Mary Leakey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Mary Leakey
Mary Leakey.jpg
Born(1903-02-06)6 February 1903
London, England,
United Kingdom
Died9 December 1996(1996-12-09) (aged 83)
Nairobi, Kenya,
East Africa
NationalityUnited Kingdom
FieldsPaleoanthropology
Known forFossil, Laetoli
SpouseLouis Leakey
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Mary Leakey
Mary Leakey.jpg
Born(1903-02-06)6 February 1903
London, England,
United Kingdom
Died9 December 1996(1996-12-09) (aged 83)
Nairobi, Kenya,
East Africa
NationalityUnited Kingdom
FieldsPaleoanthropology
Known forFossil, Laetoli
SpouseLouis Leakey

Mary Leakey (6 February 1913 – 9 December 1996) was a British paleoanthropologist who discovered the first fossilized Proconsul skull, an extinct ape now believed to be ancestral to humans. She also discovered the robust Zinjanthropus skull at Olduvai Gorge. For much of her career she worked together with her husband, Louis Leakey, in the Olduvai Gorge, in eastern Africa, uncovering the tools and fossils of ancient hominines. She developed a system for classifying the stone tools found at Olduvai. She also discovered the Laetoli footprints. It was here, at the Laetoli site, that she discovered Hominin fossils that were more than 3.75 million-years-old. She also discovered fifteen new species of other animals, and one new genus.

In 1960 she became director of excavation at Olduvai and subsequently took it over, building her own staff.

After the death of her husband, she became a leading palaeoanthropologist, helping to establish the Leakey tradition by training her son, Richard, in the field.

Biography[edit]

Replica of an Australopithecus boisei skull discovered by Mary Leakey in 1959

Childhood[edit]

Mary Leakey was born Mary Douglas Nicol on 6 February 1913, in London, England to Erskine Edward Nicol and Cecilia Marion (Frere) Nicol. Since Erskine worked as a painter, specializing in watercolor landscapes, the Nicol family would move from place to place, visiting numerous locations in the USA, Italy, and Egypt, where Erskine painted scenes to be sold in England. Erskine Nicol developed an amateur enthusiasm for Egyptology during his travels. Mary Leakey was a direct descendant of antiquarian, John Frere, and cousin to archaeologist, Sheppard Frere, on her mother's side. The Frere family had been active abolitionists in the British colonial empire during the nineteenth century and established several communities for freed slaves. Three of these communities remained in existence as of Mrs. Leakey's 1984 autobiography: Freretown, Kenya; Freretown, South Africa; and Freretown, India. She also was a distant relative of baronet Henry Bartle Frere.[1]

The Nicols spent much of their time in southern France. Mary became fluent in French. She identified more with the adventurous spirit of her father, going for long walks and explorations with him and having long talks. She disliked her governess and had less sympathy for her mother.

In 1925, when Mary was twelve, the Nicols stayed at Les Eyzies at a time when Elie Peyrony was excavating one of the caves there. Peyrony did not understand the significance of much of what he found, and was not excavating scientifically during that early stage of archaeology. Mary received permission to go through his dump. It was there that her interest in prehistory was sparked. She started a collection of points, scrapers, and blades from the dump and developed her first system of classification.[2]

That winter, the family moved to Cabrerets, a village of Lot, France. There she met Abbé Lemozi, the village priest, who befriended her and became her mentor for a time. The two toured Pech Merle cave to view the prehistoric paintings of bison and horses.[3]

Education[edit]

In the spring of 1926, in Mary's thirteenth year, her father died of cancer. The services were read by Lemozi. Erskine's brother, Percy, came to take them back to London. Cecilia sold Erskine's paintings and moved to a boardinghouse in Kensington. She placed Mary in a local Catholic convent to be educated, following the example of her own life. Later, Mary boasted of never passing an examination there.[4] Although she spoke it fluently, Mary could not even excel at French, because her teacher frowned upon her provincial accent. She was expelled for refusing to recite poetry, and then expelled from a second convent school for causing an explosion in a chemistry laboratory.[5]

After the second expulsion her mother hired two tutors, who were no more successful than the nuns, and mother and daughter visited Stonehenge. Mary's only particular interests were drawing and archaeology. Formal university admission was impossible with Mary's academic record. Her mother contacted a professor at Oxford University about possible admission. After being informed that it was not even worth her time applying, Mary had no further contact with the university until it awarded her an honorary doctoral degree in 1951. So the small family moved to Kensington where unregistered, she could attend lectures in archaeology and related subjects at University College London and the London Museum, where she studied under Mortimer Wheeler.[6]

She applied to a number of excavations to be held in the summer. Wheeler was the first to accept her for a dig at St. Albans at the Roman site of Verulamium. Mary's second dig was at Hembury, a Neolithic site, under Dorothy Liddell, who coached her for four years. Mary's illustrations of tools for Dorothy drew the attention of Gertrude Caton-Thompson, and in late 1932 she entered the field as an illustrator for Caton-Thompson's book, The Desert Fayoum.[7]

Matriarch[edit]

Louis Leakey

Through Gertrude, Mary met Louis Leakey, who was in need of an illustrator for his book, Adam's Ancestors. While she was doing that work they became romantically attached. They shared common interests and values: a love of freedom and dislike for rules, an egalitarian frame of mind extending even to animals, a desire for adventure, and a passion for archaeology. Louis was still married when he started living with Mary, which caused a scandal that ruined his career at Cambridge University. They were married when Louis's wife, Frida, divorced him in 1936.

From then until about 1962 Louis and Mary faced trying circumstances together. Early in their relationship he nursed her through double pneumonia. They had three sons: Jonathan in 1940, Richard in 1944, and Philip in 1949. The boys received much of their early childhood care at various anthropological sites. Whenever possible the Leakeys excavated and explored as a family. The boys grew up with the same love of freedom their parents had. Mary would not even allow guests to shoo away the pet hyraxes that helped themselves to food and drink at the dinner table. She smoked very much, first cigarettes and then cigars, and dressed as though on excavation.

Louis died on 1 October 1972 of a heart attack. Mary continued the family's archaeological work. Mary carried on after Louis, becoming a powerful and respected figure. By then Richard had decided to become a palaeoanthropologist. She helped his career significantly. Her other two sons opted to follow other interests.

Death[edit]

Mary died on 9 December 1996 at the age of 83, a renowned paleoanthropologist, who had not only conducted significant research of her own, but had been invaluable to the research careers of her husband, Louis Leakey, and their sons, Richard, Philip, and Jonathan.

Excavations[edit]

Olduvai Gorge

Leakey served her apprenticeship in archaeology under Dorothy Liddell at Hembury in Devon, England, 1930–1934, for whom she also did illustrations. In 1934 she was part of a dig at Swanscombe where she discovered the largest elephant tooth known in Britain up to that time, but needed assistance to identify it.[8]

The years 1935 to 1959, spent at Olduvai Gorge in the Serengeti plains of Northern Tanzania, yielded many stone tools from primitive stone-chopping instruments to multi-purpose hand axes. These finds came from Stone Age cultures dated as far back as 100,000 to two million years ago.

The Leakeys unearthed a Proconsul africanus skull on Rusinga Island, in October 1948.

After Mary's husband died, she continued her work at Olduvai and Laetoli. It was here, at the Laetoli site, that she discovered Hominin fossils that were more than 3.75 million-years-old. She also discovered fifteen new species of other animals, and one new genus.

From 1976 to 1981 Leakey and her staff worked to uncover the Laetoli hominid footprint trail which was left in volcanic ashes some 3.6 million years ago. The years that followed this discovery were filled with research at Olduvai and Laetoli, the follow-up work to discoveries and preparing publications.

Books[edit]

Cultural references[edit]

Google celebrated the 100th anniversary of Mary Leakey's birth with its Google doodle for 6 February 2013.[9]

In April 2013 Leakey was honoured by Royal Mail in the UK, as one of six people selected as subjects for the “Great Britons” commemorative postage stamp issue.[10]

See also[edit]

Position in the Leaky family[edit]

 
Frida Avern
 
Louis Leakey
 
Mary Leakey, nee Nichol
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Colin Leakey
 
Meave Epps
 
Richard Leakey
 
Margaret Cropper
 
Jonathan Leakey
 
Philip Leakey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Louise Leakey
 
Emmanuel de Mérode
 
 
 
 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mary Leakey, Disclosing the Past: An Autobiography, Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1984, pp. 14–17.
  2. ^ Virginia Morell, Ancestral Passions, Copyright 1996, Chapter 4, "Louis and Mary."
  3. ^ Disclosing the Past, pp. 27–28.
  4. ^ Mary Leakey, archaeologist and anthropologist, obituary from The Times, 10 December 1996, displayed at the Primate Info Net, University of Wisconsin.
  5. ^ Disclosing the Past, p. 33.
  6. ^ Disclosing the Past, pp. 34–26, 36–37.
  7. ^ Disclosing the Past, pp. 37–39.
  8. ^ Disclosing the Past, pp. 47–48.
  9. ^ Mary Leakey's 100th Birthday, Google, accessed 6 February 2013
  10. ^ "Royal Mail celebrates 'Great Britons' with launch of latest special stamp collection". royalmailgroup.com. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]