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Mary Chilton was baptized on May 31, 1607 in Sandwich, Kent, England and was the daughter of Mayflower passenger James Chilton. Mary Chilton's mother's name has been listed as "Susannah, possibly Furner" in many places. She is listed by William Bradford as "Mrs. Chilton" or "James Chilton's wife." It is possible that he never knew her given name. At the age of thirteen, Mary accompanied her parents on the voyage to Plymouth. Her father, at age sixty-four, was the oldest passenger on the Mayflower.
Her father died on December 18, 1620 aboard the Mayflower and her mother died six weeks later on January 21, 1621, also aboard ship, both of "the first infection of the disease" according to a report by Governor William Bradford in 1650. Once orphaned, it is believed she became the ward of Myles Standish or John Alden. Chilton was given three shares in the land division of 1623, one for herself and one each for her deceased parents. Her property was situated between those of Standish and John Howland.
She was one of eleven minor girls on the Mayflower. Of these, she was one of the nine to survive the first year at Plymouth and would have been present at the time of the famous First Thanksgiving in 1621. In contrast, only four of the fourteen adult women survived the first year.
She married John Winslow (possibly on October 12, 1624) and thus became the sister-in-law of Mayflower passenger Edward Winslow. They had ten children: John, Susannah, Mary, Edward, Sarah, Samuel, Joseph, Isaac, an unnamed child who probably died in infancy, and Benjamin. All but Benjamin married, and Benjamin's birth is the only one listed in the records of Plymouth colony.
The family moved to Boston some time after the birth of Benjamin in 1653. There John Winslow is said to have prospered as a merchant.
She made out a will on July 31, 1676 (one of two female passengers from the Mayflower who did so, Elizabeth Tilley being the other) and died before May 1, 1679 in Boston.
Notable descendants of Mary Chilton include First Lady Lucretia Rudolph Garfield, singer Pete Seeger, Ambassador Pamela Harriman, poet Robert Lowell, actress Jane Wyatt, Marjorie "Betty Crocker" Child, Attorney General Elliot Richardson, actor Vincent Price,, Associate Account Representative and fantasy football silver medalist, Katherine Huber, Herb Melendy,Capt USN, deceased, and former governor Howard Dean.