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Merrymeeting Bay is a large freshwater tidal bay in Sagadahoc, Lincoln, and Cumberland counties, in the U.S. state of Maine. Merrymeeting Bay's unusual geography defies common landform terms. It is not what is usually meant by the word bay. It is somewhat like an estuary except for being fresh water with very little salt. Geologically it is described as an "inland delta" and biologically as "tidal riverine."
Bordering towns and cities include Bath, Brunswick, Topsham, Bowdoinham, Bowdoin, Richmond, Dresden, Pittston, and Woolwich. Land surrounding the bay is privately owned. Public access to the bay is gained mainly from public docks on one of the contributing rivers in Brunswick, Bath, Richmond and Bowdoinham.
Six rivers flow into the bay, the two largest being the Kennebec River and the Androscoggin River. The four other rivers are the Cathance River, Eastern River, Abagadasset River, and Muddy River. The bay drains water from nearly 40% of Maine's land area as well as from part of New Hampshire. The watershed is just under 20,000 square miles (50,000 km2).
Merrymeeting Bay is linked to the Gulf of Maine and the Atlantic Ocean by the Lower Kennebec River, a long saltwater tidal channel. The Lower Kennebec River and Merrymeeting Bay are known collectively as the Kennebec Estuary. Merrymeeting Bay's connection to the Lower Kennebec River is via a 280-yard (260 m) slot in the bedrock called The Chops, an area of converging water flows known to be hazardous to boaters.
The waters of the bay flow out through The Chops at low tide, while high tide brings a mix of fresh water and seawater back up the Kennebec. The river flow volume from six rivers typically exceeds the volume of the incoming tide. Combined with the restriction of The Chops, the result is a tidal waterbody with very little salt, known as brackish.
Merrymeeting Bay is about 17 miles (27 km) from the ocean and contains many river delta characteristics. The tides average about 5 feet (1.5 m).
The unusual combination of a large body of freshwater and strong tides results in an intertidal habitat harboring a variety of rare plant species.
Large numbers of migrating birds use Merrymeeting Bay as a stopping point. For the east coast of the United States, the concentration of waterfowl at Merrymeeting Bay is second only to Chesapeake Bay. The bay is also home to a large population of bald eagles. The strong tidal currents and saltwater in the Lower Kennebec River prevent the river below The Chops or Thorne Head from freezing, making it an ideal wintering habitat for waterfowl, though the freshwater in the bay and the Kennebec above The Chops freezes thoroughly. The bay and Kennebec above were once home to a thriving ice harvesting industry. Kennebec ice was shipped as far away as India in the early 20th century.
The origin of the name is uncertain. Some suggest that it comes from the seasonal movements of the Abenaki Indians, but their name for the bay does not have this meaning. Others think that it came from seasonal meetings in the pre- and early years of European colonization. It may have been intended to attract a certain kind of English colonist and repel Puritans, as the bay was host to rum importation. Variant names of Merrymeeting Bay, according to the USGS, include Chisapeak Bay, Lake of New Somersett, Merry Meeting, Nassouac, Naxoat, New Somerset Lake, Quabacook, and Swan Pond. The Abenaki name was Quabacook, meaning "duck watering place".