Medical imaging

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Medical imaging
Diagnostics
RupturedAAA.png
A CT scan image showing a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm
ICD-10-PCSB
ICD-987-88
MeSHD003952
OPS-301 code3
MedlinePlus007451
 
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Medical imaging
Diagnostics
RupturedAAA.png
A CT scan image showing a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm
ICD-10-PCSB
ICD-987-88
MeSHD003952
OPS-301 code3
MedlinePlus007451

Medical imaging is the technique and process used to create images of the human body (or parts and function thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose, or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and physiology). Although imaging of removed organs and tissues can be performed for medical reasons, such procedures are not usually referred to as medical imaging, but rather are a part of pathology.

As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology which uses the imaging technologies of X-ray radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, medical ultrasonography or ultrasound, endoscopy, elastography, tactile imaging, thermography, medical photography and nuclear medicine functional imaging techniques as positron emission tomography.

Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images, such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electrocardiography (EKG), and others, but which produce data susceptible to be represented as a parameter graph vs time or maps which contain information about the measurement locations, can be considered as forms of medical imaging in a limited sense.

Up until 2010, 5 billion medical imaging studies had been conducted worldwide.[1] Radiation exposure from medical imaging in 2006 made up about 50% of total ionizing radiation exposure in the United States.[2]

In the clinical context, "invisible light" medical imaging is generally equated to radiology or "clinical imaging" and the medical practitioner responsible for interpreting (and sometimes acquiring) the images is a radiologist. "Visible light" medical imaging involves digital video or still pictures that can be seen without special equipment. Dermatology and wound care are two modalities that use visible light imagery. Diagnostic radiography designates the technical aspects of medical imaging and in particular the acquisition of medical images. The radiographer or radiologic technologist is usually responsible for acquiring medical images of diagnostic quality, although some radiological interventions are performed by radiologists. While radiology is an evaluation of anatomy, nuclear medicine provides functional assessment.

As a field of scientific investigation, medical imaging constitutes a sub-discipline of biomedical engineering, medical physics or medicine depending on the context: Research and development in the area of instrumentation, image acquisition (e.g. radiography), modeling and quantification are usually the preserve of biomedical engineering, medical physics, and computer science; Research into the application and interpretation of medical images is usually the preserve of radiology and the medical sub-discipline relevant to medical condition or area of medical science (neuroscience, cardiology, psychiatry, psychology, etc.) under investigation. Many of the techniques developed for medical imaging also have scientific and industrial applications.[3]

Medical imaging is often perceived to designate the set of techniques that noninvasively produce images of the internal aspect of the body. In this restricted sense, medical imaging can be seen as the solution of mathematical inverse problems. This means that cause (the properties of living tissue) is inferred from effect (the observed signal). In the case of medical ultrasonography, the probe consists of ultrasonic pressure waves and echoes that go inside the tissue to show the internal structure. In the case of projectional radiography, the probe uses X-ray radiation, which is absorbed at different rates by different tissue types such as bone, muscle and fat.

The term noninvasive is used to denote a procedure where no instrument is introduced into a patient's body which is the case for most imaging techniques used.

Imaging Modalities[edit]

(a) The results of a CT scan of the head are shown as successive transverse sections. (b) An MRI machine generates a magnetic field around a patient. (c) PET scans use radiopharmaceuticals to create images of active blood flow and physiologic activity of the organ or organs being targeted. (d) Ultrasound technology is used to monitor pregnancies because it is the least invasive of imaging techniques and uses no electromagnetic radiation.[3]

Radiography[edit]

Two forms of radiographic images are in use in medical imaging; projection radiography and fluoroscopy, with the latter being useful for catheter guidance. These 2D techniques are still in wide use despite the advance of 3D tomography due to the low cost, high resolution, and depending on application, lower radiation dosages. This imaging modality utilizes a wide beam of x rays for image acquisition and is the first imaging technique available in modern medicine.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)[edit]

A brain MRI representation

A magnetic resonance imaging instrument (MRI scanner), or "nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging" scanner as it was originally known, uses powerful magnets to polarise and excite hydrogen nuclei (single proton) in water molecules in human tissue, producing a detectable signal which is spatially encoded, resulting in images of the body. The MRI machine emits an RF (radio frequency) pulse that specifically binds only to hydrogen. The system sends the pulse to the area of the body to be examined. The pulse makes the protons in that area absorb the energy needed to make them spin in a different direction. This is the "resonance" part of MRI. The RF pulse makes them (only the one or two extra unmatched protons per million) spin at a specific frequency, in a specific direction. The particular frequency of resonance is called the Larmour frequency and is calculated based on the particular tissue being imaged and the strength of the main magnetic field. MRI uses three electromagnetic fields: a very strong (on the order of units of teslas) static magnetic field to polarize the hydrogen nuclei, called the static field; a weaker time-varying (on the order of 1 kHz) field(s) for spatial encoding, called the gradient field(s); and a weak radio-frequency (RF) field for manipulation of the hydrogen nuclei to produce measurable signals, collected through an RF antenna.

Like CT, MRI traditionally creates a two dimensional image of a thin "slice" of the body and is therefore considered a tomographic imaging technique. Modern MRI instruments are capable of producing images in the form of 3D blocks, which may be considered a generalisation of the single-slice, tomographic, concept. Unlike CT, MRI does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and is therefore not associated with the same health hazards. For example, because MRI has only been in use since the early 1980s, there are no known long-term effects of exposure to strong static fields (this is the subject of some debate; see 'Safety' in MRI) and therefore there is no limit to the number of scans to which an individual can be subjected, in contrast with X-ray and CT. However, there are well-identified health risks associated with tissue heating from exposure to the RF field and the presence of implanted devices in the body, such as pace makers. These risks are strictly controlled as part of the design of the instrument and the scanning protocols used.

Because CT and MRI are sensitive to different tissue properties, the appearance of the images obtained with the two techniques differ markedly. In CT, X-rays must be blocked by some form of dense tissue to create an image, so the image quality when looking at soft tissues will be poor. In MRI, while any nucleus with a net nuclear spin can be used, the proton of the hydrogen atom remains the most widely used, especially in the clinical setting, because it is so ubiquitous and returns a large signal. This nucleus, present in water molecules, allows the excellent soft-tissue contrast achievable with MRI.

Nuclear medicine[edit]

Nuclear medicine encompasses both diagnostic imaging and treatment of disease, and may also be referred to as molecular medicine or molecular imaging & therapeutics.[4] Nuclear medicine uses certain properties of isotopes and the energetic particles emitted from radioactive material to diagnose or treat various pathology. Different from the typical concept of anatomic radiology, nuclear medicine enables assessment of physiology. This function-based approach to medical evaluation has useful applications in most subspecialties, notably oncology, neurology, and cardiology. Gamma cameras are used in e.g. scintigraphy, SPECT and PET to detect regions of biologic activity that may be associated with disease. Relatively short lived isotope, such as 123I is administered to the patient. Isotopes are often preferentially absorbed by biologically active tissue in the body, and can be used to identify tumors or fracture points in bone. Images are acquired after collimated photons are detected by a crystal that gives off a light signal, which is in turn amplified and converted into count data.

Fiduciary markers are used in a wide range of medical imaging applications. Images of the same subject produced with two different imaging systems may be correlated (called image registration) by placing a fiduciary marker in the area imaged by both systems. In this case, a marker which is visible in the images produced by both imaging modalities must be used. By this method, functional information from SPECT or positron emission tomography can be related to anatomical information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).[7] Similarly, fiducial points established during MRI can be correlated with brain images generated by magnetoencephalography to localize the source of brain activity.

Ultrasound representation of Urinary bladder (black butterfly-like shape) and hyperplastic prostate

Ultrasound[edit]

Medical ultrasonography uses high frequency broadband sound waves in the megahertz range that are reflected by tissue to varying degrees to produce (up to 3D) images. This is commonly associated with imaging the fetus in pregnant women. Uses of ultrasound are much broader, however. Other important uses include imaging the abdominal organs, heart, breast, muscles, tendons, arteries and veins. While it may provide less anatomical detail than techniques such as CT or MRI, it has several advantages which make it ideal in numerous situations, in particular that it studies the function of moving structures in real-time, emits no ionizing radiation, and contains speckle that can be used in elastography. Ultrasound is also used as a popular research tool for capturing raw data, that can be made available through an ultrasound research interface, for the purpose of tissue characterization and implementation of new image processing techniques. The concepts of ultrasound differ from other medical imaging modalities in the fact that it is operated by the transmission and receipt of sound waves. The high frequency sound waves are sent into the tissue and depending on the composition of the different tissues; the signal will be attenuated and returned at separate intervals. A path of reflected sound waves in a multilayered structure can be defined by an input acoustic impedance (ultrasound sound wave) and the Reflection and transmission coefficients of the relative structures.[6] It is very safe to use and does not appear to cause any adverse effects. It is also relatively inexpensive and quick to perform. Ultrasound scanners can be taken to critically ill patients in intensive care units, avoiding the danger caused while moving the patient to the radiology department. The real time moving image obtained can be used to guide drainage and biopsy procedures. Doppler capabilities on modern scanners allow the blood flow in arteries and veins to be assessed.

Elastography[edit]

Elastography is a new imaging modality that maps the elastic properties of soft tissue. This modality emerged in the last decade. Elastography can use ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and tactile imaging.

3D tactile image (C) is composed from 2D pressure maps (B) recorded in the process of tissue phantom examination (A).

Tactile imaging[edit]

Tactile imaging is a medical imaging modality that translates the sense of touch into a digital image. The tactile image is a function of P(x,y,z), where P is the pressure on soft tissue surface under applied deformation and x,y,z are coordinates where pressure P was measured. Tactile imaging closely mimics manual palpation, since the probe of the device with a pressure sensor array mounted on its face acts similar to human fingers during clinical examination, slightly deforming soft tissue by the probe and detecting resulting changes in the pressure pattern. Figure on the right presents an experiment on a composite tissue phantom examined by a tactile imaging probe illustrating the ability of tactile imaging to visualize in 3D the structure of the object.

This modality is used for imaging of the prostate,[8] breast,[9] vagina and pelvic floor support structures,[10] and myofascial trigger points in muscle.[11]

Photoacoustic imaging[edit]

Photoacoustic imaging is a recently developed hybrid biomedical imaging modality based on the photoacoustic effect. It combines the advantages of optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution for deep imaging in (optical) diffusive or quasi-diffusive regime. Recent studies have shown that photoacoustic imaging can be used in vivo for tumor angiogenesis monitoring, blood oxygenation mapping, functional brain imaging, and skin melanoma detection, etc.

Thermography[edit]

Basically used for the breast imaging. There are three approaches: the tele-thermography, the contact thermography and the dynamic angiothermography. These digital infrared imaging thermographic techniques are based on the principle that metabolic activity and vascular circulation in both pre-cancerous tissue and the area surrounding a developing breast cancer is almost always higher than in normal breast tissue. Cancerous tumors require an ever-increasing supply of nutrients and therefore increase circulation to their cells by holding open existing blood vessels, opening dormant vessels, and creating new ones (neo-angiogenesis theory).

Tele-thermography and contact thermography supporters claim this process results in an increase in regional surface temperatures of the breast, however there is little evidence that thermography is an accurate means of identifying breast tumours. Thermography is not approved for breast cancer screening in the United States or Canada, and medical authorities have issued warnings against thermography in both countries.[12]

Dynamic angiothermography utilizes thermal imaging but with important differences with the tele-thermography and contact thermography, that impact detection performance. First, the probes are improved over the previous liquid crystal plates; they include better spatial resolution, contrastive performance, and the image is formed more quickly. The more significant difference[13] lies in identifying the thermal changes due to changes in vascular network to support the growth of the tumor/lesion. Instead of just recording the change in heat generated by the tumor, the image is now able to identify changes due to the vascularization of the mammary gland. It is currently used in combination with other techniques for diagnosis of breast cancer. This diagnostic method is a low cost one compared with other techniques. The angiothermography is not a test that substitutes for other tests, but stands in relation to them as a technique that gives additional information to clarify the clinical picture and improve the quality of diagnosis.

Tomography[edit]

Tomography is the method of imaging a single plane, or slice, of an object resulting in a tomogram. There are several forms of tomography:

Echocardiography[edit]

When ultrasound is used to image the heart it is referred to as an echocardiogram. Echocardiography allows detailed structures of the heart, including chamber size, heart function, the valves of the heart, as well as the pericardium (the sac around the heart) to be seen. Echocardiography uses 2D, 3D, and Doppler imaging to create pictures of the heart and visualize the blood flowing through each of the four heart valves. Echocardiography is widely used in an array of patients ranging from those experiencing symptoms, such as shortness of breath or chest pain, to those undergoing cancer treatments. Transthoracic ultrasound has been proven to be safe for patients of all ages, from infants to the elderly, without risk of harmful side effects or radiation, differentiating it from other imaging modalities. Echocardiography is one of the most commonly used imaging modalities in the world due to its portability and use in a variety of applications. In emergency situations, echocardiography is quick, easily accessible, and able to be performed at the bedside, making it the modality of choice for many physicians.

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy[edit]

FNIR Is a relatively new non-invasive imaging technique. NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy) is used for the purpose of functional neuroimaging and has been widely accepted as a brain imaging technique.[15]

Medical imaging topics[edit]

Image Gently and Image Wisely Campaigns[edit]

In response to increased concern by the public over radiation doses and the ongoing progress of best practices, The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging was formed within the Society for Pediatric Radiology. In concert with The American Society of Radiologic Technologists, The American College of Radiology and The American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Society for Pediatric Radiology developed and launched the Image Gently Campaign which is designed to maintain high quality imaging studies while using the lowest doses and best radiation safety practices available on pediatric patients.[16] This initiative has been endorsed and applied by a growing list of various Professional Medical organizations around the world and has received support and assistance from companies that manufacture equipment used in Radiology.

Following upon the success of the Image Gently campaign, the American College of Radiology, the Radiological Society of North America, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American Society of Radiologic Technologists have launched a similar campaign to address this issue in the adult population called Image Wisely.[17] The World Health Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of the United Nations have also been working in this area and have ongoing projects designed to broaden best practices and lower patient radiation dose.[18][19][20]

Maximizing imaging procedure use[edit]

The amount of data obtained in a single MR or CT scan is very extensive. Some of the data that radiologists discard could save patients time and money, while reducing their exposure to radiation and risk of complications from invasive procedures.[21]

Creation of three-dimensional images[edit]

Recently, techniques have been developed to enable CT, MRI and ultrasound scanning software to produce 3D images for the physician.[22] Traditionally CT and MRI scans produced 2D static output on film. To produce 3D images, many scans are made, then combined by computers to produce a 3D model, which can then be manipulated by the physician. 3D ultrasounds are produced using a somewhat similar technique. In diagnosing disease of the viscera of abdomen, ultrasound is particularly sensitive on imaging of biliary tract, urinary tract and female reproductive organs (ovary, fallopian tubes). As for example, diagnosis of gall stone by dilatation of common bile duct and stone in common bile duct. With the ability to visualize important structures in great detail, 3D visualization methods are a valuable resource for the diagnosis and surgical treatment of many pathologies. It was a key resource for the famous, but ultimately unsuccessful attempt by Singaporean surgeons to separate Iranian twins Ladan and Laleh Bijani in 2003. The 3D equipment was used previously for similar operations with great success.

Other proposed or developed techniques include:

Some of these techniques are still at a research stage and not yet used in clinical routines.

Compression of medical images[edit]

Medical imaging techniques produce very large amounts of data, especially from CT, MRI and PET modalities. As a result, storage and communications of electronic image data are prohibitive without the use of compression. JPEG 2000 is the state-of-the-art image compression DICOM standard for storage and transmission of medical images. The cost and feasibility of accessing large image data sets over low or various bandwidths are further addressed by use of another DICOM standard, called JPIP, to enable efficient streaming of the JPEG 2000 compressed image data.

Non-diagnostic imaging[edit]

Neuroimaging has also been used in experimental circumstances to allow people (especially disabled persons) to control outside devices, acting as a brain computer interface.

Many medical imaging software applications (3DSlicer, ImageJ, MIPAV [4], etc.) are used for non-diagnostic imaging, specifically because they don't have an FDA approval[23] and not allowed to use in clinical research for patient diagnosis.[24] Note that many clinical research studies are not designed for patient diagnosis anyway.[25]

Archiving and recording[edit]

Used primarily in ultrasound imaging, capturing the image produced by a medical imaging device is required for archiving and telemedicine applications. In most scenarios, a frame grabber is used in order to capture the video signal from the medical device and relay it to a computer for further processing and operations.[26]

Medical Imaging in the Cloud[edit]

There has been growing trend to migrate from PACS to a Cloud Based RIS. A recent article by Applied Radiology said, "As the digital-imaging realm is embraced across the healthcare enterprise, the swift transition from terabytes to petabytes of data has put radiology on the brink of information overload. Cloud computing offers the imaging department of the future the tools to manage data much more intelligently."[27]

Use in pharmaceutical clinical trials[edit]

Medical imaging has become a major tool in clinical trials since it enables rapid diagnosis with visualization and quantitative assessment.

A typical clinical trial goes through multiple phases and can take up to eight years. Clinical endpoints or outcomes are used to determine whether the therapy is safe and effective. Once a patient reaches the endpoint, he or she is generally excluded from further experimental interaction. Trials that rely solely on clinical endpoints are very costly as they have long durations and tend to need large numbers of patients.

In contrast to clinical endpoints, surrogate endpoints have been shown to cut down the time required to confirm whether a drug has clinical benefits. Imaging biomarkers (a characteristic that is objectively measured by an imaging technique, which is used as an indicator of pharmacological response to a therapy) and surrogate endpoints have shown to facilitate the use of small group sizes, obtaining quick results with good statistical power.[28]

Imaging is able to reveal subtle change that is indicative of the progression of therapy that may be missed out by more subjective, traditional approaches. Statistical bias is reduced as the findings are evaluated without any direct patient contact.

Imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in oncology and neuroscience areas,.[29][30][31][32] For example, measurement of tumour shrinkage is a commonly used surrogate endpoint in solid tumour response evaluation. This allows for faster and more objective assessment of the effects of anticancer drugs. In Alzheimer's disease, MRI scans of the entire brain can accurately assess the rate of hippocampal atrophy, while PET scans can measure the brain's metabolic activity by measuring regional glucose metabolism,[28] and beta-amyloid plaques using tracers such as Pittsburgh compound B (PiB). Historically less use has been made of quantitative medical imaging in other areas of drug development although interest is growing.[33]

An imaging-based trial will usually be made up of three components:

  1. A realistic imaging protocol. The protocol is an outline that standardizes (as far as practically possible) the way in which the images are acquired using the various modalities (PET, SPECT, CT, MRI). It covers the specifics in which images are to be stored, processed and evaluated.
  2. An imaging centre that is responsible for collecting the images, perform quality control and provide tools for data storage, distribution and analysis. It is important for images acquired at different time points are displayed in a standardised format to maintain the reliability of the evaluation. Certain specialised imaging contract research organizations provide to end medical imaging services, from protocol design and site management through to data quality assurance and image analysis.
  3. Clinical sites that recruit patients to generate the images to send back to the imaging centre.

Shielding[edit]

X-rays generated by peak voltages belowMinimum thickness
of lead
75 kV1.0 mm
100 kV1.5 mm
125 kV2.0 mm
150 kV2.5 mm
175 kV3.0 mm
200 kV4.0 mm
225 kV5.0 mm
300 kV9.0 mm
400 kV15.0 mm
500 kV22.0 mm
600 kV34.0 mm
900 kV51.0 mm

Lead is the most common shield against X-rays because of its high density (11340 kg/m3), stopping power, ease of installation and low cost. The maximum range of a high-energy photon such as an X-ray in matter is infinite; at every point in the matter traversed by the photon, there is a probability of interaction. Thus there is a very small probability of no interaction over very large distances. The shielding of photon beam is therefore exponential (with an attenuation length being close to the radiation length of the material); doubling the thickness of shielding will square the shielding effect.

The following table shows the recommended thickness of lead shielding in function of X-ray energy, from the Recommendations by the Second International Congress of Radiology.[34]


Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Medical Radiation Exposure Of The U.S. Population Greatly Increased Since The Early 1980s". 
  3. ^ a b A.P. James, B V. Dasarathy, 'Medical Image Fusion: A survey of state of the art', Information Fusion, 2014;http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.inffus.2013.12.002
  4. ^ "Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI)". Snm.org. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  5. ^ "scintigraphy - definition of scintigraphy in the Medical dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
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  7. ^ BJ Erickson and CR Jack Jr. "Correlation of single photon emission CT with MR image data using fiduciary markers". American Journal of Neuroradiology, Vol 14, Issue 3 713-720. 
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  9. ^ Egorov, V.; Sarvazyan, A. P. (2008). "Mechanical Imaging of the Breast". IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 27 (9): 1275–1287. doi:10.1109/TMI.2008.922192. PMC 2581459. PMID 18753043.  edit
  10. ^ Egorov, V.; Van Raalte, H.; Sarvazyan, A. P. (2010). "Vaginal Tactile Imaging". IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 57 (7): 1736–1744. doi:10.1109/TBME.2010.2045757. PMC 3079341. PMID 20483695.  edit
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  17. ^ "Radiation Safety in Adult Medical Imaging". Image Wisely. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  18. ^ "Optimal levels of radiation for patients - Pan American Health Organization - Organización Panamericana de la Salud". New.paho.org. 2010-08-24. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  19. ^ "Radiation Protection of Patients". Rpop.iaea.org. 2013-03-14. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  20. ^ "World Health Organisation: Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Healthcare Settings: Technical Meeting Report". Who.int. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  21. ^ Freiherr G. Waste not, want not: Getting the most from imaging procedures. Diagnostic Imaging. March 19, 2010.
  22. ^ Udupa, J.K. and Herman, G. T., 3D Imaging in Medicine, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, 2000
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  25. ^ "Genes Now Tell Doctors Secrets They Can't Utter". The New York Times. August 25, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  26. ^ "Treating Medical Ailments in Real Time Using Epiphan DVI2USB | Solutions | Epiphan Systems". Epiphan.com. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  27. ^ Applied Radiology : Imaging on the Cloud : Series=Vol 40, Number 05, May 2011: Rasu B. Shrestha, MD, MBA
  28. ^ a b Hajnal, J. V., Hawkes, D. J., & Hill, D. L. (2001). Medical Image Registration. CRC Press.
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  33. ^ Comley, RA; Kallend, D (February 2013). "Imaging in the cardiovascular and metabolic disease area.". Drug discovery today 18 (3-4): 185–92. PMID 23032726. 
  34. ^ Alchemy Art Lead Products – Lead Shielding Sheet Lead For Shielding Applications. Retrieved 2008-12-07.
  35. ^ Singh, Z.H. Cho ; Joie P. Jones ; Manbir (1993). Foundations of medical imaging ([Nachdr.]. ed.). New York [u.a.]: Wiley. ISBN 0471545732. 

External links[edit]