Evidence that the phrase was in use as early as 1936 is provided by a memoir written by Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen who was the British Ambassador to China in 1936 and 1937. The memoir describes an instance of a friend of Knatchbull-Hugessen describing the phrase as a "Chinese curse" when discussing his departure to China.
Some years ago, in 1936, I had to write to a very dear and honored friend of mine, who has since died, Sir Austen Chamberlain, brother of the present Prime Minister, and I concluded my letter with a rather banal remark, "that we were living in an interesting age." Evidently he read the whole letter, because by return mail he wrote to me and concluded as follows: "Many years ago, I learned from one of our diplomats in China that one of the principal Chinese curses heaped upon an enemy is, 'May you live in an interesting age.'" "Surely", he said, "no age has been more fraught with insecurity than our own present time." That was three years ago.
The phrase is again described as a "Chinese curse" in 1943's "Child Study Association of America, Federation for Child Study (U.S.)".
Bob Garvin uses the phrase near the end of the movie in Disclosure.
Stephen King also referenced the curse in his novel Firestarter. In this novel, the head of the 'Shop'(the secret government agency who are chasing the protagonist and his daughter, who each have supernatural powers) thinks about this curse, and thinks to himself that if any more interesting thing happen again, it will drive him mad.
^Bryan W. Van Norden. Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy. (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2011; ISBN 9781603844697), p. 53, sourcing Fred R. Shapiro, ed., The Yale Book of Quotations (New Haven: Yale University Press 2006), p. 669.