"Mathematica (programming language)" and "Mathematica programming language" redirect here. For the programming language used by Mathematica, see Wolfram (programming language).
Mathematica is a computational software program used in many scientific, engineering, mathematical and computing fields, based on symbolic mathematics. It was conceived by Stephen Wolfram and is developed by Wolfram Research of Champaign, Illinois.^{[4]}^{[5]} The Wolfram Language is the programming language used in Mathematica.^{[6]}
Using both "free-form linguistic input" (a natural language user interface) ^{[10]}^{[11]} and Mathematica language in notebook when connected to the Internet
Interface[edit]
Mathematica is split into two parts, the kernel and the front end. The kernel interprets expressions (Mathematica code) and returns result expressions.
The front end, designed by Theodore Gray, provides a GUI, which allows the creation and editing of Notebook documents containing program code with prettyprinting, formatted text together with results including typeset mathematics, graphics, GUI components, tables, and sounds. All contents and formatting can be generated algorithmically or interactively edited. Most standard word processing capabilities are supported. It includes a spell-checker but does not spell check automatically as you type.
Documents can be structured using a hierarchy of cells, which allow for outlining and sectioning of a document and support automatic numbering index creation. Documents can be presented in a slideshow environment for presentations. Notebooks and their contents are represented as Mathematica expressions that can be created, modified or analysed by Mathematica programs. This allows conversion to other formats such as TeX or XML.
The front end includes development tools such as a debugger, input completion and automatic syntax coloring.
Among the alternative front ends is the Wolfram Workbench, an Eclipse based IDE, introduced in 2006. It provides project-based code development tools for Mathematica, including revision management, debugging, profiling, and testing.^{[12]} The Mathematica Kernel also includes a command line front end.^{[13]} Other interfaces include JMath,^{[14]} based on GNU readline and MASH^{[15]} which runs self-contained Mathematica programs (with arguments) from the UNIX command line.
Wolfram Research has published a series of hands-on starter webcasts that introduce the user interface and the engine.^{[16]}
Version 5.2 (2005) added automatic multi-threading when computations are performed on multi-core computers.^{[19]} This release included CPU specific optimized libraries. In addition Mathematica is supported by third party specialist acceleration hardware such as ClearSpeed.^{[20]}
Support for CUDA and OpenCLGPU hardware was added in 2010. Also, since version 8 it can generate C code, which is automatically compiled by a system C compiler, such as the Intel C++ Compiler or Visual Studio 2010.
Deployment[edit]
There are several ways to deploy applications written in Mathematica:
Mathematica Player Pro is a runtime version of Mathematica that will run any Mathematica application but does not allow editing or creation of the code.^{[22]}
A free-of-charge version, Wolfram CDF Player, is provided for running Mathematica programs that have been saved in the Computable Document Format (CDF).^{[23]} It can also view standard Mathematica files, but not run them. It includes plugins for common web browsers on Windows and Macintosh.
webMathematica allows a web browser to act as a front end to a remote Mathematica server. It is designed to allow a user written application to be remotely accessed via a browser on any platform. It may not be used to give full access to Mathematica.
Mathematica code can be converted to C code or to an automatically generated DLL.
Mathematica code can be run on a Wolfram cloud service as a web-app or as an API
Connections with other applications[edit]
Communication with other applications occurs through a protocol called MathLink. It allows communication between the Mathematica kernel and front-end, and also provides a general interface between the kernel and other applications. Wolfram Research freely distributes a developer kit for linking applications written in the C programming language to the Mathematica kernel through MathLink.^{[24]} Using J/Link.,^{[25]} a Java program can ask Mathematica to perform computations; likewise, a Mathematica program can load Java classes, manipulate Java objects and perform method calls. Similar functionality is achieved with .NET /Link,^{[26]} but with .NET programs instead of Java programs. Other languages that connect to Mathematica include Haskell,^{[27]}AppleScript,^{[28]}Racket,^{[29]}Visual Basic,^{[30]}Python^{[31]}^{[32]} and Clojure.^{[33]}
Links are available to many specialized mathematical software packages including OpenOffice.org Calc,^{[34]}Microsoft Excel,^{[35]}MATLAB,^{[36]}^{[37]}^{[38]}R,^{[39]}Sage,^{[40]}^{[41]}SINGULAR,^{[42]}Wolfram SystemModeler, and Origin.^{[43]} Mathematical equations can be exchanged with other computational or typesetting software via MathML.
Communication with SQL databases is achieved through built-in support for JDBC.^{[44]} Mathematica can also install web services from a WSDL description.^{[45]}^{[46]} It can access HDFS data via Hadoop.^{[47]}
Mathematica can capture real-time data via a link to LabVIEW,^{[48]} from financial data feeds^{[49]} and directly from hardware devices via GPIB (IEEE 488),^{[50]}USB^{[51]} and serial interfaces.^{[52]} It automatically detects and reads from HID devices.
Computable data[edit]
A stream plot of live weather data
Mathematica includes collections of curated data provided for use in computations. Mathematica is also integrated with Wolfram Alpha, an online service which provides additional data, some of which is kept updated in real time. Some of the data sets include astronomical, chemical, geopolitical, language, biomedical and weather data, in addition to mathematical data (such as knots and polyhedra).^{[53]}
Design[edit]
Wolfram Research provides documents^{[54]} listing the algorithms used to implement the functions in Mathematica.
Related products[edit]
Products from Wolfram Research associated with Mathematica include the following:^{[55]}
webMathematica – call Mathematica through a web server
gridMathematica – run Mathematica across a parallel grid
Mathematica add-ons^{[56]} – computational solutions and tools
Mobile apps – mobile Wolfram|Alpha and other computational applications
Wolfram|Alpha^{[57]} – a computational knowledge engine or answer engine
Wolfram Knowledgebase^{[58]} – a repository of computable knowledge with both data and methods to compute results, used by Wolfram|Alpha, represented using Wolfram Data Framework (WDF)
Wolfram SystemModeler – a platform for engineering and life science modeling and simulation based on the Modelica language
Wolfram Finance Platform^{[59]} – real-time data, computations, reporting, and algorithmic trading for financial applications
Wolfram Workbench^{[60]} – an IDE built on Eclipse for development of Mathematica and other technologies from Wolfram Research
Wolfram Programming Cloud^{[61]} – create and deploy Wolfram Language applications in the cloud
Wolfram Cloud^{[62]} – the infrastructure for Mathematica Online, Wolfram Programming Cloud, Wolfram Discovery Platform, and Wolfram Data Science Platform
Wolfram Programming Lab^{[63]} – for the education of programming
Wolfram Data Framework (WDF)^{[64]} – provides a standardized representation and semantic framework for real-world constructs and data
Wolfram Discovery Platform (under development)^{[65]} – research & development workflows using the Wolfram Language and the Computable Document Format (CDF)
Wolfram Data Science Platform (under development)^{[66]} – science data analysis and visualization using the Wolfram Language and the Wolfram Data Framework (WDF)
Licensing and platform availability[edit]
Mathematica is proprietary software licensed at a range of prices for commercial, educational, and other uses.^{[67]}
Mathematica 10 is supported on various versions of Microsoft Windows (Vista, 7 and 8), Apple's OS X, Linux, Raspbian and as an online service.^{[68]} All platforms are supported with 64-bit implementations. ^{[69]} Mathematica prior to version 10 for OS X required Java SE 6 which is a deprecated component of Mavericks. Earlier versions of Mathematica up to 6.0.3 supported other operating systems, including Solaris, AIX, Convex, HP-UX, IRIX, MS-DOS, NeXTSTEP, OS/2, Ultrix and Windows Me.^{[70]}
Version history[edit]
Mathematica built on the ideas in Cole and Wolfram's earlier Symbolic Manipulation Program (SMP).^{[71]}^{[72]} The name of the program “Mathematica” was suggested to Stephen Wolfram by Apple co-founder Steve Jobs although Stephen Wolfram had thought about it earlier and rejected it.^{[73]}
Wolfram Research has released the following versions of Mathematica:^{[74]}
^GITM SourceForge. Note that the GITM project currently (as of 2014-08-03) has no downloadable artefacts and appears to be inactive so GPIB support for Mathematica may not actually exist.