Member state of the European Union

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A member state of the European Union is a state that is party to treaties of the European Union (EU) and thereby subject to the privileges and obligations of EU membership. Unlike the membership of an international organisation, EU membership places each member under binding laws in exchange for representation in the EU's legislative and judicial institutions. On the other hand, EU states retain considerable autonomy compared to the constituent states of a federation (such as a U.S. state), maintaining their national military and foreign policy (where they have not agreed to European action in these areas).[1]

The union currently consists of 28 member states. In 1957 six core states founded the EU's predecessor, the European Economic Community. The remaining states have acceded in subsequent enlargements. On 1 July 2013 Croatia became the newest member state of the EU. In order to acceede, a state must fulfill the economic and political requirements known as the Copenhagen criteria, which require a candidate to have a democratic, free market government together with the corresponding freedoms and institutions, and respect for the rule of law. Enlargement of the Union is also contingent upon the consent of all existing members and the candidate's adoption of the existing body of EU law, known as the acquis communautaire.

There is disparity in the size, wealth and political system of member states, but all have equal rights. While in some areas majority voting takes place where larger states have more votes than smaller ones, smaller states have disproportional representation compared to their population. No member state has withdrawn or been suspended from the EU, though some dependent territories or semi-autonomous areas have left.

List[edit]

 CapitalAcceeded
Population
Area (km²)
GDP per cap.
(PPP)
[2]
Currency
Gini
HDI
Council
votes
EP
seats
LanguagesTerritories
AustriaVienna19958,451,900[3]83,85542,409[4]euro29.1[5]0,895[6]1019German
BelgiumBrussels1957Founder11,161,600[3]30,52837,883[4]euro33.0[5]0,897[6]1222Dutch
French
German
BulgariaSofia20077,284,600[3]110,99414,312[4]lev29.2[5]0,782[6]1018Bulgarian
CroatiaZagreb20134,262,100[3]56,59418,314[4]kuna29[5]0,805[6]712Croatian
CyprusNicosia2004865,900[3]9,25127,086[4]euro31.2[5]0,848[6]46Greek
Turkish[a]
Czech RepublicPrague200410,516,100[3]78,86627,191[4]koruna25.8[5]0,873[6]1222Czech [d]
DenmarkCopenhagen19735,602,600[3]43,07537,657[4]krone24.7[5]0,901[6]713Danish
EstoniaTallinn20041,324,800[3]45,22721,713[4]euro36.0[5]0,846[6]46Estonian
FinlandHelsinki19955,426,700[3]338,42436,395[4]euro26.9[5]0,892[6]713Finnish
Swedish
FranceParis1957Founder65,633,200[3]674,84335,548[4]euro32.7[5]0,893[6]2974French
GermanyBerlin1957Founder[g]80,523,700[3]357,02139,028[4]euro28.3[5]0,920[6]2999German
GreeceAthens198111,062,500[3]131,99024,505[4]euro34.3[5]0,860[6]1222Greek
HungaryBudapest20049,908,800[3]93,03019,638[4]forint30.0[5]0,831[6]1222Hungarian
IrelandDublin19734,591,100[3]70,27341,921[4]euro34.3[5]0,916[6]712Irish
English
ItalyRome1957Founder59,685,200[3]301,33830,136[4]euro36.0[5]0,881[6]2973Italian
LatviaRiga20042,023,800[3]64,58918,255[4]euro35.7[5]0,814[6]49Latvian
LithuaniaVilnius20042,971,900[3]65,20021,615[4]litas35.8[5]0,818[6]712Lithuanian
LuxembourgLuxembourg1957Founder537,000[3]2,586.479,785[4]euro30.8[5]0,875[6]46French
German
Luxembourgish[h]
MaltaValletta2004421,400[3]31627,022[4]euro25.8[5]0,847[6]36Maltese
English
NetherlandsAmsterdam1957Founder16,779,600[3]41,54342,194[4]euro30.9[5]0,921[6]1326Dutch
PolandWarsaw200438,533,300[3]312,68520,592[4]złoty34.9[5]0,821[6]2751Polish
PortugalLisbon198610,487,300[3]92,39023,385[4]euro38.5[5]0,816[6]1222Portuguese
RomaniaBucharest200720,057,500[3]238,39112,808[4]leu31.5[5]0,786[6]1433Romanian
SlovakiaBratislava20045,410,800[3]49,03524,249[4]euro25.8[5]0,840[6]713Slovak
SloveniaLjubljana20042,058,800[3]20,27328,195[4]euro31.2[5]0,892[6]48Slovene
SpainMadrid198646,704,300[3]504,03030,557[4]euro32.0[5]0,885[6]2754Spanish[i]
SwedenStockholm19959,555,900[3]449,96441,191[4]krona25.0[5]0,916[6]1020Swedish
United KingdomLondon197363,730,100[3]243,61036,941[4]pound sterling36.0[5]0,875[6]2973English
Notes
  1. ^ The Turkish language is not an official language of the European Union.
  2. ^ Northern Cyprus is not recognised by the EU, so it is de jure part of the Republic of Cyprus and the EU, but de facto is outside the control of both entities and operates as an independent state recognised only by Turkey. See Cyprus dispute.
  3. ^ De jure part of the Republic of Cyprus and the EU, but de facto is outside of the control of both due to the ongoing Cyprus dispute. It is administered by the United Nations.
  4. ^ Officially recognized
    minority languages:
  5. ^ Greenland left the then-EEC in 1985.
  6. ^ a b See Article 355(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.[1]
  7. ^ On 3 October 1990, the constituent states of the former German Democratic Republic acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany, automatically becoming part of the EU.
  8. ^ The Luxembourgish language is not an official language of the European Union.
  9. ^ Co-oficial languages in their respective territories are Basque, Catalan/Valencian and Galician. Unlike other regional languages, an agreement between Spain and the Council of the European Union means these are allowed to be used in EU institutions. However, none of these languages are official languages of the European Union.

Enlargement[edit]

The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), animated in order of accession.

Enlargement is, and has been, a principal feature of the Union's political landscape. The EU's predecessors were founded by the "Inner Six", those countries willing to forge ahead with the Community while others remained sceptical. It was only a decade before the first countries changed their policy and attempted to join the Union, which led to the first scepticism of enlargement. French President Charles de Gaulle feared British membership would be an American Trojan horse and vetoed its application. It was only after de Gaulle left office and a 12-hour talk by British Prime Minister Edward Heath and French President Georges Pompidou took place that Britain's third application succeeded in 1970.[7][8][9]

Applying in 1969 were Britain, Ireland, Denmark and Norway. Norway, however, declined to accept the invitation to become a member when the electorate voted against it,[10][11] leaving just the UK, Ireland and Denmark to join.[7] But despite the setbacks, and the withdrawal of Greenland from Denmark's membership in 1985,[12] three more countries joined the Communities before the end of the Cold War.[7] In 1987, the geographical extent of the project was tested when Morocco applied, and was rejected as it was not considered a European country.[13]

1990 saw the Cold War drawing to a close, and East Germany was welcomed into the Community as part of a reunited Germany. Shortly after, the previously neutral countries of Austria, Finland and Sweden acceded to the new European Union,[7] though Switzerland, which applied in 2002, froze its application due to opposition from voters[14] while Norway, which had applied once more, had its voters reject membership again.[15] Meanwhile, the members of the former Eastern Bloc and Yugoslavia were all starting to move towards EU membership. Ten of these joined in a "big bang" enlargement on 1 May 2004 symbolising the unification of East and Western Europe in the EU.[16] Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007.

European Union
Flag of the European Union

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government
of the European Union

2013 saw the latest member, Croatia, accede to the Union, and the EU has prioritised membership for the rest of the Balkans - namely Western Balkans. Iceland, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey are all formal, acknowledged candidates. Turkish membership, pending since the 1980s, is a more contentious issue but it entered negotiations in 2004.[17] There are at present no plans to cease enlargement. According to the Copenhagen criteria, membership of the European Union is open to any European country that is a stable, free market liberal democracy that respects the rule of law and human rights. Furthermore, it has to be willing to accept all the obligations of membership, such as adopting all previously agreed law (the 170,000 pages of acquis communautaire) and switching to the euro.[18] In addition to enlargement by adding new countries, the EU can also expand by having territories of member states, which are outside the EU, integrate more closely (for example in respect to the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles) or by a territory of a member state which had previously seceded and then rejoined (see withdrawal below).

Representation[edit]

The flags of the then-25 member states seen outside the European Parliament in 2004

Each state has representation in the institutions of the European Union. Full membership gives the government of a member state a seat in the Council of the European Union and European Council. When decisions are not being taken by consensus, votes are weighted so that a country with a greater population has more votes within the Council than a smaller country (although not exact, smaller countries have more votes than their population would allow relative to the largest countries). The Presidency of the Council of the European Union rotates between each of the member states, allowing each state six months to help direct the agenda of the EU.[citation needed]

Similarly, each state is assigned seats in Parliament according to their population (again, with the smaller countries receiving more seats per inhabitant than the larger ones). The members of the European Parliament have been elected by universal suffrage since 1979 (before that, they were seconded from national parliaments).[citation needed]

The national governments appoint one member each to the European Commission (in accord with its president), the European Court of Justice (in accord with other members) and the Court of Auditors. Historically, larger member states were granted an extra Commissioner. However, as the body grew, this right has been removed and each state is represented equally. The six largest states are also granted an Advocates General in the Court of Justice. Finally, the Governing Council of the European Central Bank includes the governors of the national central banks (who may or may not be government appointed) of each euro area country.[citation needed]

The larger states traditionally carry more weight in negotiations, however smaller states can be effective impartial mediators and citizens of smaller states are often appointed to sensitive top posts to avoid competition between the larger states. This, together with the disproportionate representation of the smaller states in terms of votes and seats in parliament, gives the smaller EU states a greater clout than normally attributed to a state of their size. However most negotiations are still dominated by the larger states. This has traditionally been largely through the "Franco-German motor" but the Franco-German role influence has diminished slightly following the influx of new members in 2004 (see G6).[19]

Sovereignty[edit]

Article 4
  1. In accordance with Article 5, competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the member states.
  2. The Union shall respect the equality of member states before the Treaties as well as their national identities, inherent in their fundamental structures, political and constitutional, inclusive of regional and local self-government. It shall respect their essential State functions, including ensuring the territorial integrity of the State, maintaining law and order and safeguarding national security. In particular, national security remains the sole responsibility of each member state.
  3. Pursuant to the principle of sincere cooperation, the Union and the member states shall, in full mutual respect, assist each other in carrying out tasks which flow from the Treaties. The member states shall take any appropriate measure, general or particular, to ensure fulfilment of the obligations arising out of the Treaties or resulting from the acts of the institutions of the Union. The member states shall facilitate the achievement of the Union's tasks and refrain from any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the Union's objectives.
- Article 4 of the Treaty on European Union

The member states of the union are sovereign states. The EU does however partially follow a supranational system that in many respects is similar to federalism. Previously limited to European Community matters, this practice, known as the "community method", is currently used in most areas of policy. Combined sovereignty is delegated by each member to the institutions in return for representation within those institutions. This practice is often referred to as "pooling of sovereignty".[20] Those institutions are then empowered to make laws and execute them at a European level.

If a state fails to comply with the law of the European Union, it may be fined or have funds withdrawn. In extreme cases, there are provisions for the voting rights or membership of a state to be suspended (see Suspension).[citation needed]

In contrast to other organisations, the EU's style of integration has "become a highly developed system for mutual interference in each other's domestic affairs".[21] However on defence and foreign policy issues (and, pre-Lisbon Treaty, police and judicial matters) less sovereignty is transferred, with issues being dealt with by unanimity and cooperation. Very early on in the history of the EU, the unique state of its establishment and pooling of sovereignty was emphasised by the Court of Justice:[22]

By creating a Community of unlimited duration, having its own institutions, its own personality, its own legal capacity and capacity of representation on the international plane and, more particularly, real powers stemming from a limitation of sovereignty or a transfer of powers from the States to Community, the Member States have limited their sovereign rights and have thus created a body of law which binds both their nationals and themselves...The transfer by the States from their domestic legal system to the Community legal system of the rights and obligations arising under the Treaty carries with it a permanent limitation of their sovereign rights.

European Court of Justice 1964, in reference to case of Costa v ENEL

Yet, as sovereignty still originates from the national level, it may be withdrawn by a member state who wishes to leave. Hence, if a law is agreed that is not to the liking of a state, it may withdraw from the EU to avoid it. This however has not happened as the benefits of membership are often seen to outweigh the potentially negative impact of a specific law. Furthermore, in realpolitik, concessions and political pressure may lead to a state accepting something not in their immediate interests in order to improve relations or strengthen their position on other issues.[citation needed]

The question of whether EU law is superior to national law is subject to some debate. The treaties do not give a judgement on the matter but court judgements have established EU's law superiority over national law and it is affirmed in a declaration attached to the Treaty of Lisbon (the European Constitution would have fully enshrined this). Some national legal systems also explicitly accept the Court of Justice's interpretation, such as France and Italy, however in Poland it does not override the national constitution, which it does in Germany. The exact areas where the member states have given legislative competence to the EU are as follows. Every area not mentioned remains with member states.[citation needed]

As outlined in Part I, Title I of the consolidated Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union:      
Exclusive competence:
"The Union has exclusive competence to make directives and conclude international agreements when provided for in a Union legislative act."
Shared competence:
"Member States cannot exercise competence in areas where the Union has done so.""Union exercise of competence shall not result in Member States being prevented from exercising theirs in:"
  • research, technological development and space
  • development cooperation, humanitarian aid
"The Union coordinates Member States policies or implements supplemental to theirs common policies, not covered elsewhere"
Supporting competence:
"The Union can carry out actions to support, coordinate or supplement Member States' actions in:"
  • the protection and improvement of human health
  • industry
  • culture
  • tourism
  • education, youth, sport and vocational training
  • civil protection (disaster prevention)
  • administrative cooperation

As a result of the European sovereign debt crisis, some eurozone states required a bailout from the EU via the European Financial Stability Facility and European Financial Stability Mechanism (to be replaced by the European Stability Mechanism from 2013). In exchange for their bailout, Greece was required to accept a large austerity plan including privatisations and a sell off of state assets. In order to ensure that Greece complies with the EU's demands, a "large-scale technical assistance" from the European Commission and other member states has been deployed to Greek government ministries. Some, including the President of the Euro Group Jean-Claude Juncker, state that "the sovereignty of Greece will be massively limited."[23][24][25] The situation of the bailed out countries (Greece, Portugal and Ireland) has been described as being a ward[26][27][28] or protectorate[25][29][30] of the EU with some such as the Netherlands calling for a formalisation of the situation.[31]

Opt-outs[edit]

A number of states are less integrated into the EU than others. In most cases this is because those states have gained an opt-out from a certain policy area. The most notable is the opt-out from the Economic and Monetary Union, the adoption of the euro as sole legal currency. Most states outside the Eurozone are obliged to adopt the euro when they are ready, but Denmark and the United Kingdom (and Sweden in an informal manner) have obtained the right to retain their own independent currencies.

Ireland and the United Kingdom also do not participate in the Schengen Agreement, which eliminates internal EU border checks. Denmark has an opt out from the Common Security and Defence Policy; Denmark, Ireland and the UK have an opt-out on police and justice matters and Poland and the UK have an opt out from the Charter of Fundamental Rights.

Outermost regions[edit]

There are a number of overseas member state territories which are legally part of the EU, but have certain exemptions based on their remoteness. These "outermost regions" have partial application of EU law and in some cases are outside of Schengen or the EU VAT area - however they are legally within the EU.[32] They all use the euro as their currency.

TerritoryMember StateLocationArea
km2
PopulationPer capita GDP
(EU=100)
EU VAT areaSchengen area
 Azores PortugalAtlantic Ocean2,333237,90066.7YesYes
 Canary Islands SpainAtlantic Ocean7,4471,715,70093.7NoYes
 French Guiana FranceSouth America84,000161,10050.5NoNo
 Guadeloupe FranceCaribbean1,710425,70050.5NoNo
 Madeira PortugalAtlantic Ocean795244,80094.9YesYes
 Saint-Martin FranceCaribbean5225,00061.9NoNo
 Martinique FranceCaribbean1,080383,30075.6NoNo
 Réunion FranceIndian Ocean2,512837,86861.6NoNo
 Mayotte[33] FranceIndian Ocean374212,645NoNo

Political systems[edit]

Entry to the EU is limited to liberal democracies and Freedom House ranks all EU states as being totally free electoral democracies. All but 4 are ranked at the top 1.0 rating.[34] However, the exact political system of a state is not limited, with each state having its own system based on its historical evolution.

The majority of member states—17 out of 28—are parliamentary republics, while seven states are constitutional monarchies, meaning they have a monarch although political powers are exercised by elected politicians. Most republics and all the monarchies operate a parliamentary system whereby the head of state (president or monarchy) has a largely ceremonial role with reserve powers. That means most power is in the hands of what is called in most of those countries the prime minister, who is accountable to the national parliament. Of the remaining republics, three operate a semi-presidential system, where competencies are shared between the president and prime minister, while one republic operates a presidential system, where the president is head of state and government.[citation needed]

The EU is divided between unicameral (single chamber) and bicameral (dual chamber) parliaments, with 15 unicameral national parliaments and 13 bicameral parliaments. The prime minister and government are usually directly accountable to the directly-elected lower house and require its support to stay in office—the exception being Cyprus with its presidential system. Upper houses are composed differently in different member states: it can be directly elected like the Polish senate, indirectly elected, for example, by regional legislatures like the Federal Council of Austria, unelected, but representing certain interest groups like the National Council of Slovenia, unelected (though by and large appointed by elected officials) as a remnant of a non-democratic political system in earlier times (as in the House of Lords in the United Kingdom). Most (though not all) elections in the EU use some form of proportional representation. The most common type of proportional representation is the party-list system.[citation needed]

There are also differences in the level of self-governance for the sub-regions of a member state. Most states, especially the smaller ones, are unitary states; meaning all major political power is concentrated at the national level. 10 states allocate power to more local levels of government. Austria, Belgium and Germany are full federations, meaning their regions have constitutional autonomies. Denmark, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and Portugal are federacies, meaning some regions have autonomy but most do not. Spain and Italy have system of devolution where regions have autonomy, but the national government retains the right to revoke it. The United Kingdom has a mixture of federacy and devolution as only some of its regions enjoy a system of devolution while others are ruled directly from the national government.[citation needed]

States such as France have a number of overseas territories, retained from their former empires. Some of these territories such as French Guiana are part of the EU (see outermost regions, above) while others are related to the EU or outside it, such as the Falkland Islands.[citation needed]

Withdrawal and suspension[edit]

As of July 2013, no member state has withdrawn from the EU. However Greenland, as a territory, did so when gaining home rule from a member state (Denmark). The Lisbon Treaty made the first provision of a member state to leave. The procedure for a state to leave is outlined in TEU Article 50 which also makes clear that "Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements". Although it calls for a negotiated withdrawal between the seceding state and the rest of the EU, if no agreement is reached two years after the seceding state announced its intention to leave, it would cease to be subject to the treaties anyway (thus ensuring a right to unilateral withdrawal).[35]

There are a number of independence movements within member states (such as Catalonia, Flanders, and Scotland). Were a territory of a member state to secede but wish to remain in the EU, some scholars claim it would need to reapply to join as if it were a new country applying from scratch.[36] However, other studies claim internal enlargement is legally viable if, in case of a member state dissolution or secession, the resulting states are all considered successor states.[37] There is also an European Citizens' Initiative that aims at guaranteeing the continuity of rights and obligations of the European citizens belonging to a new state arising from the democratic secession of a European Union member state.[38]

TEU Article 7 provides for the suspension of certain rights of a member state. Introduced in the Treaty of Amsterdam, Article 7 outlines that if a member persistently breaches the EU's founding principles (liberty, democracy, human rights and so forth, outlined in TEU Article 2) then the European Council can vote to suspend any rights of membership, such as voting and representation as outlined above. Identifying the breach requires unanimity (excluding the state concerned), but sanctions require only a qualified majority.[39]

The state in question would still be bound by the obligations treaties and the Council acting by majority may alter or lift such sanctions. The Treaty of Nice included a preventative mechanism whereby the Council, acting by majority, may identify a potential breach and make recommendations to the state to rectify it before action is taken against it as outlined above.[39] However the treaties do not provide any mechanism to expel a member state outright.[35]

Related states[edit]

European Free Trade AssociationAgreement with EU to mint eurosSchengen AreaEuropean Economic AreaCentral European Free Trade AgreementCouncil of EuropeEuropean UnionEurozoneEuropean Union Customs UnionCustoms Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and RussiaSwitzerlandIcelandLiechtensteinNorwayKosovo (UNMIK)AlbaniaBosnia and HerzegovinaMacedoniaMontenegroSerbiaMoldovaGUAMUkraineAzerbaijanGeorgiaKazakhstanBelarusRussiaArmeniaVatican CitySan MarinoMonacoAndorraTurkeyCroatiaBulgariaUnited KingdomRomaniaCzech RepublicDenmarkHungaryLithuaniaPolandSwedenCyprusIrelandAustriaBelgiumEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceItalyLuxembourgLatviaMaltaNetherlandsPortugalSlovakiaSloveniaSpain
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.vde

There are a number of countries with strong links with the EU, similar to elements of membership. Following Norway's decision not to join the EU, it remained one of the members of the European Economic Area which also includes Iceland and Liechtenstein (all former members have joined the EU, and Switzerland rejected membership). The EEA links these countries into the EU's market, extending the four freedoms to these states. In return, they pay a membership fee and have to adopt most areas of EU law (which they do not have direct impact in shaping). The democratic repercussions of this have been described as "fax democracy" (waiting for new laws to be faxed in from Brussels rather than being involved in drafting them).[40]

A different example is Bosnia and Herzegovina, which has been under international supervision. The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina is an international administrator who has wide ranging powers over Bosnia and Herzegovina to ensure the peace agreement is respected. The High Representative is also the EU's representative, and is in practice appointed by the EU. In this role, and since a major ambition of Bosnia and Herzegovina is to join the EU, the country has become a de facto protectorate of the EU. The EU appointed representative has the power to impose legislation and dismiss elected officials and civil servants, meaning the EU has greater direct control over Bosnia and Herzegovina than its own states. Indeed the state's flag was inspired by the EU's flag.[41]

In the same manner as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo is under heavy EU influence, particularly after the de facto transfer from UN to EU authority. In theory Kosovo is supervised by EU missions, with justice and policing personal training and helping to build up the state institutions. However the EU mission does enjoy certain executive powers over the state and has a responsibility to maintain stability and order.[42] Like Bosnia, Kosovo has been termed an "EU protectorate".[43][44][45]

However there is also the largely defunct term of associate member. It has occasionally been applied to states which have signed an association agreement with the EU. Associate membership is not a formal classification and does not entitle the state to any of the representation of free movement rights that full membership allows. The term is almost unheard of in the modern context and was primarily used in the earlier days of the EU with countries such as Greece and Turkey. Turkey's association agreement was the 1963 Ankara Agreement, from this it is drawn that Turkey became an associate member on that day.[46][47] Present association agreements include the Stabilisation and Association Agreements with the western Balkans; these states are no longer termed "associate members".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ EU foreign policy is agreed case by case where every member state agrees to a common position. Thus a member state can veto a foreign policy it does not agree with and agreed policy tends to be lose and infrequent.
  2. ^ at purchasing power parity, per capita, in international dollars (rounded)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Council Decision of 10 December 2013 ([2]).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Report for Selected Countries and Subjects IMF
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab UNDP.org
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Britain shut out". BBC News. 2002. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  8. ^ "1971 Year in Review, UPI.com"
  9. ^ Ever closer union: joining the Community - BBC
  10. ^ European Commission (10 November 2005). "The History of the European Union: 1972". Retrieved 2006-01-18. [dead link]
  11. ^ Telegraph.co.uk
  12. ^ European Commission (10 November 2005). "1985". The History of the European Union. Retrieved 2006-01-18. [dead link]
  13. ^ "W. Europe Bloc Bars Morocco as a Member". Los Angeles Times. 21 July 1987. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  14. ^ British Embassy, Bern (4 July 2006). "EU and Switzerland". The UK & Switzerland. Retrieved 2006-07-04. 
  15. ^ European Commission (10 November 2005). "The History of the European Union: 1994". Retrieved 2006-01-18. [dead link]
  16. ^ "History of the European Union". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  17. ^ "Q&A: Turkey's EU entry talks". BBC News. 11 December 2006. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  18. ^ "Accession criteria". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 2008-08-25. [dead link]
  19. ^ Peel, Q et al (26 March 2010). "Deal shows Merkel has staked out strong role]". Financial Times. 
  20. ^ Answers.com
  21. ^ Cooper, Robert (7 April 2002) Why we still need empires, The Guardian
  22. ^ ECJ opinion on Costa vs ENEL Eur-Lex
  23. ^ Kirschbaum, Erik (3 July 2011) Greek sovereignty to be massively limited: Juncker, Reuters
  24. ^ Mahony, Honor (4 July 2011) Greece faces 'massive' loss of sovereignty, EUobserver
  25. ^ a b Athens becomes EU 'protectorate' To Ethnos via PressEurop 4 July 2011
  26. ^ Fitzgerald, Kyran (15 October 2011) Reform agenda’s leading light, Irish Examiner
  27. ^ Irish meltdown, Financial Times (23 January 2011)
  28. ^ Coy, Peter (13 January 2011) If Demography Is Destiny, Then India Has the Edge, Bloomberg
  29. ^ Mahler et al (2 September 2010) How Brussels Is Trying to Prevent a Collapse of the Euro, Der Spiegel
  30. ^ The Economic Protectorate, Open Europe (4 February 2010)
  31. ^ Leigh, Phillips (7 September 2011) [3], EU Observer
  32. ^ Regional policy & outermost regions, European Commission
  33. ^ "Council Directive 2013/61/EU of December 2013" (PDF). 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2014-01-01. 
  34. ^ Map of Freedom in the World 2011 Edition - Combined Average Ratings – Independent Countries[dead link] (PDF) Freedom House 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011
  35. ^ a b Athanassiou, Phoebus (December 2009) Withdrawal and Expulsion from the EU and EMU, Some Reflections (PDF), European Central Bank. Retrieved 8 September 2011
  36. ^ Happold, Matthew (1999) Scotland Europa: independence in Europe?, Centre for European Reform. Retrieved 14 June 2010 (PDF)
  37. ^ The Internal Enlargement of the European Union, Centre Maurits Coppieters Foundation [4] (PDF)
  38. ^ European Citizens' Initiative for EU Internal Enlargement
  39. ^ a b Suspension clause, Europa glossary. Retrieved 1 June 2010
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