Mealybug

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Mealybugs
A Mealybug
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Order:Hemiptera
Suborder:Sternorrhyncha
Superfamily:Coccoidea
Family:Pseudococcidae
Heymons, 1915 [1]
Genera
See text
[2]
 
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Mealybugs
A Mealybug
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Order:Hemiptera
Suborder:Sternorrhyncha
Superfamily:Coccoidea
Family:Pseudococcidae
Heymons, 1915 [1]
Genera
See text
[2]

Mealybugs are insects in the family Pseudococcidae, unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm climates. They are considered pests as they feed on plant juices of greenhouse plants, house plants and subtropical trees and also act as a vector for several plant diseases.

Distribution[edit]

Mealybugs occur in all parts of the world. There are many species in the Palearctic ecozone and fewer in the Neotropic ecozone.

Description[edit]

Male individual of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus
Formica fusca ants tending a herd of mealybugs
A ladybird preying on mealybugs
Mealybugs on Hibiscus plant.
Mealybugs on hibiscus plant

Mealybugs are sexually dimorphic: females are nymphal, exhibit reduced morphology, and are wingless, though unlike many female scale insects, they often retain legs and can move. The females do not change completely and are likely to be neotenic. Males are winged and do change completely during their lives. Since mealybugs (as well as all other Hemiptera) are hemimetabolous insects, they do not undergo complete metamorphosis in the true sense of the word. However, male mealybugs do exhibit a radical change during their life cycle, changing from wingless, ovoid nymphs to wasp-like flying adults.

Mealybug females feed on plant sap, normally in roots or other crevices, and in a few cases the bottoms of stored fruit. They attach themselves to the plant and secrete a powdery wax layer (therefore the name mealybug) used for protection while they suck the plant juices. The males on the other hand are short-lived as they do not feed at all as adults and only live to fertilize the females. Male citrus mealy bugs fly to the females and resemble fluffy gnats.

Some species of mealybug lay their eggs in the same waxy layer used for protection in quantities of 50–100; other species are born directly from the female.

The most serious pests are mealybugs that feed on citrus; other species damage sugarcane, grapes, pineapple (Jahn et al. 2003), coffee trees, cassava, ferns, cacti, gardenias, papaya, mulberry, sunflower and orchids. Mealybugs only tend to be serious pests in the presence of ants because the ants protect them from predators and parasites. Mealybugs also infest some species of carnivorous plant such as Sarracenia (pitcher plants); in such cases it is difficult to eradicate them without repeated applications of insecticide such as diazinon. Small infestations may not inflict significant damage. In larger amounts though, they can induce leaf drop.

Fossil specimens of Acropyga genus ants have been recovered from the Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits and several individuals are preserved carrying the extinct mealybug genus Electromyrmococcus.[3] These fossils represent the oldest recorded record of the symbiosis between mealybugs and Acropyga species ants.[3]

Control[edit]

Mealybugs can be controlled using the biocontrol agent Verticillium lecanii. Also, if the infested plant can tolerate the cold, place the plant on a windowsill during cold weather. This will attract the mealybugs to the leaf furthest from the window, where they can be wiped off with a cloth.

Genera[edit]

  • Acaciacoccus
  • Acinicoccus
  • Acrochordonus
  • Adelosoma
  • Agastococcus
  • Albertinia
  • Allomyrmococcus
  • Allotrionymus
  • Amonostherium
  • Anaparaputo
  • Anisococcus
  • Annulococcus
  • Anthelococcus
  • Antonina
  • Antoninella
  • Antoninoides
  • Apodastococcus
  • Artemicoccus
  • Asaphococcus
  • Asphodelococcus
  • Asteliacoccus
  • Atriplicicoccus
  • Atrococcus
  • Australicoccus
  • Australiputo
  • Balanococcus
  • Bessenayla
  • Bimillenia
  • Birendracoccus
  • Boninococcus
  • Boreococcus
  • Bouhelia
  • Brasiliputo
  • Brevennia
  • Brevicoccus
  • Callitricoccus
  • Calyptococcus
  • Cannococcus
  • Capitisetella
  • Cataenococcus
  • Chaetococcus
  • Chaetotrionymus
  • Chileputo
  • Chlorococcus
  • Chnaurococcus
  • Chorizococcus
  • Chryseococcus
  • Cintococcus
  • Circaputo
  • Cirnecoccus
  • Clavicoccus
  • Coccidohystrix
  • Coccura
  • Coleococcus
  • Colombiacoccus
  • Conicosoma
  • Conulicoccus
  • Coorongia
  • Cormiococcus
  • Criniticoccus
  • Crisicoccus
  • Crocydococcus
  • Cryptoripersia
  • Cucullococcus
  • Cyperia
  • Cypericoccus
  • Cyphonococcus
  • Dawa
  • Delococcus
  • Delottococcus
  • Densispina
  • Discococcus
  • Distichlicoccus
  • Diversicrus
  • Drymococcus
  • Dysmicoccus
  • Eastia
  • Ehrhornia
  • Electromyrmococcus
  • Epicoccus
  • Erimococcus
  • Eriocorys
  • Erioides
  • Erium
  • Eucalyptococcus
  • Eumirococcus
  • Eumyrmococcus
  • Eupeliococcus
  • Euripersia
  • Eurycoccus
  • Exilipedronia
  • Farinococcus
  • Ferrisia
  • Ferrisicoccus
  • Fijicoccus
  • Fonscolombia
  • Formicococcus
  • Gallulacoccus
  • Geococcus
  • Glycycnyza
  • Gomezmenoricoccus
  • Gouxia
  • Greenoripersia
  • Grewiacoccus
  • Hadrococcus
  • Heliococcus
  • Heterococcopsis
  • Heterococcus
  • Heteroheliococcus
  • Hippeococcus
  • Hopefoldia
  • Humococcus
  • Hypogeococcus
  • Iberococcus
  • Idiococcus
  • Indococcus
  • Inopicoccus
  • Ityococcus
  • Kenmorea
  • Kermicus
  • Kiritshenkella
  • Lachnodiella
  • Lachnodiopsis
  • Lacombia
  • Laingiococcus
  • Laminicoccus
  • Lankacoccus
  • Lantanacoccus
  • Lenania
  • Leptococcus
  • Leptorhizoecus
  • Liucoccus
  • Lomatococcus
  • Londiania
  • Longicoccus
  • Maconellicoccus
  • Macrocepicoccus
  • Maculicoccus
  • Madacanthococcus
  • Madagasia
  • Madangiacoccus
  • Madeurycoccus
  • Malaicoccus
  • Malekoccus
  • Mammicoccus
  • Marendellea
  • Mascarenococcus
  • Maskellococcus
  • Mauricoccus
  • Melanococcus
  • Metadenopsis
  • Metadenopus
  • Miconicoccus
  • Mirococcopsis
  • Mirococcus
  • Miscanthicoccus
  • Misericoccus
  • Mizococcus
  • Mollicoccus
  • Mombasinia
  • Moystonia
  • Mutabilicoccus
  • Nairobia
  • Natalensia
  • Neochavesia
  • Neoclavicoccus
  • Neoripersia
  • Neosimmondsia
  • Neotrionymus
  • Nesococcus
  • Nesopedronia
  • Nesticoccus
  • Nipaecoccus
  • Novonilacoccus
  • Octococcus
  • Odacoccus
  • Ohiacoccus
  • Oracella
  • Orococcus
  • Orstomicoccus
  • Oxyacanthus
  • Palaucoccus
  • Palmicultor
  • Paludicoccus
  • Pandanicola
  • Papuacoccus
  • Paracoccus
  • Paradiscococcus
  • Paradoxococcus
  • Paraferrisia
  • Paramococcus
  • Paramonostherium
  • Paramyrmococcus
  • Parapaludicoccus
  • Parapedronia
  • Paraputo
  • Pararhodania
  • Paratrionymus
  • Parkermicus
  • Paulianodes
  • Pedrococcus
  • Pedronia
  • Peliococcopsis
  • Peliococcus
  • Pellizzaricoccus
  • Penthococcus
  • Peridiococcus
  • Phenacoccus
  • Phyllococcus
  • Pilococcus
  • Planococcoides
  • Planococcus
  • Pleistocerarius
  • Plotococcus
  • Poecilococcus
  • Polystomophora
  • Porisaccus
  • Porococcus
  • Prorhizoecus
  • Prorsococcus
  • Pseudantonina
  • Pseudococcus
  • Pseudorhizoecus
  • Pseudorhodania
  • Pseudoripersia
  • Pseudotrionymus
  • Puto
  • Pygmaeococcus
  • Quadrigallicoccus
  • Rastrococcus
  • Renicaula
  • Rhizoecus
  • Rhodania
  • Ripersia
  • Ritsemia
  • Rosebankia
  • Saccharicoccus
  • Sarococcus
  • Scaptococcus
  • Seabrina
  • Serrolecanium
  • Seyneria
  • Spartinacoccus
  • Sphaerococcus
  • Spilococcus
  • Spinococcus
  • Stachycoccus
  • Stemmatomerinx
  • Stipacoccus
  • Strandanna
  • Stricklandina
  • Strombococcus
  • Synacanthococcus
  • Syrmococcus
  • Tangicoccus
  • Tasmanicoccus
  • Telocorys
  • Tibetococcus
  • Tomentocera
  • Trabutina
  • Tridiscus
  • Trimerococcus
  • Trionymus
  • Trochiscococcus
  • Turbinococcus
  • Tylococcus
  • Tympanococcus
  • Ventrispina
  • Villosicoccus
  • Volvicoccus
  • Vryburgia
  • Xenococcus
  • Yudnapinna

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pseudococcidae Heymons, 1915". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of Life
  3. ^ a b Johnson, M.S.; et al (2001). "Acropyga and Azteca Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Scale Insects (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea): 20 Million Years of Intimate Symbiosis". American Museum Novitates 3335: 1–18. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2001)335<0001:AAAAHF>2.0.CO;2. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

On the University of Florida / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Featured Creatures website: