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Mentalism is a performing art in which its practitioners, known as mentalists, appear to demonstrate highly developed mental or intuitive abilities. Performances may appear to include hypnosis, telepathy, clairvoyance, divination, precognition, psychokinesis, mediumship, mind control, memory feats and rapid mathematics. Mentalists are sometimes categorised as psychic entertainers, although that category also contains non-mentalist performers such as psychic readers and bizarrists.
Much of what modern mentalists perform in their acts can be traced back directly to tests of supernatural power that were carried out by mediums, spiritualists and psychics in the 19th Century.[attribution needed] However, the history of mentalism goes back even further. Accounts of seers and oracles can be found in works by the ancient Greeks[attribution needed] and in the Old Testament of the Bible. Among magicians, the mentalism performance generally cited as one of the earliest on record was by diplomat and pioneering sleight-of-hand magician Girolamo Scotto in 1572. The performance of mentalism may utilize these principles along with sleights, feints, misdirection and other skills of street or stage magic.
Styles of presentation can vary greatly. Traditional performers such as Dunninger and Annemann attributed their results to supernatural or psychic skills.
Some contemporary performers, including Banachek and Derren Brown, attribute their results to natural skills, such as the ability to read body language or to manipulate the subject subliminally through psychological suggestion.
Mentalists generally do not mix "standard" magic tricks with their mental feats. Doing so associates mentalism too closely with the theatrical trickery employed by stage magicians. Many mentalists claim not to be magicians at all, arguing that it is a different art form altogether. The argument is that Mentalism invokes belief and when presented properly, is offered as being "real" be it a claim of Psychic ability or proof that supports other claims such as a Photographic Memory, being a Human Calculator, the Power of Suggestion, NLP, etc.
Magicians ask the audience to suspend their belief and allow their imagination to play with the various tricks they present; they admit that they are tricksters and entertainers and the audience understands that the lady really isn't sawn in half nor can the performer actually fly or make exceptionally large objects vanish into thin air. . . it's all Illusion. There is however a "cross over" between these two worlds known as "Mental Magic". Effects that have the feel of something psychic yet incorporate a series of physical devices that lend to the public a plausible explanation tied to trickery.
Many magicians, however, mix mentally themed performance with magic illusions. For example, a mind-reading stunt might also involve the magical transposition of two different objects. Such hybrid feats of magic are often called mental magic by performers. Magicians who routinely mix magic with mental magic include David Copperfield, David Blaine, The Amazing Kreskin, Mat LaVore and Dynamo (Steven Frayne).
Mentalism techniques have, on occasion, been allegedly used outside the entertainment industry to influence the actions of prominent people for personal and/or political gain. Famous examples of accused practitioners include:
"The Amazing Kreskin" has audience members hide his cheques before the show; if Kreskin cannot find the cheque at the end of his performance, he does not get paid.
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