Mental confusion

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Mental Confusion Classifications
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"Confusion" redirects here. For other uses, see Confusion (disambiguation).

Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, noun of action from confundere "to pour together", or "to mingle together" also "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

Medical term[edit]

Mental Confusion Classifications

The term, "acute mental confusion"[1] is often used interchangeably with delirium[2] in International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and Medical Subject Headings to describe a pathological degree in which it usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time,[3] location;[3] and/or personal identity[3]) and sometimes accompanied by disordered consciousness (loss of linear thinking)[3] and loss of memory (the ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material).


Confusion may result from drug side effects.[4]

Confusion may result from a relatively sudden brain dysfunction. Acute confusion is often called delirium (also called acute confusional state),[5] although delirium also includes a much broader array of disorders than confusion (e.g. inability to focus attention; and various impairments in awareness, or temporal and spatial orientation).

Confusion may also result from chronic organic brain pathologies such as dementia.

Differential diagnosis[edit]

Further information: Differential diagnosis

The most common causes of drug induced acute confusion are dopaminergic drugs used for Parkinson's disease, diuretics, tricyclic or tetracyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines. The elderly, and especially those with pre-existing dementia, are at most risk for drug induced acute confusional states.[6]

New research is finding a link between Vitamin D deficiencies and cognitive impairment, which includes memory loss and a 'foggy brain'.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Confusion Definition; Oxford Dictionary online; accessed .
  2. ^ Delirium; Symptom Finder online ; accessed .
  3. ^ a b c d > confusion (redirected from mental confusion) Citing: Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers; 2007; Saunders (an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.)
  4. ^ Waters, Jo (2 April 2012). "Why don't GPS warn you that statins can harm your memory?". Daily Mail (London). 
  5. ^ > Acute Confusional State; Dr. Gurvinder Rull; Document ID/Version/Reference: 1714/22/bgp2104; (Updated: 13 Jan 2009); accessed: .
  6. ^ Hufschmidt, A.; Shabarin, V.; Zimmer, T. (Dec 2009). "Drug-induced confusional states: the usual suspects?". Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 120 (6): 436–8. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2009.01174.x. PMID 19804475. 
  7. ^ Vitamin D Linked to Cognitive Impairment; Third Age online; accessed: .

External links[edit]