Martinez, California

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City of Martinez[1]
City
Aerial view of Martinez
Aerial view of Martinez
Location in Contra Costa County and the state of California
Location in Contra Costa County and the state of California
Coordinates: 38°01′10″N 122°08′03″W / 38.01944°N 122.13417°W / 38.01944; -122.13417Coordinates: 38°01′10″N 122°08′03″W / 38.01944°N 122.13417°W / 38.01944; -122.13417
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountyContra Costa
IncorporatedApril 1, 1876[2]
Government
 • MayorRob Schroder[3]
 • State SenatorLois Wolk (D)[4]
 • AssemblymemberSusan Bonilla (D)[5]
 • United States RepresentativesMike Thompson (D) and George Miller (D)[6]
Area[7]
 • Total13.135 sq mi (34.019 km2)
 • Land12.131 sq mi (31.420 km2)
 • Water1.004 sq mi (2.600 km2)  7.64%
Elevation23 ft (7 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total35,824
 • Density2,700/sq mi (1,100/km2)
Time zonePST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP code94553
Area code925
FIPS code06-46114
GNIS feature IDs277553, 2411045
Websitewww.cityofmartinez.org
 
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City of Martinez[1]
City
Aerial view of Martinez
Aerial view of Martinez
Location in Contra Costa County and the state of California
Location in Contra Costa County and the state of California
Coordinates: 38°01′10″N 122°08′03″W / 38.01944°N 122.13417°W / 38.01944; -122.13417Coordinates: 38°01′10″N 122°08′03″W / 38.01944°N 122.13417°W / 38.01944; -122.13417
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountyContra Costa
IncorporatedApril 1, 1876[2]
Government
 • MayorRob Schroder[3]
 • State SenatorLois Wolk (D)[4]
 • AssemblymemberSusan Bonilla (D)[5]
 • United States RepresentativesMike Thompson (D) and George Miller (D)[6]
Area[7]
 • Total13.135 sq mi (34.019 km2)
 • Land12.131 sq mi (31.420 km2)
 • Water1.004 sq mi (2.600 km2)  7.64%
Elevation23 ft (7 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total35,824
 • Density2,700/sq mi (1,100/km2)
Time zonePST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP code94553
Area code925
FIPS code06-46114
GNIS feature IDs277553, 2411045
Websitewww.cityofmartinez.org

Martinez (/mɑrˈtnɨs/ mar-TEE-niss or /mɑrˈtnɛθ/ mar-TEE-neth; Spanish: Martínez) is a city and the county seat of Contra Costa County, California, United States.[8] The population was 35,824 at the 2010 census. The downtown is notable for its large number of preserved old buildings. Martinez is located on the south side of the Carquinez Strait in the San Francisco Bay Area, directly facing the city of Benicia.

History[edit]

In 1824 the Alhambra Valley was included in the Rancho El Pinole Mexican land grant to Ygnacio Martínez.[9] In 1847, Dr. Robert Semple contracted to provide ferry service from Martinez to Benicia, which for many years was the only crossing on the Carquinez Strait.[9] By 1849, Martínez served as a way station for the California Gold Rush. The town was laid out in 1849 by Col. William M. Smith and named for Martinez.[10] It became the county seat in 1850, but could not incorporate at the time because it lacked the 200 registered voters required, and only became a city in 1876.[11]

John Muir House.

Martinez was the home of John Muir from 1880 until his death in 1914. He was buried about a mile south of the building that is now the John Muir National Historic Site. Also nearby is the Vicente Martinez Adobe, built in 1849 by the son of Ygnacio Martinez.[11]

The first post office opened in 1851.[10]

Main Street in Martinez

In 1860, Martinez played a role in the Pony Express, where riders would take the ferry from Benicia (particularly if they missed the steamer in Sacramento).[12] In 1915, Shell Oil Company built an oil refinery in unincorporated Martinez, which sparked a building boom in the area. A second area refinery[13] (presently owned by Tesoro Petroleum Co.), together with the Shell facilities, help make Martinez a significant petroleum processing center and port. The oil refineries in and near Martinez can still be seen today from Interstate 680.[14]

Folk etymology in Martinez claims the invention of the Martini cocktail and that it is named for the city.[15]

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.1 square miles (34 km2), of which, 12.1 square miles (31 km2) of it is land and 1.0 square mile (2.6 km2) of it (7.64%) is water.

Although the common perception of Martinez is that of a refinery town, given the view from Highway 680 across the Shell refinery from the Martinez-Benicia Bridge, the city is in fact largely surrounded by water and regional open space preserves. The Martinez-Benicia Bridge carries Highway 680 across the eastern end of the Carquinez Strait to Solano County. The city can be defined as a more densely built downtown valley threaded by Alhambra creek and north of Highway 4. Suburban areas stretch south of Highway 4 to join the neighboring city of Pleasant Hill. Unincorporated areas include the rural Alhambra Valley and the Franklin Canyon area.

The Martinez Regional Shoreline bounds the city to the north along the Carquinez Strait. Carquinez Strait Regional Shoreline includes the Franklin Hills west of downtown, stretching west to the unincorporated community of Port Costa and the town of Crockett. Briones Regional Park borders the Alhambra Valley to the south. Waterbird Regional Preserve and the McNabney Marsh border the city and Highway 680 to the east. Martinez's location at the east end of the Carquinez Strait as it widens to Suisun Bay includes dramatic water views stretching to the Sierra range. From surrounding ridge tops views stretch to nearby Mt. Diablo, Mt. St. Helena, Mt. Tamalpais, etc.

Martinez is one of the only two places in the Bay Area, the other being Golden Gate Bridge, where the Bay Area Ridge Trail and the San Francisco Bay Trail converge. The Bay Trail is a planned recreational corridor that, when complete, will encircle San Francisco and San Pablo bays with a continuous 400-mile (640 km) network of bicycling and hiking trails. It will connect the shoreline of all nine Bay Area counties, link 47 cities, and cross the major toll bridges in the region, including the Martinez-Benicia Bridge. To date, approximately 240 miles (390 km) of the alignment—over half the Bay Trail's ultimate length—have been completed. The Bay Area Ridge Trail ultimately will be a 500+ mile trail encircling the San Francisco Bay along the ridge tops, open to hikers, equestrians, mountain bicyclists, and outdoor enthusiasts of all types. So far, over 300 miles (480 km) of trail have been dedicated for use. East Bay Regional Park District's Iron Horse Regional Trail will join the Bay Trail along the waterfront, and the Contra Costa Canal Trail threads through the city from Pleasant Hill to the south.

Climate[edit]

Martinez has a mild Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa/b). Summers are warm and dry, with some morning fog when the sea breezes are just right. Winters are wet and cool with occasional frost. The majority of the city is within a USDA hardiness zone of 9b.

Climate data for Martinez, California
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)54
(12)
60
(16)
64
(18)
71
(22)
78
(26)
84
(29)
87
(31)
87
(31)
83
(28)
75
(24)
63
(17)
55
(13)
71.8
(22.3)
Average low °F (°C)39
(4)
42
(6)
44
(7)
46
(8)
50
(10)
54
(12)
55
(13)
55
(13)
54
(12)
49
(9)
43
(6)
39
(4)
47.5
(8.7)
Precipitation inches (mm)4.25
(108)
3.81
(96.8)
3.24
(82.3)
1.04
(26.4)
.46
(11.7)
.12
(3)
.02
(0.5)
.08
(2)
.24
(6.1)
.94
(23.9)
2.61
(66.3)
2.79
(70.9)
20.53
(521.5)
Source: Weather Channel [16]

Demographics[edit]

The Contra Costa County courthouse in downtown Martinez

2010[edit]

The 2010 United States Census[17] reported that Martinez had a population of 35,824. The population density was 2,727.4 people per square mile (1,053.1/km²). The racial makeup of Martinez was 27,603 (77.1%) White, 1,303 (3.6%) African American, 255 (0.7%) Native American, 2,876 (8.0%) Asian, 121 (0.3%) Pacific Islander, 1,425 (4.0%) from other races, and 2,241 (6.3%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5,258 persons (14.7%).

The Census reported that 34,528 people (96.4% of the population) lived in households, 235 (0.7%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 1,061 (3.0%) were institutionalized.

There were 14,287 households, out of which 4,273 (29.9%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,782 (47.5%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,751 (12.3%) had a female householder with no husband present, 640 (4.5%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 928 (6.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 137 (1.0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,920 households (27.4%) were made up of individuals and 1,078 (7.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42. There were 9,173 families (64.2% of all households); the average family size was 2.95.

The age distribution of the population showed 7,329 people (20.5%) under the age of 18, 2,842 people (7.9%) aged 18 to 24, 9,193 people (25.7%) aged 25 to 44, 12,121 people (33.8%) aged 45 to 64, and 4,339 people (12.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.2 years. For every 100 females there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males.

There were 14,976 housing units at an average density of 1,140.2 per square mile (440.2/km²), of which 9,619 (67.3%) were owner-occupied, and 4,668 (32.7%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.9%. 23,876 people (66.6% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 10,652 people (29.7%) lived in rental housing units.

Demographic profile[18]2010
Total Population35,824 - 100.0%
One Race33,583 - 93.7%
Not Hispanic or Latino30,566 - 85.3%
White alone24,604 - 68.7%
Black or African American alone1,263 - 3.5%
American Indian and Alaska Native alone163 - 0.5%
Asian alone2,810 - 7.8%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone99 - 0.3%
Some other race alone67 - 0.2%
Two or more races alone1,560 - 4.4%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)5,258 - 14.7%

2000[edit]

As of the census[19] of 2000, there were 35,866 people, 14,300 households, and 9,209 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,927.6 people per square mile (1,130.4/km²). There were 14,597 housing units at an average density of 1,191.5/sq mi (460.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.03% White, 3.35% Black or African American, 0.74% Native American, 6.63% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 3.29% from other races, and 4.72% from two or more races. 10.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 11.7% were of German, 10.8% Irish, 10.2% Italian, 9.4% English and 5.4% American ancestry.

There were 14,300 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.6% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the city the age distribution of the population showed 22.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $63,010, and the median income for a family was $77,411 (these figures had risen to $73,668 and $92,486 respectively as of a 2007 estimate).[20] Males had a median income of $52,135 versus $40,714 for females. The per capita income for the city was $29,701. About 3.2% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over.

The languages spoken were 88% English, 6% Spanish, 2% Tagalog, 1% German, 1% Chinese, 0.5% Italian, 0.5% Persian, 0.3% Korean, 0.3% Portuguese, 0.3% Russian, 0.3% Arabic, 0.2% Dutch, 0.2% Polish, 0.2% French, 0.2% Punjabi, 0.2% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.1% Tamil, 0.1% Cantonese. Of the 4,176 people who did not use English as their primary language 3,663 (87.7%) spoke it well or very well while 513 (12.3%) spoke it "not well" or "not at all"[21]

Economy[edit]

Historic wine label from the J. Gonsalves Winery, one of the first to reopen in Contra Costa County after Prohibition ended. [22]

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[23] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1Contra Costa County9,847
2Shell Oil Company742
3Kaiser Permanente722
4Veterans Health Administration650
5Martinez Unified School District380
6Wal-Mart234
7Safeway174
8Contra Costa Electric150
9City of Martinez127
10The Home Depot120

Sister Cities[edit]

According to Sister Cities International, Martinez is paired with Dunbar, Scotland; Hanchuan, China; Milazzo, Italy; and Stresa, Italy.

Transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

Amtrak station in Martinez
The 1,680 foot long "Muir Trestle" at Muir Station Road.

Bus[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Media[edit]

The city of Martinez is served by the daily newspaper, Contra Costa Times published by Bay Area News Group-East Bay (part of the Media News Group, Denver, Colorado), and by the newspaper Martinez News Gazette.

Martinez is also served by Martinez Patch, a local news website covering community news and events. Patch Media is owned by AOL Inc. A local news and talk blog serving Martinez is Claycord.com.

Education[edit]

Covering most of Martinez, the Martinez Unified School District encompasses four elementary schools, one middle school, one high school, and two alternative/independent study schools. Students in K-5 attend John Swett, John Muir, Las Juntas, or Morello Park Elementary School. Martinez Junior High School serves students in grades 6 through 8. St. Catherine of Siena is a private Catholic school that serves grades K-8. Alhambra High School serves as the districts' comprehensive high school. As of 2006, the districts' K-12 enrollment was 4,194. Part of Martinez is served by the Mount Diablo Unified School District, whose Hidden Valley Elementary School is located in Martinez. St. Catherine of Siena School (Martinez, California), a private Roman Catholic elementary, also serves the Martinez community.

Public libraries[edit]

The Martinez Library of the Contra Costa County Library is located in Martinez and is locally registered as a landmark for architectural considerations.[24] The Art Deco Martinez Library was also placed on the National Register of Historic Places in early 2008.

Beaver controversy[edit]

Beaver kits nibbling some food in Martinez. Courtesy Worth a Dam
River otter Returns to Alhambra Creek Beaver Pond 2008
Mink returns to Alhambra Creek Beaver Pond 2009
Green heron eating first recorded Tule perch in Alhambra Creek. Courtesy Cheryl Reynolds, Worth a Dam 2010

In early 2007, a group of beavers settled in a section of Alhambra Creek that flows through the city.[25] The beavers and their dam became a local attraction. Because the 6-foot-high (1.8 m), 30-foot-wide (9.1 m) dam created a potential flood hazard, local officials proposed to remove the beavers. Increased run-off from developed areas along the creek has increased flooding in Martinez, a low-lying city built on a flood plain, in recent decades. Although Martinez had completed the construction of a $9.7 million flood control project in 1999, the downtown was flooded in 2005, ironically two years before the beavers arrived. A City Council subcommittee was formed to consider whether the beavers could be protected and flood risk managed, and was given 90 days to issue a report to the full council for a vote.[26] During this period, expert Skip Lisle was hired to install a flow device that could reduce the level of impounded water behind the beaver dam and mitigate flooding risk above the beaver dam.[27] The beavers have received national attention, amateur video coverage, a webpage devoted to them, and a new nonprofit organization ("Worth A Dam") formed.[28] The beaver have transformed Alhambra Creek from a trickle into multiple dams and beaver ponds, which in turn, led to the return of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and river otter (Lontra canadensis) in 2008, and mink (Neovison vison) in 2009.[29][30] The beaver parents have produced babies every year since their 2006 arrival.[31] However, in June, 2010, after birthing and successfully weaning triplets this year (and quadruplets the previous three years), "Mom Beaver" died of natural causes.[32]

The Martinez beavers probably originated from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Historically, before the California Fur Rush of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the Delta probably held the largest concentration of beaver in North America. It was California's early fur trade, more than any other single factor, that opened up the West, and the San Francisco Bay Area in particular, to world trade. In 1840, explorer Captain Thomas Farnham wrote that "There is probably no spot of equal extent in the whole continent of America which contains so many of these much sought animals."[33]

See also[edit]

Notable residents[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Homepage". City of Martinez. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  2. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date" (Word). California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Retrieved March 27, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Mayor and City Council". City of Martinez. Retrieved March 21, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Senators". State of California. Retrieved March 21, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved March 21, 2013. 
  6. ^ "California's 11th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved September 28, 2014. 
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer File - Places - California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  9. ^ a b "Martinez Historical Society". Martinezhistory.org. Retrieved 2013-07-14. 
  10. ^ a b Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 660. ISBN 1-884995-14-4. 
  11. ^ a b Martinez, CA, City History[dead link]
  12. ^ "Martinez History and the Pony Express". Martinezhistory.org. Retrieved 2013-07-14. 
  13. ^ "California Refinery". Arb.ca.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-14. 
  14. ^ "Welcome to Shell Martinez Refinery". shell.us. Shell Oil Company. Retrieved 2013-07-14. 
  15. ^ "The Martini Story". cityofmartinez.org. City of Martinez. Retrieved 2013-07-14. 
  16. ^ Average weather for Martinez Weather Channel Retrieved 2008-03-30
  17. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Martinez city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 
  18. ^ http://www.bayareacensus.ca.gov "Demographic Profile Bay Area Census". 
  19. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  20. ^ Martinez, California US Census Bureau
  21. ^ MLA Data Center, Martínez, California entry, U.S. Census Dept. (Census 2000), retrieved 2008-01-17
  22. ^ Farm Report: Contra Costa wines "After Prohibition was repealed, wineries began to open again in Contra Costa County, including J.E. Digardi Winery, Viano Vineyards and the J. Gonsalves Winery. Viano Vineyards has been making wine at their family winery ever since.
  23. ^ "City of Martinez CAFR". Retrieved 2013-07-14. 
  24. ^ "Martinez Library." Contra Costa County Library. Retrieved on April 1, 2010.
  25. ^ Jason B. Johnson (May 21, 2007). "Martinez Beavers set up shop downtown:Mayor says they've become city's most popular attraction". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved Nov 22, 2009. 
  26. ^ "Martinez Beaver Dam Safe Despite Rough Storms". CBS News. January 4, 2008. 
  27. ^ "Telluride Leaves It to Beaver". United States Golf Association. January–February 2005. 
  28. ^ "Martinez Beavers". martinezbeavers.org. 
  29. ^ Aleta George (2008). "Martinez Beavers". Bay Nature (Bay Nature Institute). Retrieved Nov 6, 2009. 
  30. ^ Nicola DeRobertis-Theye. "Beavers and More in Martinez:New Habitat Thanks to Beavers". Bay Nature (Bay Nature Institute). Retrieved Nov 6, 2009. 
  31. ^ Carolyn Jones (2010-06-11). "New baby beaver has Martinez residents beaming". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 12, 2010. 
  32. ^ Joe Eaton (2010-07-05). "Wild Neighbors: A Death in the Family". The Berkeley Daily Planet. Retrieved 2010-07-06. 
  33. ^ Thomas Jefferson Farnham (1857). Life, adventures, and travels in California. Blakeman & Co. p. 383. 

External links[edit]