megalopolis (sometimes improperly called a megapolis) or megaregion is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. The term was used by Patrick Geddes in his 1915 book Cities in Evolution, by [1 ] Oswald Spengler in his 1918 book, The Decline of the West, and Lewis Mumford in his 1938 book, The Culture of Cities, which described it as the first stage in urban overdevelopment and social decline. Later, it was used by Jean Gottmann in 1954, to describe the chain of metropolitan areas along the northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, Massachusetts through New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and ending in Washington, D.C. and Northern Virginia. [2 ] [3 ] [4 ] Definitions [edit ]
megalopolis is a Western deformation of the Greek word that derived from Greek: μέγας - great and Greek: πόλις - city therefore literally a great city. Since in Greek: πόλις is feminine, the correct term is "megalopolis". The metric prefix mega- represents the number of million (1,000,000) in the metric system.
megalopolis, also known as a , is a clustered network of cities. Gottmann defined its population as 25 million. megaregion Doxiadis defined a small megalopolis a similar cluster with a population of about 10 million. [5 ] [6 ] [7 ] America 2050, [8 ] a program of the [9 ] Regional Plan Association, lists 11 megaregions in the United States and Canada. Literally, megalopolis in Greek means a city of exaggerated size where the prefix [6 ] megalo- represents a quantity of exaggerated size. [10 ] Megapolitan areas were explored in a July 2005 report by Robert E. Lang and Dawn Dhavale of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech. A later 2007 article by Lang and Nelson uses 20 megapolitan areas grouped into 10 megaregions. [11 ] The concept is based on the original Megalopolis model. [12 ] [8 ]
Modern interlinked ground
transportation corridors, such as rail and highway, often aid in the development of megalopolises. Using these commuter passageways to travel throughout the megalopolis is informally called megaloping. This term was coined by Davide Gadren and Stefan Berteau. [13 ] Africa [edit ] Asia [edit ] East Asia [edit ] China [edit ]
Emerging megalopolises in China (in decreasing order of population):
Pearl River Delta Megalopolis (珠江三角洲): ( Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Guangzhou, Foshan, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, Zhuhai, Macau, Huizhou) (55,000,000), [17 ] if Shantou/Quanzhou added (Guangdong Megalopolis) 70,000,000. [18 ] Yangtze River Delta Megalopolis (長江三角洲): ( Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Suzhou, Jingjiang, Wuxi, Changzhou, Zhenjiang, Yangzhou, Taizhou, Nantong, Huzhou, Jiaxing, Shaoxing, Jiangyin, Haimen, Zhangjiagang, Zhoushan, Ma'anshan) (88,000,000) [19 ] Bohai Economic Rim (环渤海经济圈): Beijing, Tianjin, Dalian, Anshan, Fushun, Dandong, Sinuiju, Tangshan, Yantai, Shenyang, Jinan, Qinhuangdao, Qingdao, Weihai (66,400,000) [20 ] The central Liaoning city cluster in China. Within 150 km from its center Shenyang (7.2 million), it has Fushun (3 million), Anshan City (3.6 million), Benxi (1.5 million), Liaoyang (1.8 million), Yingkou (2.2 million), Panjin (1.2 million), and Tieling (3.4 million), with a total population of 23 million. And it can be further extended to Dalian (6.2 million), Fuxin (2 million) and Dandong (2.4 million). This area used to be the most industrialized region in China. It declined during 1980s-1990s, but in recent years, it has rapidly revived.
In July 2012, the
Economist Intelligence Unit brought out a report entitled; Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises, which pinpoints the 13 emerging megalopolises in China, and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping their development. Japan [edit ] Taiheiyō Belt – Ibaraki, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Shizuoka, Aichi, Gifu, Mie, Osaka, Hyōgo, Wakayama, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, and Ōita in Japan. (80,000,000) South Korea [edit ]
[ ] citation needed
[ ] citation needed South Asia [edit ] West Bengal- Parnas- Kolkata- Murshidabad (35,000,000) Indo-Gangetic Plain Megalopolis[Dhaka-Kolkata-Lucknow-Delhi-Chandigarh-Lahore-Multan-Karachi] (176,000,000) S. India [Bengaluru-Chennai] (25,000,000) Maharashtra [Mumbai-Pune] (30,000,000) Gujarat [Ahmedabad-Surat] (14,000,000) Iran [edit ] Greater Tehran: A region located in Iranian Tehran and Alborz Province in central Northern Iran with its influence expanding in Qom Province, Qazvin Province and Mazandaran Province, home for at least 15 million people, it is one of the most populous urban areas in the Greater Middle East and the surrounding regions. Tehran was a small village 200 years ago when it was first chosen as the Capital city and it has been growing at a very fast rate. Southeast Asia [edit ]
Largest megalopolis in South East Asia (in decreasing order of population):
Western Java [Serang- Jakarta- Bandung] (45,000,000) Central Luzon [Dagupan- Manila-Lucena] (36,000,000) Central-Thai Bangkok-Ayutthaya-Pattaya] (16,000,000) Central Java [Semarang-Solo-Yogyakarta] (10,000,000) East Java [Kediri-Malang- Surabaya (13,000,000) Malaya Kuala Lumpur-Selangor-Seremban] (8,000,000) Sijori [Johor Bahru- Singapore-Batam-Bintan] (9,000,000) Mekong Delta Ho Chi Minh City-Can Tho (9,000,000) Red River Delta in Vietnam ( Hanoi, Hai Phong, Thanh Hóa, Nam Dinh, & Hai Duong) (9,700,000) [21 ] [22 ] Europe [edit ] " (also known as Blue Banana" Hot Banana, Dorsal, European Megalopolis or European Backbone): [23 ] Liverpool– Manchester– Leeds– Birmingham– London– Brussels– Antwerp– Amsterdam– Rotterdam– The Hague– Luxembourg– Rhine-Ruhr– Frankfurt am Main– Munich– Stuttgart– Strasbourg– Basel– Zürich– Turin– Milan (110,000,000). [24 ] ( Greater London Larger Urban Zone) - London and surrounding urban area of South East England (14 million). [25 ] Chain of large towns in - Northern England and English Midlands Blackpool (261,088), Preston (335,000), Blackburn (136,655), Burnley (149,796), Liverpool (1,365,900), Warrington (158,195), Manchester (2,629,400), Leeds (2,161,200), Sheffield (1,299,400), Chesterfield (100,879), Mansfield (158,114), Nottingham (666,358), Derby (236,738), Leicester (441,213), Nuneaton (132,236), Coventry (336,452), Birmingham (2,284,093), Telford (138,241), The Potteries (362,403) - Total (13,283,000). in the western part of Germany, including Rhine-Ruhr Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund and Essen (11.5 million). - Flemish Diamond Brussels, Antwerp, and the central provinces of Flanders (5.5 million). The in the Netherlands is a Randstad conurbation with approximately 7.5 million inhabitants. It consists of the four largest Dutch cities ( Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht), and the surrounding areas. If the adjacent Brabantse Stedenrij ( Eindhoven, Tilburg, Breda, 's-Hertogenbosch and Helmond) is included, its population would be around 9.5 million. in Milan metropolitan area Italy - With 3,7 million. According to [26 ] OECD, with approximately 7.5 million. Potentially some parts of the Swiss Canton Ticino can be considered within the metropolis, thus making it a transnational city; however, this is not recognized by the OECD definition. " (also known as Golden Banana" European Sunbelt or BarceLyon): [23 ] Turin– Genoa– Lyon– Monaco– Nice– Toulon– Marseille– Nîmes– Montpellier– Narbonne– Perpignan– Toulouse– Andorra– Manresa– Girona– Barcelona– Tarragona– Castellón de la Plana– Sagunt– Valencia– Alicante– Murcia– Cartagena (30,000,000). in Italy: Turin economic region Piedmont centre and south area (4,100,000). in Italy (1,500,000). Genoa metropolitan area in France: Lyon economic region Rhône-Alpes river area (5,500,000). in France: Nice metropolitan area Monaco is included due to its economy importance (1,100,000). in France (600,000). Toulon metropolitan area in France (1,800,000). Marseille metropolitan area in France (500,000). Montpellier metropolitan area in France: Toulouse economic region Andorra is included due its economy importance (1,500,000). (300,000). Perpignan metropolitan area : Coastal area of Greater Barcelona Catalonia (6,100,000). in Spain: Including Valencia economic region Sagunt area (2,200,000). in Spain: including Murcia- Alicante economic region Cartagena and Benidorm (1,900,000). [27 ] "Green Banana" (also known as Central Banana, New Banana, Young Banana, North Poland-Centrope-Adriatic or ): Vistula- Danube Economic River Gdańsk– Poznań– Bydgoszcz– Warsaw– Łódź– Kielce– Kraków– Katowice– Wrocław– Ostrava– Olomuc– Brno– Wien– Bratislava– Budapest– Zagreb– Ljubljana– Trieste– Koper (21,000,000). in Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary, usually included is Centrope Budapest but is not officially part of it (11,000,000). in Poland (1,200,000). Kraków metropolitan area in Slovenia (280,000) Ljubljana metropolitan area in Poland (1,150,000) Łódź metropolitan area in the Poland (5,300,000). Silesian Metropolis in Poland (1,100,000). Tricity in Poland (2,600,000) Warsaw metropolitan area in Croatia (1,100,000). Zagreb metropolitan area North America [edit ] Canada [edit ]
Megalopolis Name Population in millions 2000 Population in millions 2025 (projected) Population percent growth 2000 - 2025 (projected) Major cities Related articles Quebec City – Windsor Corridor 18 21 16.7% Hamilton, Kitchener, London, Mississauga, Montreal, Oshawa, Ottawa, Quebec City, Toronto, Windsor Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, Southern Ontario Mexico [edit ] United States [6 ] [28 ] [edit ]
Megalopolis Name Population in millions 2000 Population in millions 2025 (projected) Population percent growth 2000 - 2025 (projected) Major cities Related articles Arizona Sun Corridor [29 ] [30 ] 5.7 7.4 29.8% Mesa, Phoenix, Tucson, Prescott Arizona Sun Corridor, Arizona, Valley of the Sun Cascadia 10.3 10.2 -1.0% Abbotsford, Boise, Eugene, Portland (OR), Salem, Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Tri-Cities, Vancouver (BC), Vancouver (WA), Victoria Pacific Northwest, Metro Vancouver Florida 14.7 21.4 45.6% Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Miami, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tampa South Florida, Central Florida, North Florida Front Range 4.7 6.8 44.7% Albuquerque, Cheyenne, Colorado Springs, Denver, Pueblo, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Taos Front Range Urban Corridor Gulf Coast 11.7 15.8 35.0% Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Houston, Mobile, Gulfport, Biloxi, New Orleans, Pensacola Gulf Coast Great Lakes 54.1 64.3 18.9% Akron, Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Kalamazoo, Duluth, Madison Green Bay, Grand Rapids, Lansing, Flint, Saginaw, Ann Arbor, Hamilton, Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, London, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Ottawa, Pittsburgh, Quad Cities, Rochester (NY), Rochester (MN), St. Louis, Kansas City, Saint Paul, Toledo, Toronto, Windsor Great Lakes region, Midwestern United States Northeast 49.6 58.1 17.1% Allentown- Bethlehem, Atlantic City, Baltimore, Boston, Harrisburg, Nashua, Newark, New York City, Norfolk, Philadelphia, Portland (ME), Providence, Richmond, Knowledge Corridor ( Springfield and Hartford), Trenton, Virginia Beach, Washington, Wilmington, Worcester Northeast megalopolis, Northeast Corridor Northern California 12.7 17.3 36.2% Fresno, Modesto, Oakland, Reno, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Jose, Stockton California megapolitan areas Piedmont Atlantic 14.9 20.5 37.6% Atlanta, Birmingham, Charlotte, Greensboro, Greenville, Huntsville, Knoxville, Memphis, Montgomery, Nashville, Raleigh, Winston-Salem Piedmont, New South, South Atlantic States, I-85 Corridor, Piedmont Crescent Southern California 24.9 34.7 39.4% Anaheim, Bakersfield, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Tijuana California megapolitan areas Texas Triangle 16.5 26.8 62.4% Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio TTC-35, I-35 Corridor Oceania [edit ]
This section requires expansion. (November 2013) Australia [edit ] South America [edit ]
Composite image of the Earth at night, created by
. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. It is possible to see various metropolises close to each other in South America, but to the exception of a few central Argentine cities close to Buenos Aires, only in between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo there is a continual strip of urbanization (that is not as thin as the Argentine ones).
Peru [edit ]
Megalopolis Name Population in 2013 Major cities Other cities Lima-Callao Megalopolis 10,523,796 Lima and Callao Provincias Lima Norte, Provincias Lima Sur, and Provincias Lima Este Brazil [edit ] See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^ Geddes, Patrick (1915). Cities in Evolution. London: Williams & Norgate. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1954). L'Amerique. Paris: Hachette. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1957). "Megalopolis, or the urbanization of the Northeastern Seaboard". Economic Geography 33 (3): 189–200. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1961). Megalopolis. The Urbanized Northeastern seaboard of the United States. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1989). Since Megalopolis. The Urban Writings of Jean Gottmann. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 163. ^ a b c http://www.america2050.org/megaregions.html ^ http://www.bnet.com/2403-13070_23-192951.html ^ a b Cities: Capital for the New Megalopolis. Time magazine, November 4, 1966. Retrieved on July 19, 2010. ^ http://www.america2050.org/about.html ^ Definition of the prefix megalo-. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. ^ http://www.mi.vt.edu/uploads/megacensusreport.pdf "Beyond Megalopolis" by the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech ^ http://www.surdna.org/usr_doc/The_Rise_of_the_Megapolitans.pdf ^ Tremble, Sam (May 30, 2007). "Fumbling Toward Portland". Philadelphia City Paper. ^ http://www.joburg.org.za/2006/aug/aug30_globalcity.stm ^ http://www.joburg.org.za/2006/july/jul20_cityregion.stm ^ M Shilowa to debate Gauteng's position on global city region, 29 Aug ^ report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions' ^ http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/zhuanti/qy/550016.htm ^ Vidal, John (2010-03-22). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions. '" The Guardian (London). ^ "Foreign investment shows trend of "moving northward. china-embassy.org. 2004-05-14 "" . Retrieved 2010-01-09. ^ http://www.bbw.gov.cn/staticpages/20090319/bbw49c2670d-2117.shtml ^ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/english/200009/02/eng20000902_49585.html ^ a b From Territorial Cohesion to the New Regionalized Europe ^ http://www.eu-partner.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9:the-blue-banana&catid=1:news&Itemid=16 ^ "Population and living conditions in Urban Audit cities, larger urban zone (LUZ) (tgs00080)". Eurostat. July 2010 . Retrieved 2010-08-03. ^ Italian Ministry of Environment: the metropolitan area of Milan ^ Murcia–Alicante metropolitan region. El País. ^ Regional Plan Association (2008). America 2050: An Infrastructure Vision for 21st Century America. New York: Regional Plan Association. ^ "Megapolitan: Arizona's Sun Corridor". Morrison Institute for Public Policy. May 2008 . Retrieved 2008-06-03. ^ "When Phoenix, Tucson Merge". The Arizona Republic. 2006-04-09 . Retrieved 2008-06-03.