Mayflower

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MayflowerHarbor.jpg
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882)
Name:Mayflower
Owner:Christopher Jones (¼ of the ship)
Operator:Christopher Jones
Route:numerous, but the most famous route is: Southampton to America
Maiden voyage:Before 1609
Out of service:1622-1624
Fate:most probably taken apart by Rotherhithe shipbreaker c.1624.
General characteristics
Class & type:Dutch cargo fluyt
Tonnage:180 tons +
Length:c. 80 - 90 ft. on deck, 100 - 110 ft. overall.
Decks:Around 4
Propulsion:Wind
Capacity:Unknown, but carried c. 135 people during the historical voyage to Plymouth
Crew:36-50
 
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MayflowerHarbor.jpg
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882)
Name:Mayflower
Owner:Christopher Jones (¼ of the ship)
Operator:Christopher Jones
Route:numerous, but the most famous route is: Southampton to America
Maiden voyage:Before 1609
Out of service:1622-1624
Fate:most probably taken apart by Rotherhithe shipbreaker c.1624.
General characteristics
Class & type:Dutch cargo fluyt
Tonnage:180 tons +
Length:c. 80 - 90 ft. on deck, 100 - 110 ft. overall.
Decks:Around 4
Propulsion:Wind
Capacity:Unknown, but carried c. 135 people during the historical voyage to Plymouth
Crew:36-50

The Mayflower was the Pilgrim ship that in 1620 made the historic voyage from England to the New World. The ship carried 102 passengers in two core groups – religious Separatists coming from Holland and a largely non-religious settler group from London.

This voyage has become an iconic story in the earliest annals of American history with its tragic story of death and of survival in the harshest New World winter environment. The culmination of the voyage in the signing of the Mayflower Compact is one of the greatest moments in the story of America, providing the basis of the nation's present form of democratic self-government and fundamental freedoms.

Early history

When and where the Mayflower of the Pilgrim voyage of 1620 was built is not known, but it is likely that she was launched at Harwich in the county of Essex, England, and although later known ‘of London’, she was designated as ‘of Harwich’ in the Port Books of 1609-11. Harwich was the birthplace of Mayflower master Christopher Jones about 1570.[1]

The Mayflower was rated at 180 tons—meaning it had a hold that could accommodate 180 casks of rum or wine —and was about 100 feet in length. Since Captain Jones became master eleven years prior to the Mayflower Pilgrims' voyage, the ship had sailed cross-Channel taking English woolens to France and bringing French wine to London. In addition to wine and wool, Jones had transported hats, hemp, Spanish salt, hops and vinegar to Norway and may have taken the Mayflower whaling in the North Atlantic in the Greenland area. It had traveled to Mediterranean ports, being then owned by Christopher Nichols, Robert Child, Thomas Short and Christopher Jones, the ship’s master. In 1620 Capt. Jones and Robert Child still owned their quarter shares in the ship, and it was from them that Thomas Weston chartered her in the summer of 1620 to undertake the Pilgrim voyage. Weston was deeply involved in the Mayflower voyage due to his membership in the investor group Merchant Adventurers, and eventually came to Plymouth Colony himself.[2][3][4]

From the Port Books of England in the reign of James I (1603-1625), there were twenty-six vessels bearing the same name as the Pilgrim ship and the reason for such popularity has never been found.[5]

A particular Mayflower that has caused historical confusion is a Mayflower erroneously named as the Mayflower of the 1620 Pilgrims. This particular ship was partly owned by John Vassall and was outfitted for Elizabeth I of England in 1588 during the time of the Spanish Armada, a war for which he outfitted several ships. There are no records of this Vassall Mayflower beyond 1594.[6]

From records of the time, and to avoid confusion with the many other Mayflower ships, the identity of Captain Jones’ Mayflower is based on her home port, her tonnage (est. 180-200 tons), and the master’s name in 1620.[5]

August 1609 records first note Christopher Jones as master and part owner of the Mayflower when his ship was chartered for a voyage from London to Drontheim (Trondheim) in Norway, and back to London. Due to bad weather, on her return, the ship lost an anchor and made short delivery of her cargo of herrings. Litigation was involved and was proceeding in 1612.

In a document of January 1611, Christopher Jones is described as being ‘of Harwich’, and his ship is called the Mayflower of Harwich (in Essex county). Records of Jones’ ship Mayflower have the ship twice in the Thames in London in 1613 – once in July and again in October and November.

Records of 1616 again state Jones’ ship was in the Thames and the noting of wine on board suggests the ship had recently been on a voyage to France, Spain, Portugal, the Canaries, or some other wine-producing country.

After 1616, there is no record which specifically relates to Jones’ Mayflower until 1624. This is unusual for a ship trading to London, as it would not usually disappear for such a long time from the records. There is no Admiralty court document relating to the pilgrim fathers' voyage of 1620 that can be found. Perhaps the situation of the way the transfer of the pilgrims from Leyden to New England was arranged may account for this. Or possibly many of the records of the period have been lost.

Voyage

Mayflower arrived inside the tip of Cape Cod fishhook, 11 November/21 November 1620 (satellite photo, 1997)

The Mayflower embarked about sixty-five passengers in London at its homeport in the Rotherhithe district on the Thames about the middle of July in 1620. She then proceeded down the Thames into the English Channel and then on to the south coast to anchor at Southampton Water. There the Mayflower waited for seven days for a rendezvous on July 22 with the Speedwell, coming with Leiden church members from Delfshaven Holland.

About August 5, the two ships set sail. The unseaworthy Speedwell sprang a leak shortly after and the ships put into Dartmouth for repairs. After the repairs, a new start was made. They were more than two hundred miles beyond Land’s End at the southwestern tip of England when Speedwell sprang another leak. Since it was now early September, they had no choice but to abandon the Speedwell and make a determination on her passengers. This was a dire event, as the ship had wasted vital funds and was considered very important to the future success of their settlement in America. Soon after the Mayflower continued on her voyage to America, Speedwell was sold, refitted, and, according to Bradford, "made many voyages…to the great profit of her owners." Bradford later assumed that the Speedwell master Mr. Reynolds's “cunning and deceit” (in causing what may have been 'man-made' leaks in the ship) had been motivated by a fear of starving to death in America.[7]

In addition to the 102 passengers, the officers and crew consisted of about 50 persons, including about 36 men before the mast, bringing the total persons on board the Mayflower to about one hundred and fifty.[8]

In early September, western gales begin to make the North Atlantic a dangerous place for sailing. The Mayflower's provisions, already quite low when departing Southampton, became much less by delays of more than of a month, and the passengers, having been aboard ship for all this time, were quite worn out by then and in no condition for a very taxing lengthy Atlantic journey cooped up in cramped spaces in a small ship. But on September 6, 1620, the Mayflower sailed from Plymouth with what Bradford called “a prosperous wind.”[9]

Tradition has it that the last port in England for the Mayflower was actually not Plymouth but Newlyn in Cornwall on the Land's End peninsula when it was found that the water picked up at Plymouth was contaminated. Scholarly works do not mention this stop, but Newlyn has a plaque to this effect on its quay. Only the year "1620" is provided, with no date.[10]

Aboard the Mayflower were many stores that supplied the pilgrims with the essentials needed for their journey and future lives. It is assumed that among these stores, they would have carried tools and weapons, including cannon, shot, and gunpowder; as well as some live animals, including dogs, sheep, goats, and poultry. Horses and cattle would come later. The Mayflower would also carry two boats: a long boat and a "shallop", a twenty-one foot boat powered by oars or sails. She also carried twelve artillery pieces (eight minions and four sakers), as the Pilgrims feared they might need to defend themselves against enemy European forces, as well as the Natives.[11]

The Mayflower Memorial in Southampton

The passage was a miserable one, with huge waves constantly crashing against the ship’s topside deck until a key structural support timber fractured. The passengers, who had already suffered agonizing delays, shortages of food and of other supplies, now were called upon to provide assistance to the ship’s carpenter in repairing the fractured main support beam. This was repaired with the use of a metal mechanical device called a jackscrew, which had been loaded on board to help in the construction of settler homes and now was used to secure the beam to keep it from cracking further, making the ship seaworthy enough.[11][12]

The crew of the Mayflower had some devices to assist them enroute such as a compass for navigation as well as a log and line system to measure speed in nautical miles per hour or “knots.” Time was measured with an ancient method – an hour glass.

There were two deaths, but this was only a precursor of what happened after their arrival in Cape Cod, where almost half the company would die in the first winter.[13]

On November 9/19, 1620, they sighted land, which was present-day Cape Cod. After several days of trying to sail south to their planned destination of the Colony of Virginia where they had already obtained permission from the Company of Merchant Adventurers to settle, strong winter seas forced them to return to the harbor at Cape Cod hook, well north of the intended area[14] where they anchored on November 11/21. To establish legal order and to quell increasing strife within the ranks, the settlers wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact after the ship dropped anchor at the tip of Cape Cod on November 11/21, in what is now Provincetown Harbor.[15][13][16][17]

On Monday November 27, an exploring expedition was launched under the direction of Capt. Christopher Jones to search for a suitable settlement site. As master of the Mayflower, Jones was not required to assist in the search, but he apparently thought it in his best interest to assist the search expedition. There were thirty-four persons in the open shallop – twenty-four passengers and ten sailors. They were obviously not prepared for the bitter winter weather they encountered on their reconnoiter, the Mayflower passengers not being accustomed to winter weather much colder than back home. Due to the bad weather encountered on the expedition, they were forced to spend the night ashore ill-clad in below-freezing temperatures with wet shoes and stockings that became frozen. Bradford wrote "(s)ome of our people that are dead took the original of their death here".[18]

The settlers explored the snow-covered area and discovered an empty native village, now known as Corn Hill in Truro. The curious settlers dug up some artificially made mounds, some of which stored corn, while others were burial sites. Nathaniel Philbrick claims that the settlers stole the corn and looted and desecrated the graves,[19] sparking friction with the locals.[20] Philbrick goes on to say that, as they moved down the coast to what is now Eastham, they explored the area of Cape Cod for several weeks, looting and stealing native stores as they went.[21] He then writes about how they decided to relocate to Plymouth after a difficult encounter with the local native, the Nausets, at First Encounter Beach, in December 1620.

However, Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation records that they took "some" of the corn to show the others back at the boat, leaving the rest. Then later they took what they needed from another store of grain, paying the locals back in six months, and it was gladly received.

Also there was found more of their corn and of their beans of various colors; the corn and beans they brought away, purposing to give them full satisfaction when they should meet with any of them as, about some six months afterward they did, to their good content.[22]

During the winter, the passengers remained on board the Mayflower, suffering an outbreak of a contagious disease described as a mixture of scurvy, pneumonia and tuberculosis. When it ended, there were only 53 passengers, just over half, still alive. Likewise, half of the crew died as well. In the spring, they built huts ashore, and on March 21/31, 1621, the surviving passengers disembarked from the Mayflower.

Due to the fear of Indian attack, in late February 1621 the settlers decided to mount "our great ordnances" on the hill overlooking the settlement. Christopher Jones supervised the transportation of the “great guns” – about six iron cannons that ranged between four and eight feet in length and weighed almost half a ton. The cannon were able to hurl iron balls 3 ½ inches in diameter as far as 1,700 yards. This action made what was no more than a ramshackle village almost into a well-defended fortress.[23]

Jones had originally planned to return to England as soon as the Pilgrims found a settlement site. But after his crew members began to be ravaged by the same diseases that were felling the Pilgrims, he realized he had to remain in Plymouth Harbor "till he saw his men began to recover."[24] The Mayflower lay in New Plymouth harbor through the winter of 1620-1. On April 5/15, 1621 the Mayflower, her empty hold ballasted with stones from the Plymouth Harbor shore, set sail for England. As with the Pilgrims, her sailors had been decimated by disease. Jones had lost his boatswain, his gunner, three quartermasters, the cook, and more than a dozen sailors. The Mayflower made excellent time on her voyage back to England. The westerlies that had buffeted her coming out pushed her along going home and she arrived at the home port of Rotherhithe in London on May 6/16, 1621,[25] – less than half the time it had taken her to sail to America."[26]

Jones died after coming back from a voyage to France on March 5, 1622, at about age 52. It is suggested that his journey to the New World may have taken its toll on him. For the next two years, the Mayflower lay at her berth in Rotherhithe, not far from the grave of Captain Jones at St. Mary’s church there. By 1624, the Mayflower was no longer useful as a ship and although her subsequent fate is unknown, she was probably broken up about that time. The Mayflower was the final casualty of a voyage that had cost her master, Christopher Jones, everything he could give.[27]

Passengers

Some families traveled together, while some men came alone, leaving families in England and Leiden. Two wives on board were pregnant – Elizabeth Hopkins gave birth to a son Oceanus while at sea and Susanna White gave birth to a son Peregrine in late November while the ship was anchored in Cape Cod Harbor. He is historically recognized as the first European child born in the New England area. One child died during the voyage, and there was one stillbirth during the construction of the colony.

Many of the passengers were Pilgrims fleeing persistent religious persecution, but some were hired hands, servants, or farmers recruited by London merchants, all originally destined for the Colony of Virginia. Four of this latter group of passengers were small children given into the care of Mayflower pilgrims as indentured servants. The Virginia Company began the transportation of children in 1618.[28] Until relatively recently, the children were thought to be orphans, foundlings or involuntary child labor. At that time, children were routinely rounded up from the streets of London or taken from poor families receiving church relief to be used as laborers in the colonies. Any legal objections to the involuntary transportation of the children were over-ridden by the Privy Council.[29][30] In 1959 it was conclusively shown[31] that the four More children were sent to America because they were deemed illegitimate, and a source of later historical controversy in England. Three of the four children died in the first winter in the New World, but the survivor, Richard More, lived to be approximately 81, dying in Salem, probably in 1695 or 1696.[32]

The passengers mostly slept and lived in the low-ceilinged great cabins. These cabins were thin-walled and extremely cramped. The cabin area was 25 feet by 15 at its largest, and on the main deck, which was 75 by 20 at the most. Below decks, any person over five feet tall would be unable to stand up straight. The maximum possible space for each person would have been slightly less than the size of a standard single bed.[33] The Mayflower passengers were the earliest permanent European settlers in New England, referring to themselves as "First Comers". They lived in the perilous times of what was called "The Ancient Beginnings" of the New World adventure.[34]

Passengers would pass the time by reading by candlelight or playing cards and games like Nine Men's Morris.[11] Meals on board were cooked by the firebox, which was an iron tray with sand in it on which a fire was built. This was risky because it was kept in the waist of the ship. Passengers made their own meals from rations that were issued daily and food was cooked for a group at a time.[33]

Upon arrival late in the year, the harsh climate and scarcity of fresh food caused many more deaths. Due to the delay in departure, provisions were short. Living in these extremely close and crowded quarters, several passengers experienced scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of the essential nutrient vitamin C. There was no way to store fruits or vegetables without their becoming rotten, so many passengers did not receive enough nutrients in their diets. Passengers with scurvy experienced symptoms such as rotten teeth, which would fall out; bleeding gums, and stinking breath.[35]

Passengers consumed large amounts of alcohol such as beer with meals which was known to be safer than water, which often came from polluted sources causing diseases. All food and drink was stored in barrels known as "hogsheads".[35]

William Mullins took 126 pairs of shoes and 13 pairs of boots. These clothes included: oiled leather and canvas suits, stuff gowns and leather and stuff breeches, shirts, jerkins, doublets, neckcloths, hats and caps, hose, stockings, belts, piece goods, and haberdasherie. At his death, Mullins estate consisting of extensive footwear and other items of clothing made his daughter Priscilla and her husband John Alden quite prosperous.[11][36][37]

No cattle or beasts of draft or burden were brought on the journey, but there were pigs, goats, and poultry. Some passengers brought family pets such as cats and birds. Peter Browne took his large bitch mastiff and John Goodman brought along his spaniel.[11]

Mayflower officers, crew and others

Per author Charles Banks, the officers and crew of the Mayflower consisted of a captain, four mates, four quartermasters, surgeon, carpenter, cooper, cooks, boatswains, gunners and about thirty-six men before the mast, making a total of fifty. The entire crew stayed with the Mayflower in Plymouth through the winter of 1620-1621. During that time, about half of the crew died. The crewmen that survived returned on the Mayflower which sailed for London on April 5 1621.[38][39]

Crew members per various sources

Per author Charles Banks the crew totaled 36 men before the mast and 14 officers, making a total of 50. Author Nathaniel Philbrick estimates between 20 and 30 sailors in her crew whose names are unknown. Author Nick Bunker states that Mayflower had a crew that was at least seventeen in number and possibly as much as thirty. Author Caleb Johnson states that the ship carried a crew of about thirty men, but the exact number is unknown.[40][41][42][43]

Officers and crew

Known Mayflower seamen

Unidentified passenger

Later history

On May 4, 1624, two years after Captain Jones’ death in 1622, an application was made to the Admiralty court for an appraisal of the Mayflower by three of her owners including Jones’ widow, Mrs. Josian (Joan) Jones. This appraisal probably was made to determine the valuation of the ship for the purpose of settling the estate of its late master. The appraisal was made by four mariners and shipwrights of Rotherhithe, home and burial place of Captain Jones, where the Mayflower was apparently then lying in the Thames at London. The appraisement is extant and provides information on ship’s gear on board at that time as well as equipment such as muskets and other arms. The ship may have been laid up since Jones’ death and allowed to get out of repair, as that is what the appraisal indicates.[5][68]

What finally became of the Mayflower is an unsettled issue. Per Banks, an English historian of the Pilgrim ship, claims that this historic ship was finally broken up, with her timbers used in the construction of a barn at Jordans village in Buckinghamshire. At the present time, within the grounds of Old Jordan in South Buckinghamshire is what tradition calls the Mayflower Barn. In 1624 Thomas Russell supposedly added to part of a farmhouse already there with timbers from a ship, believed to be from the Pilgrim ship ‘Mayflower’, bought from a shipbreaker's yard in Rotherhithe. The well-preserved structure is a present-day tourist attraction, receiving visitors each year from all over the world and particularly from America.[5]

Second Mayflower

Another ship called the Mayflower made a voyage from London to Plymouth Colony in 1629 carrying 35 passengers, many from the Pilgrim congregation in Leiden that organized the first voyage. This was not the same ship that made the original voyage with the first settlers. This voyage began in May and reached Plymouth in August. This ship also made the crossing from England to America in 1630, 1633, 1634, and 1639. It attempted the trip again in 1641, departing London in October of that year under master John Cole, with 140 passengers bound for Virginia. It never arrived. On October 18, 1642 a deposition was made in England regarding the loss.[69]

Place in history

The Pilgrim ship Mayflower has a famous place in American history as a symbol of early European colonization of the future United States.[70]

The main record for the voyage of the Mayflower and the disposition of the Plymouth Colony comes from the letters and journal of William Bradford, who was a guiding force and later the governor of the colony.

See also

References

  1. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623,(orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 19
  2. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623,(orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 17.
  3. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006) p. 24
  4. ^ History of the Mayflower [1]
  5. ^ a b c d Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623,(orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 22.
  6. ^ R. G. Marsden, "The Mayflower", English Historical Review (19 October 1904), p. 675.
  7. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 28
  8. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623, (orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), pp. 17-19
  9. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 29
  10. ^ Newlyn in Cornwall [2]
  11. ^ a b c d e Hodgson, Godfrey. A Great and Godly Adventure. Public Affairs: New York, 2006
  12. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 4
  13. ^ a b Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 413
  14. ^ Cheney, Glenn Alan (2007). Thanksgiving: The Pilgrims' First Year in America. New London: New London Librarium. ISBN 978-0-9798039-0-1. 
  15. ^ Bjoern Moritz, The Pilgrim-Fathers’ Voyage with the Mayflower (ShipsOnStamps 2003) [3]
  16. ^ William Bradford. History of Plymouth Plantation by William Bradford, the second Governor of Plymouth (Boston. 1856 Not in copyright) p. 448
  17. ^ George Ernest Bowman, The Mayflower Compact and its signers, (Boston: Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1920). Photocopies of the 1622, 1646 and 1669 versions of the document pp. 7-19.
  18. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), pp. 65-66
  19. ^ Philbrick, pp. 61-62
  20. ^ Winslow, Edward; William Bradford (1622). A Relation or Journal of the Beginning and Proceedings of the English Plantation Settled at Plimoth in New England. London, England: John Bellamie. pp. 8–10. 
  21. ^ Philbrick, pp. 65-70
  22. ^ William Bradford, William T. Davis (ed), Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606-1646, (Scribners 1908) p. 25 (the only written account of the voyage)
  23. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), pp. 90-91
  24. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 91
  25. ^ John Harris, Saga Of The Pilgrims(historical analysis), (Globe Newspaper Co., 1983), webpages (no links between): UCcom-saga1 and UCcom-saga11
  26. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 100-101
  27. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 101
  28. ^ Donald F. Harris, PhD., The Mayflower Descendant (July 1994) vol. 44 no. 2 p. 111
  29. ^ R.C. Johnson, The Transportation of Vagrant Children from London to Virginia, 1618-1622, in H.S. Reinmuth (Ed.), Early Stuart Studies: Essays in Honor of David Harris Willson, Minneapolis, 1970.
  30. ^ The Mayflower Descendant (July 2, 1994) vol. 44 no. 2 pp. 110, 111
  31. ^ Donald F. Harris, PhD., The Mayflower Descendants. vol 43 (July 1993), vol. 44 (July 1994.
  32. ^ David Lindsay, PhD., Mayflower Bastard: A Stranger amongst the Pilgrims, (St. Martins Press, New York, 2002) Introduction
  33. ^ a b Caffrey, Kate. The Mayflower. New York: Stein and Day, 1974
  34. ^ David Lindsay, PhD., Mayflower Bastard: A Stranger amongst the Pilgrims, (St. Martins Press, New York, 2002) pp. x, xvi.
  35. ^ a b Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War, (Viking 2006).
  36. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers (Indiana: Xlibris Corp., 2006), p. 195
  37. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English ancestry and homes of the Pilgrim Fathers who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2006), pp. 73-74
  38. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 18
  39. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 21
  40. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623,(orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p 18-19
  41. ^ a b Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A story of Courage, Community and War (New York:Viking, 2006), p. 25
  42. ^ Nick Bunker, Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and their New World a History (New York: Knopf 2010), p. 31
  43. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 33
  44. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 19-20
  45. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 25, 28, 31
  46. ^ a b c d e Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 19
  47. ^ Nick Bunker, Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and their New World a History (New York: Knopf 2010), p. 24
  48. ^ a b Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), pp. 32-33
  49. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A story of Courage, Community and War (New York:Viking, 2006), p. 25
  50. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 32
  51. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A story of Courage, Community and War (New York:Viking, 2006), p. 24
  52. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), pp. 33-34
  53. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 7-8, 19
  54. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. p. 34, 46
  55. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 7, 19. 27-28
  56. ^ a b c Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 35
  57. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 34
  58. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), pp. 34-35
  59. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), pp. 71-72, 141
  60. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) pp. 21, 234
  61. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) pp. 21, 289
  62. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 141
  63. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 289
  64. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 90
  65. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 240-242
  66. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) pp. 21, 364
  67. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 8-9
  68. ^ R. G. Marsden, The Mayflower English Historical Review (19 October 1904), p. 677
  69. ^ Pierson, RichardE.; Pierson, Jennifer (1997). Pierson Millennium. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, Inc. ISBN 0-7884-0742-2. 
  70. ^ Philbrick, pp. 4-5

Further reading

External links