal Unit (bomb squad), Harbor Patrol Unit, Helicopter Branch, Narcotics and Special Investigations, and Special Events. Moreover, police officers may compete in the centralized selection process for investigator that is the entry-level job in the detective career path. Officers interested in advancing to the rank of sergeant, must have four years at the time of the promotional examination that is given every other year.

The Department is headed by a Chief of Police. The MPD as a whole is composed of the Executive Office of the Chief of Police, whose executive officer is the three-star Executive Assistant Chief, and seven bureaus (Patrol Services and School Security, Homeland Security, Professional Development, Investigative Services, Internal Affairs, Corporate Support and Strategic Services). The first five bureaus are each headed by a two-star Assistant Chief. Each bureau is organized into divisions or districts, each headed by a Commander.

Police districts[edit]

Within the Patrol Services and School Security Bureau, each district is headed by a Commander. Inspectors are either division commanders or the assistant executive officers of a district, and are also in charge of district substations. Captains are district administrative officers who each oversee several Police Service Areas (PSAs) within a district. Lieutenants are either in charge of units or oversee an individual PSA.[2]

Ranks[edit]

These are the current ranks of Metropolitan Police Department:

TitleInsigniaUniformBadge ColorNotes
Chief of Police
US-O10 insignia.svg
White shirt, blue pantsGold, with title inscribed on badge
Assistant Chief
US-O8 insignia.svg
Commander
US-O6 insignia.svg
Inspector
US-O5 insignia.svg
Captain
US-O3 insignia.svg
Lieutenant
US-O2 insignia.svg
Sergeant
MPDC Sergeant Stripes.png
Blue shirt, blue pants
Master Patrol Officer
MPDC Corporal Stripes.png
SilverHolds supervisory authority only in a limited capacity if no sergeant is on scene
Patrol Officer First Class
First Class Stripes - Blue w-White.png
Holds no supervisory authority and is used as a title for commendation.
Officer / Senior Police Officer
Blank.jpg
Senior Police Officer is a title given to those officers who formally retire but return to service in a "contract employee" status. They can be placed back in patrol or other speciality positions. The position must be annually renewed.
Recruit Officer
Blank.jpg
Tan shirt and pantsNoneOfficers who are in training at the Metropolitan Police Academy

Detectives[edit]

Detectives do not hold supervisory authority over a sergeant and above and do not have supervisory authority over uniformed officers except when taking charge of a crime scene. Members who hold the rank of sergeant or above but are assigned to the Criminal Investigation Division or have investigatory duties, are referred to with the "Detective" title in front i.e. "Detective-Sergeant".

TitleNotes
Detective I
Awarded as special recognition for outstanding service and holds minimal supervisory authority when no sergeant is on scene. Requires 7 years of service, 5 of which must be spent as a Detective II
Detective II
Requires completing 1 year as an Investigator
Investigator
Training and evaluation phase for those wanting to become full detectives

Demographics[edit]

The department maintains approximately 3,800 sworn officers and 600 civilian support staff, making it one of the ten largest police forces within the United States.[1] The department historically has been known for hiring a large number of African American police officers during times when African American police officers were uncommon in other police departments.[24] In 1968, African Americans constituted 25% of the department's force and in 1970 constituted 35% of the department's force[25] the highest percentages of African American police on a large police department at the time. In 1978, the department became the first police department in a major city in the United States to become majority African American. The department currently has one of the highest percentages of African American officers amongst United States Police Departments, at 66%. The remainder of the department is 28% White, 5% Hispanic, and 1% Asian. Males account for 76% of the force, while females make up 24%.[26]

Fallen officers[edit]

Since the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Department, 121 officers have died in the line of duty. The MPD maintains a comprehensive list of remembrance on its memorial webpage.[27] The cause of deaths are as follows:

Cause of deathNumber of deaths
Accidental
2
Aircraft accident
2
Animal related
1
Automobile accident
9
Bicycle accident
1
Drowned
3
Duty-related illness
2
Fall
3
Gunfire
61
Gunfire (Accidental)
7
Heart attack
4
Motorcycle accident
12
Stabbed
1
Struck by streetcar
1
Struck by vehicle
4
Vehicle pursuit
2
Vehicular assault
6

Fleet[edit]

VehicleCountry of OriginTypeNotesPicture
Ford Police Interceptor Sedan United States of AmericaCruiser2013 Ford Police Interceptor sedan -- 07-11-2012.JPG
Chevrolet Impala 9C1 United States (Origin)
 Canada (Manufacture)
Cruiser06-09 Chevrolet Impala police.jpg
Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor United States (Origin)
 Canada (Manufacture)
CruiserMPDC cruiser 130.jpg
Ford E-350 United States of AmericaVanMPD E-350 No63 2010-10-30.JPG
Ford F-550 United States of AmericaTruckUsed by the MPD Special Operations DivisionMPD SOD F-550 No8649 2010-10-30.JPG
Dodge Ram United States of AmericaTruckMPDC Dodge Ram (3559724681).jpg

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c MPDC. "About MPDC". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  2. ^ a b c MPD Annual Report 2012
  3. ^ MPDC. "MPDC Services". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  4. ^ MPDC. "MPD Homeland Security and Special Operations Division". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  5. ^ "District of Columbia Home Rule Act: Emergency Control of Police". ABF Associates. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  6. ^ a b c MPDC. "Brief History of the MPDC". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  7. ^ MPDC. "William B. Webb". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  8. ^ a b c John P. Deeben (Spring, 2008). "To Protect and to Serve: The Records of the D.C. Metropolitan Police, 1861–1930". National Archives. Retrieved 2014-01-30. 
  9. ^ a b Crook, William H. (1910). Through Five Administrations. New York: Harper and Brothers. 
  10. ^ MPDC. "A. C. Richards". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  11. ^ ODMP. "Officer Francis M. Doyle". Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  12. ^ Mark Segraves (September 6, 2012). "D.C. police once arrested a U.S. president for speeding". National Archives. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  13. ^ a b MPDC. "Thomas P. Morgan". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  14. ^ a b Richard Sylvester (1894). District of Columbia Police: A Retrospect of the Police Organizations of the Cities of Washington and Georgetown and the District of Columbia, with Biographical Sketches ... and Historic Cases. Pub. for the Benefit of the Policemen's Fund. Gibson Bros., printers. 
  15. ^ Raymond W. Pullman, “Annual Report of the Major & Superintendent of the Metropolitan Police,” pp. 10-11, 76-81 (1919).
  16. ^ a b MPDC. "Robert V. Murray". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  17. ^ Risen, Clay (2009). "April 5: 'Official Disorder on Top of Civil Disorder'". A Nation on Fire : America in the Wake of the King Assassination. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-17710-5. 
  18. ^ "Police Officer Gail A. Cobb". The Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved 2009-08-04. "While walking her beat, she was tipped off that a suspected bank robber had just fled into a nearby garage. Officer Cobb located the man and instructed him to place his hands on the wall. As she radioed for assistance, the suspect spun around and fired a single shot at point-blank range. The bullet went through her wrist and her police radio and then penetrated her heart. She died at the scene." 
  19. ^ Feaver, Douglas. "Three men shot at the side of their President", The Washington Post, March 31, 1981.
  20. ^ Urbina, Ian (2006-07-13). "Washington Officials Try to Ease Crime Fear". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  21. ^ a b "After 9/11 Charles H. Ramsey". Retrieved 2014-02-13. 
  22. ^ National Park Service Responding to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks
  23. ^ DC Police Officer Saved by Bulletproff Vest at Navy Yard
  24. ^ Friday, July 19, 1968 (1968-07-19). "Police: The Thin Blue Line". Time.com. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  25. ^ Monday, July 13, 1970 (1970-07-13). "What the Police Can-And Cannot-Do About Crime". Time.com. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  26. ^ Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 2000: Data for Individual State and Local Agencies with 100 or More Officers[dead link]
  27. ^ MPDC. "Memorial to MPDC Officers Killed in the Line of Duty". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  28. ^ David Baldacci (2009-08-02). "New Ways To Stop Crime". Parade. Retrieved 2013-07-27. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]