Martin Van Buren

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Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren by Mathew Brady c1855-58.jpg
8th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1837 – March 4, 1841
Vice PresidentRichard Mentor Johnson
Preceded byAndrew Jackson
Succeeded byWilliam Henry Harrison
8th Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1837
PresidentAndrew Jackson
Preceded byJohn C. Calhoun
Succeeded byRichard Mentor Johnson
United States Minister to the United Kingdom
In office
August 8, 1831 – April 4, 1832
Nominated byAndrew Jackson
Preceded byLouis McLane
Succeeded byAaron Vail (Acting)
10th United States Secretary of State
In office
March 28, 1829 – May 23, 1831
PresidentAndrew Jackson
Preceded byHenry Clay
Succeeded byEdward Livingston
9th Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1829 – March 12, 1829
LieutenantEnos T. Throop
Preceded byNathaniel Pitcher
Succeeded byEnos T. Throop
United States Senator
from New York
In office
March 4, 1821 – December 20, 1828
Preceded byNathan Sanford
Succeeded byCharles E. Dudley
14th Attorney General of New York
In office
February 17, 1815 – July 8, 1819
GovernorDaniel D. Tompkins
John Tayler
DeWitt Clinton
Preceded byAbraham Van Vechten
Succeeded byThomas Jackson Oakley
Personal details
Born(1782-12-05)December 5, 1782
Kinderhook, New York, U.S.
DiedJuly 24, 1862(1862-07-24) (aged 79)
Kinderhook, New York, U.S.
Resting placeKinderhook Cemetery
Kinderhook, New York, U.S.
Political partyFree Soil (1848–1854)
Other political
affiliations
Democratic-Republican (Before 1825)
Democratic (1828–1848)
Spouse(s)Hannah Hoes
(m. 1807–1819; her death)
Children
ProfessionLawyer, politician
ReligionDutch Reformed[1]
SignatureCursive signature in ink
 
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Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren by Mathew Brady c1855-58.jpg
8th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1837 – March 4, 1841
Vice PresidentRichard Mentor Johnson
Preceded byAndrew Jackson
Succeeded byWilliam Henry Harrison
8th Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1837
PresidentAndrew Jackson
Preceded byJohn C. Calhoun
Succeeded byRichard Mentor Johnson
United States Minister to the United Kingdom
In office
August 8, 1831 – April 4, 1832
Nominated byAndrew Jackson
Preceded byLouis McLane
Succeeded byAaron Vail (Acting)
10th United States Secretary of State
In office
March 28, 1829 – May 23, 1831
PresidentAndrew Jackson
Preceded byHenry Clay
Succeeded byEdward Livingston
9th Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1829 – March 12, 1829
LieutenantEnos T. Throop
Preceded byNathaniel Pitcher
Succeeded byEnos T. Throop
United States Senator
from New York
In office
March 4, 1821 – December 20, 1828
Preceded byNathan Sanford
Succeeded byCharles E. Dudley
14th Attorney General of New York
In office
February 17, 1815 – July 8, 1819
GovernorDaniel D. Tompkins
John Tayler
DeWitt Clinton
Preceded byAbraham Van Vechten
Succeeded byThomas Jackson Oakley
Personal details
Born(1782-12-05)December 5, 1782
Kinderhook, New York, U.S.
DiedJuly 24, 1862(1862-07-24) (aged 79)
Kinderhook, New York, U.S.
Resting placeKinderhook Cemetery
Kinderhook, New York, U.S.
Political partyFree Soil (1848–1854)
Other political
affiliations
Democratic-Republican (Before 1825)
Democratic (1828–1848)
Spouse(s)Hannah Hoes
(m. 1807–1819; her death)
Children
ProfessionLawyer, politician
ReligionDutch Reformed[1]
SignatureCursive signature in ink

Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862) was the eighth President of the United States (1837–1841). Before his presidency, he was the eighth Vice President (1833–1837) and the tenth secretary of state (1829–1831), both under Andrew Jackson.

Van Buren was a key organizer of the Democratic Party, a dominant figure in the Second Party System, and the first president not of British or Irish descent—his family was Dutch. He was the first president to have been born a United States citizen,[2] since all of his predecessors were born British subjects before the American Revolution.[3] He is the first president not to have spoken English as a first language, having spoken only Dutch growing up.[4]

As Andrew Jackson's Secretary of State and then Vice President, Van Buren was a key figure in building the organizational structure for Jacksonian democracy, particularly in New York. As president, he did not want the United States to annex Texas, an act which John Tyler would achieve eight years after Van Buren's initial rejection. Between the bloodless Aroostook War and the Caroline Affair, relations with Britain and its colonies in Canada also proved to be strained.

His administration was largely characterized by the economic hardship of his time, the Panic of 1837. He was scapegoated for the depression and called "Martin Van Ruin" by political opponents. Van Buren was voted out of office after four years, losing to Whig candidate William Henry Harrison. In the 1848 election Van Buren ran unsuccessfully for president on a third-party ticket, the Free Soil Party. Van Buren died fourteen years later at the age of seventy-nine.

Van Buren was the last Vice President to be elected directly to the presidency until George H. W. Bush in 1988.

Early life and education[edit]

A bronze marker with a map of the State of New York at the top, under which is the word Birth site and other text
Historical marker located at the birthplace of Martin Van Buren.

Martin Van Buren was born in the village of Kinderhook, New York, on December 5, 1782, about 25 miles (40 km) south of Albany, New York. His father, Abraham Van Buren (1737–1817), was a farmer who owned six slaves, and also owned and operated a tavern and inn in Kinderhook. Abraham Van Buren supported the American Revolution and later the Jeffersonian Republicans. Martin Van Buren's mother was Maria Hoes Van Alen Van Buren (1747–1818).[5][6][7]

Van Buren was the first president born a citizen of the United States, as all previous presidents were born before the American Revolution. His great-great-great-grandfather Cornelis Maessen van Buren had come to the Americas in 1631 from Buurmalsen, today a village in the municipality of Geldermalsen. Buurmalsen is localized nearby the small city of Buren, Dutch Republic, in present day Netherlands. Van Buren grew up in a Dutch-speaking community. His native language was Dutch, and to date, he is the only U.S. President who has spoken English as a second language.[8]

Van Buren received a basic education at a poorly lit schoolhouse in his native village and later studied Latin briefly at the Kinderhook Academy and at Washington Seminary in Claverack.[9] He excelled in composition and speaking. His formal education ended before he reached 14, when he began studying law at the office of Peter Silvester and his son Francis, prominent Federalist attorneys in Kinderhook.[10] After six years under the Silvesters, he spent a final year of apprenticeship in the New York City office of William P. Van Ness, a political lieutenant of Aaron Burr.[11] Van Buren was admitted to the bar in 1803.[12]

Van Buren married Hannah Hoes, his childhood sweetheart and first cousin once removed, on February 21, 1807, in Catskill, New York.[13] Like Van Buren, she was raised in a Dutch home; she spoke primarily Dutch, and spoke English with a distinct accent.[14] The couple had five sons and one daughter: Abraham (1807–1873) a graduate of West Point and career military officer; John (1810–1866), graduate of Yale and Attorney General of New York; Martin, Jr. (1812–1855), secretary to his father and editor of his father's papers until a premature death from tuberculosis; Winfield Scott (born and died in 1814); and Smith Thompson (1817–1876), an editor and special assistant to his father while president.[15] Their daughter was stillborn.[16] After 12 years of marriage, Hannah Van Buren contracted tuberculosis and died on February 5, 1819, at the age of 35.[17] Martin Van Buren never remarried.[18]

Early political career[edit]

Van Buren had been active in politics from at least the age of 17 when he attended a party convention in Troy, New York where he worked to secure the Congressional nomination for John Peter Van Ness.[19] He formed a law partnership with his half-brother James I. Van Alen, and once established in his practice, he became wealthy enough to increase his focus on politics.[20] He was an early supporter of Aaron Burr, and allied himself with the George Clinton faction of the Democratic-Republican Party. Van Buren supported Daniel D. Tompkins for Governor over incumbent Morgan Lewis in 1807. Tompkins won, and his allies were a majority in the state legislature. As a result, Van Buren was appointed Surrogate of Columbia County, New York, replacing Van Alen, who had supported Lewis. Van Buren served as Surrogate from 1808 until 1813, when the Federalist Party obtained a majority in the state legislature and replaced him.[21][22]

Van Buren was a member of the New York State Senate from 1812 to 1820, and joined the opposition party in 1813. (The opposition party were Democratic-Republicans who fought DeWitt Clinton for control of the Democratic-Republican Party in New York.) Van Buren served as New York Attorney General from 1815 to 1819. He replaced William Floyd as a presidential elector in 1820, and voted for James Monroe and Daniel D. Tompkins.[23]

At first he opposed DeWitt Clinton's plan for the Erie Canal, but he supported it when the Bucktails (the name given to the anti-DeWitt Clinton Democratic-Republicans) were able to gain a majority on the Erie Canal Commission, and he supported a bill that raised money for the canal through the sale of state bonds.[24]

In 1817, Van Buren's connection with so-called "machine politics" started. He was a creator of the first political organization encompassing all of New York, the Bucktails.[25] The Bucktails became a successful movement that emphasized party loyalty and used it to capture and control many patronage posts throughout New York. Van Buren gained the nickname of "Little Magician" for the skill with which he exploited what came to be called the "spoils system". Van Buren served as a member of the 1820 state constitutional convention, where he favored expanded voting rights, but opposed universal suffrage and tried to maintain property requirements for voting.[26]

He was the leading figure in the Albany Regency, a group of Bucktail leaders who for more than a generation dominated the politics of New York and influenced national politics. The Regency, together with other political organizations such as Tammany Hall, played a major role in expanding the spoils system and making it a recognized and accepted procedure. He was the prime architect of the first nationwide political party: the Jacksonian Democrats or Democratic Party, which evolved from the Democratic-Republicans and relied on party loyalty and patronage to prevent contentious sectional issues, including tariffs and slavery, from becoming national crises. In Van Buren's words, "Without strong national political organizations, there would be nothing to moderate the prejudices between free and slaveholding states."[27]

U.S. Senate and national politics[edit]

Gubernatorial portrait of Martin Van Buren.

In February 1821, Martin Van Buren was elected a U.S. Senator from New York, defeating the incumbent Nathan Sanford who ran as the Clintonian candidate.[28] Van Buren at first favored internal improvements, such as road repairs and canal creation, therefore proposing a constitutional amendment in 1824 to authorize such undertakings. The next year, however, he took ground against them. He voted for the tariffs of 1824 and 1828, and then gradually abandoned the protectionist position, coming out for "tariffs for revenue only."[29]

In the presidential election of 1824, Van Buren supported William H. Crawford and received the electoral vote of Georgia for Vice President. None of the presidential candidates received a majority of the electoral college votes, so the choice fell to the United States House of Representatives. Van Buren had originally hoped to block John Quincy Adams by denying him the state of New York, which was divided between supporters of Crawford and Adams. However, Representative Stephen Van Rensselaer swung New York to Adams and thereby the election.[30] After the House contest, Van Buren shrewdly kept out of the controversy which followed, and began looking forward to 1828. He switched his support early from Crawford, whose ill health after a stroke had made him a less than viable candidate, to Andrew Jackson.[31]

Always notably courteous in his treatment of opponents, he showed no bitterness toward either Adams or Henry Clay, and he voted for Clay's confirmation as Secretary of State, notwithstanding Jackson's "corrupt bargain" charge.[32][33] At the same time, he opposed the Adams-Clay plans for internal infrastructure improvements (roads, canals, bridges etc.) and declined to support U.S. participation in the Congress of Panama.[34] As chair of the Judiciary Committee, he brought forward a number of measures for the improvement of judicial procedure, including one (not adopted), which would have required a super-majority vote by the United States Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional.[35] in May 1826, Van Buren joined with Senator Thomas Hart Benton in reporting on patronage in the executive branch, going against his own use of the spoils system to propose unsuccessfully that Presidents not be able to remove officeholders at will, and that Presidents report to Congress on the reasons why dismissed holders of federal positions had been removed.[36] The 1828 "Tariff of Abominations" was recognized as his work. Since Democrats, especially Southerners, were generally opposed to tariffs that increased the price of manufactured goods from the North but did not benefit the raw materials produced in the South, Van Buren could normally have been expected to oppose tariffs. Political observers of the time viewed Van Buren's efforts to pass the 1828 tariff as part of the campaign to elect Jackson as President. Anticipating that most Southerners would vote for Andrew Jackson no matter who else was running, Van Buren intended the tariff proposed by Jackson's Northern Democratic supporters in Congress to attract to Jackson's candidacy Northern voters, who generally favored high tariffs to protect the manufactured goods they produced. Van Buren voted in favor, later adopting the cover story that he had done so only in response to instructions from the New York State Legislature. Most Democrats, especially Southerners, continued to oppose tariffs after 1828. Van Buren's political opponents in the Democratic Party used his 1828 vote against him for years afterwards to prevent him from obtaining Southern support for his candidacies.[37][38][39]

Van Buren was not an orator, but his more important speeches show careful preparation and his opinions carried weight; the oft-repeated charge that he refrained from declaring himself on crucial questions is hardly borne out by an examination of his senatorial career. In February 1827, he was re-elected to the Senate by a large majority. He became one of the recognized managers of the Jackson campaign, and his tour of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia in the spring of 1827 won support for Jackson from Crawford. Martin Van Buren sought to reorganize and unify "the old Republican party" behind Jackson.[40] At the state level, Jackson's committee chairs would split up the responsibilities around the state and organize volunteers at the local level. "Hurra Boys" would plant hickory trees (in honor of Jackson's nickname, "Old Hickory") or hand out hickory sticks at rallies. In 1828 Van Buren ran for Governor of New York in an effort to use his personal popularity to bolster Jackson's chances of carrying New York in the presidential election. Jackson defeated Adams handily, leading the pro-Adams New York American to editorialize "Organization is the secret of victory. By the want of it we have been overthrown."[41] Van Buren won his election, and resigned from the Senate to start the gubernatorial term, which began on January 1, 1829.[42]

Martin Van Buren's tenure as New York governor is the second shortest on record. While his term was short, he did manage to pass the Bank Safety Fund Law (an early form of deposit insurance) through the Legislature.[43]

Jackson Cabinet[edit]

On March 5, 1829, President Jackson appointed Van Buren Secretary of State, an office which probably had been assured to him before the election, and Van Buren resigned the governorship on March 12.[44] He was succeeded in the governorship by his Lieutenant Governor, Enos T. Throop, a member of the Regency. As Secretary of State, Van Buren took care to keep on good terms with the Kitchen Cabinet, the group of politicians who acted as Jackson's advisers. He sometimes opposed Jackson in the matter of removing political appointees from office to replace them with Jackson loyalists, but also saw to the replacement of Postmasters in New York with Van Buren loyalists.[45]

He won the lasting regard of Jackson by his courtesies to Peggy Eaton, wife of Secretary of War John H. Eaton, with whom the wives of the cabinet officers led by Vice President Calhoun's wife, Floride Calhoun had refused to associate in the Petticoat Affair.[46][47]

Cartoon image of an older man riding on the back of another older man and stumbling toward the steps of a building labeled "Capitol"
1832 Whig cartoon shows Jackson carrying Van Buren into office

No serious diplomatic questions arose during Van Buren's tenure, but he achieved several notable successes, including the settlement of long-standing claims against France, winning reparations for property that had been seized during the Napoleonic Wars. He reached an agreement with the British to open trade with the British West Indies colonies. In addition, Van Buren completed a treaty with the Ottoman Empire that gained American merchants access to the Black Sea. Items on which he did not achieve success included settling the Maine-New Brunswick boundary dispute with Great Britain, gaining settlement of the U.S. claim to the Oregon Country, concluding a commercial treaty with Russia, and persuading Mexico to sell Texas.[48][49]

Van Buren also advised Jackson informally on matters of domestic policy. In the controversy over the Bank of the United States, he sided with Jackson. He also sided with Jackson on the Indian Removal Act.[50][51] After the breach between Jackson and Calhoun, which culminated with the Nullification Crisis, Van Buren's position as one of Jackson's primary political supporters and policy advisors clearly marked him as the most prominent candidate for the vice presidency in 1832.[52]

Vice-Presidency[edit]

In December 1829, Jackson had already made known his wish that Van Buren receive the 1832 vice presidential nomination.[53] In April 1831, Van Buren resigned as Secretary of State during the Petticoat affair, giving Jackson the opportunity to end the dispute by requesting other resignations so he could reorganize his cabinet.[54] Van Buren did not leave office until June, and continued to play a part in the Kitchen Cabinet.[55] In August 1831 Van Buren was appointed Minister to Court of St. James (Britain) and he arrived in London in September.[56] He was cordially received, but in February, he learned that his nomination had been rejected by the Senate on January 25, 1832.[57] The rejection was attributed by the Senate to Van Buren's instructions while Secretary of State to Louis McLane, the American minister to Britain. Van Buren's instructions, which concerned the opening of the West Indies trade, supposedly repudiated the foreign policy of Jackson's predecessors, which the Senate claimed was a breach of decorum.[58] In fact, the rejection of Van Buren was the work of Calhoun. Calhoun opposed Van Buren, believing that Van Buren has attempted to keep him from becoming vice president. Calhoun also opposed Van Buren for his role in the Petticoat Affair and his work on the 1828 tariff. When the vote on Van Buren's nomination was taken, enough Democrats refrained from voting to produce a tie, thus giving Calhoun in his role as presiding officer the ability to cast a vote. He voted no, and so achieved "vengeance" on Van Buren.[59]

Calhoun was elated, convinced that he had ended Van Buren's career. "It will kill him dead, sir, kill him dead. He will never kick, sir, never kick," Calhoun exclaimed to a friend within earshot of Thomas Hart Benton.[60] In fact, Calhoun's move backfired by making Van Buren seem the victim of petty politics, thus raising him in both Jackson's regard and the esteem of others in the Democratic Party. Far from ending Van Buren's career, Calhoun's action gave greater impetus to Van Buren's candidacy for vice president.[61]

After a brief tour of Europe, Van Buren reached New York on July 5, 1832. The May 1832 Democratic National Convention, the party's first, had nominated him for vice president on the Jackson ticket.[62] Van Buren's nomination was not as strongly supported as Jackson's, particularly among southerners who recalled his work on the tariff in 1828, but he somewhat placated southerners by denying the right of Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia without the consent of the slave states.[63]

The Jackson-Van Buren ticket won the 1832 election, and Van Buren took office as Vice President in March 1833.[64] During his time in office Van Buren continued to be one of Jackson's primary advisors and confidants, and accompanied Jackson on his tour of the northeastern United States in 1833.[65] Jackson's confidence in Van Buren was further demonstrated after Jackson named Benjamin F. Butler, Van Buren's political ally and former law partner, to serve as Attorney General,[66] and John Forsyth, another Van Buren ally, to serve as Secretary of State.[67][68]

Van Buren's support of Jackson in the Nullification Crisis and the decision not to recharter the Second Bank of the United States made him a target of Jackson's most vocal opponents. Van Buren was threatened with violence, including explicit threats from Senator George Poindexter of Mississippi, which caused Van Buren to carry pistols for self-defense. However he also demonstrated both the willingness and the ability to work with his opponents, cooperating with Clay and Calhoun (now a Senator) to pass the compromise Tariff of 1833, which helped end the Nullification Crisis.[69]

During one contentious debate on the bank issue, Van Buren presided over the Senate as Clay spoke passionately about the harm he believed Jackson's bank policy would cause. Directing his remarks to Van Buren, Clay asked rhetorically whether Van Buren would approach Jackson and persuade him to change his mind. After Clay concluded, observers wondered how Van Buren would respond. Rather than answering directly, Van Buren descended from the rostrum and asked Clay if he could borrow a pinch of Clay's snuff. Caught off guard, Clay reflexively handed over his snuff box. Van Buren took a pinch, bowed to Clay, and left the chamber, both reducing the effect of Clay's remarks and preventing tension from escalating, as would have happened if Van Buren had attempted to reply to Clay.[70]

Election of 1836[edit]

In the election of 1832, the Jackson-Van Buren ticket won by a landslide.[71] With Jackson not running in 1836, he was determined to make Van Buren his successor in order to continue the Jackson administration's policies.[72]

Van Buren was unanimously nominated by the 1835 Democratic National Convention at Baltimore, Maryland. On the issue of slavery, Van Buren moved to obtain the support of southerners by assuring them that he opposed abolitionism and that he supported leaving slavery alone in the states where it already existed.[73] On the issue of the national bank, Van Buren made clear that he opposed rechartering the Bank of the United States.[74] To demonstrate his good faith on the slavery issue, Van Buren cast the tie-breaking vote in the Senate in favor of engrossing a bill to subject abolitionist literature in the mail to state laws, thus ensuring that its circulation would be prohibited in the south.[75]

Martin Van Buren's competitors in the 1836 election were the Whigs, who ran several regional candidates in hopes of sending the election to the House of Representatives, where each state delegation would have one vote and the Whigs would stand a better chance of winning.[76] William Henry Harrison hoped to receive the support of the Western voters, Daniel Webster had strength in New England, and Hugh Lawson White and Willie Person Mangum had support in the South. Van Buren won the election easily, with 170 electoral votes to 73 for Harrison, 26 for White, 14 for Webster and 11 for Mangum.[77]

Twentieth Century etymologist Allen Walker Read published research asserting the wide usage of the phrase "O.K." (okay) -- "Old Kinderhook"—started during the presidential campaign and subsequent presidency of Martin Van Buren.[78]

Presidency 1837–1841[edit]

Policies[edit]

VAN BUREN, Martin-President (BEP engraved portrait).jpg

BEP engraved portrait of Van Buren as President.
Postage stamp with the image of a bust of a balding man in profile and facing right
Martin Van Buren
Issue of 1938

Martin Van Buren announced his intention "to follow in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor", and retained all but one of Jackson's cabinet. Van Buren had few economic tools to deal with the Panic of 1837. The Panic was followed by a five-year depression. Banks failed and unemployment reached record highs.[79] Some modern economists have argued that the Panic was caused by the bank policies of the Jackson administration, with the power to create money being distributed into decentralized banks, most of which would then continue to cause a massive inflationary bubble.[80]

Van Buren advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the South for the Democratic Party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt. His party was so split that his 1837 proposal for an "Independent Treasury" system did not pass until 1840. It gave the Treasury control of all federal funds and had a legal tender clause that required (by 1843) all payments to be made in specie, but it further inflamed public opinion on both sides.[citation needed]

In a bold step, Van Buren reversed Andrew Jackson's policies and sought peace at home, as well as abroad. Instead of settling a financial dispute between American citizens and the Mexican government by force, Van Buren wanted to seek a diplomatic solution. In August 1837, Van Buren denied Texas' formal request to join the United States, again prioritizing sectional harmony over territorial expansion.[citation needed]

In the case of the ship Amistad, Van Buren sided with the Spanish Government to return the kidnapped slaves. Van Buren oversaw the movement of Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw and Seminole tribes from Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and South Carolina to the Oklahoma territory, executing the orders passed under Jackson. To help secure Florida, Van Buren also continued the Second Seminole War, which had begun while Jackson was in office. Fighting was not resolved until 1842, after Van Buren had left office.[citation needed]

In 1839, Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement visited Van Buren to plead for the U.S. to help roughly 20,000 Mormon settlers of Independence, Missouri, who were forced from the state during the 1838 Mormon War there. The Governor of Missouri, Lilburn Boggs, had issued an executive order on October 27, 1838, known as the "Extermination Order". It authorized troops to use force against Mormons to "exterminate or drive [them] from the state".[81][82] In 1839, after moving to Illinois, Smith and his party appealed to members of Congress and to President Van Buren to intercede for the Mormons. According to Smith's grandnephew, Van Buren said to Smith, "Your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you; if I take up for you I shall lose the vote of Missouri".[83][84]

Van Buren took the blame for hard times, as Whigs ridiculed him as Martin Van Ruin. Van Buren's rather elegant personal style was also an easy target for Whig attacks, such as the Gold Spoon Oration. State elections of 1837 and 1838 were disastrous for the Democrats, and the partial economic recovery in 1838 was offset by a second commercial crisis in that year. Nevertheless, Van Buren controlled his party and was unanimously renominated by the Democrats in 1840. The revolt against Democratic rule led to the election of William Henry Harrison, the Whig candidate. He once mentioned his relief of leaving office saying, "As to the presidency, the two happiest days of my life were those of my entrance upon the office and my surrender of it".[citation needed]

Slavery[edit]

Though he did vote against the admission of Missouri as a slave state, and though he would be the nominated presidential candidate of the Free Soil Party, an anti-slavery political party, in 1848,[85] there was no ambiguity in his position on the abolition of slavery during his term of office.[86] Van Buren considered slavery morally wrong but sanctioned by the Constitution.[citation needed] When it came to the issue of slavery in D.C. and slavery in the United States, he was against its abolition, and said so in his Inaugural Address in 1837: "I believed it a solemn duty fully to make known my sentiments in regard to it [slavery], and now, when every motive for misrepresentation has passed away, I trust that they will be candidly weighed and understood.[citation needed]

"I must go into the Presidential chair the inflexible and uncompromising opponent of every attempt on the part of Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia against the wishes of the slaveholding States, and also with a determination equally decided to resist the slightest interference with it in the States where it exists."[87] Slavery would be abolished in the District of Columbia on April 18, 1862.[citation needed]

Administration and Cabinet[edit]

Engraved full-length portrait of a balding man standing next to a table with his left arm resting on a book and in the background a stone balustrade beyond which are trees and a building with columned portico
Portrait of Martin Van Buren
The Van Buren Cabinet
OfficeNameTerm
PresidentMartin Van Buren1837–1841
Vice PresidentRichard Mentor Johnson1837–1841
Secretary of StateJohn Forsyth1837–1841
Secretary of TreasuryLevi Woodbury1837–1841
Secretary of WarJoel R. Poinsett1837–1841
Attorney GeneralBenjamin Butler1837–1838
Felix Grundy1838–1840
Henry D. Gilpin1840–1841
Postmaster GeneralAmos Kendall1837–1840
John M. Niles1840–1841
Secretary of the NavyMahlon Dickerson1837–1838
James K. Paulding1838–1841

Judicial appointments[edit]

Supreme Court[edit]

Van Buren appointed two Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Van Buren appointed eight other federal judges, all to United States district courts.

Later life[edit]

A three-quarters length painted portrait of a balding man with gray hair, standing with his right hand grasping a bundle of papers lying on a table
1858 portrait by GPA Healy, on display at the White House

On the expiration of his term, Van Buren returned to his estate, Lindenwald in Kinderhook, where he planned out his return to the White House. He seemed to have the advantage for the nomination in 1844; his famous letter of April 27, 1844, in which he frankly opposed the immediate annexation of Texas, though doubtlessly contributing greatly to his defeat, was not made public until he felt practically sure of the nomination. In the Democratic convention, though he had a majority of the votes, he did not have the two-thirds which the convention required, and after eight ballots his name was withdrawn. James K. Polk received the nomination instead.[citation needed]

Half-length photographic portrait of an elderly, balding man dressed in a dark coat, vest and cravat
Daguerreotype of Martin Van Buren, circa 1855.

In 1848, he was nominated by two minor parties, first by the "Barnburner" faction of the Democrats, then by the Free Soilers, with whom the "Barnburners" coalesced. He won no electoral votes, but took enough votes in New York to give the state—and perhaps the election—to Zachary Taylor. In the election of 1860, he voted for the fusion ticket in New York which was opposed to Abraham Lincoln, but he could not approve of President Buchanan's course in dealing with secession and eventually supported Lincoln.[citation needed]

Martin Van Buren then retired to his home in Kinderhook. After being bedridden with a case of pneumonia during the fall of 1861, Martin Van Buren died of bronchial asthma and heart failure at his Lindenwald estate in Kinderhook at 2:00 a.m. on July 24, 1862. He was 79 years old. He is buried in the Kinderhook Reformed Dutch Church Cemetery, as are his wife Hannah, his parents, and his son Martin Van Buren, Jr.[88][89]

Memorials[edit]

Counties[edit]

Counties are named for Martin Van Buren in Michigan, Iowa, Arkansas, and Tennessee.[90] Cass County, Missouri was originally named for Van Buren, and was renamed in 1849 to honor Lewis Cass.[91]

Cities and towns[edit]

Cities and towns named for Van Buren include:

Arkansas: Van Buren, Arkansas.[92]

Indiana:
Van Buren, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Clay County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Brown County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Monroe County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Grant County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Pulaski County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Fountain County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, LaGrange County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Madison County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Kosciusko County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Daviess County, Indiana
Van Buren Township, Shelby County, Indiana.[93]

In addition, Van Buren Township in LaPorte County, Indiana was later merged with Noble Township.[94]

Iowa: Van Buren Township, Jackson County, Iowa, Van Buren Township, Lee County, Iowa.[95]

Maine: Van Buren, Maine.[96]

Michigan: Van Buren Charter Township, Michigan and Martin, Michigan. In addition, the now-defunt village of Martinsville in Sumpter Township was named for him.[97]

Missouri: Van Buren, Missouri.[98]

Minnesota: Van Buren Township, St. Louis County, Minnesota.[99]

Mississippi: Van Buren, Mississippi (defunct).[100]

New York: Van Buren, New York.[101]

Ohio:
Van Buren, Ohio
Van Buren Township, Shelby County, Ohio
Van Buren Township, Putnam County, Ohio
Van Buren Township, Darke County, Ohio
Van Buren Township, Hancock County, Ohio.

Tennessee: Van Buren, Tennessee (unincorporated)

Wisconsin: Van Buren, Wisconsin (unincorporated)

State parks[edit]

Van Buren State Park[102] and Van Buren Trail State Park[103] in Michigan, and Ohio's Van Buren State Park and its Van Buren Lake are named for him.[104]

Mountains[edit]

Mount Van Buren on the Palmer Land portion of Antarctica was named for Martin Van Buren.[105]

Ships[edit]

The USS Van Buren, a United States Navy schooner in service from 1839 to 1847 was also named for Martin Van Buren.[106]

In popular culture[edit]

During the 1988 campaign for President, George H. W. Bush, a Yale University graduate and member of the Skull and Bones secret society, was attempting to become the first sitting Vice President to win election to the Presidency since Van Buren. In the comic strip Doonesbury artist Garry Trudeau depicted members of Skull and Bones as attempting to rob Van Buren's grave, apparently intending to use the relics in a ritual that would aid Bush in the election.[107][108]

On the television show Seinfeld, the episode The Van Buren Boys is about a fictional street gang that admires Van Buren and bases its rituals and symbols on him, including the hand sign of one hand with all the fingers up and spread out, and the other with all but the thumb and index finger pointing up. Eight fingers up signifies Van Buren, the eighth President.[109]

Martin Van Buren was portrayed by Nigel Hawthorne in the 1997 historical drama film Amistad.[110]

In an early scene of the film Two Faces of January, the main characters - American expatriates in Athens - encounter an American tourist and discover that she is a Van Buren descendant. They then argue over whether Martin Van Buren was the seventh or eighth President.[111][112]

The USS Van Buren is a fictional Navy aircraft carrier named for President Van Buren which has appeared the television show NCIS: Los Angeles.[113]

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Adherents.com, The religion of Martin Van Buren, 8th U.S. President
  2. ^ NARA.gov, Martin Van Buren
  3. ^ "Martin Van Buren". Ourwhitehouse.org. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  4. ^ Sturgis, Amy H. (2007). The Trail of Tears and Indian Removal. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 93. ISBN 0-313-33658-X. 
  5. ^ Martin's mother had been married to Johannes Van Alen; he died and left her with three children. In 1776, she married Abraham Van Buren. By his mother's first marriage, Van Buren had one half-sister and two half-brothers, including James I. Van Alen, who practiced law with Van Buren for a time and served as a Federalist member of Congress (1807–1809). Van Buren had four full siblings from his parents' marriage: Dirckie "Derike" Van Buren (1777–1865); Jannetje "Hannah" Van Buren (1780-1838); Lawrence Van Buren (1786–1868), who served as an officer in the New York militia during the War of 1812 and later was active in the Barnburners New York Democrats; and Abraham Van Buren (1788–1836).
  6. ^ Navarro, Bob (2006). The Era of Change: Executives and Events in a Period of Rapid Expansion. Xlibris Corporation. p. 75. 
  7. ^ Columbia Rising: Civil Life on the Upper Hudson from the Revolution to the Age of Jackson. University of North Carolina Press. 2010. p. 481. 
  8. ^ Widmer, Edward (2005). Martin Van Buren. Macmillan Publishers. p. ii. ISBN 0-8050-6922-4. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  9. ^ Gazetteer and business directory of Columbia County, N.Y. for 1871-2 (Printed at the Journal office, 1871) pp. 106–108
  10. ^ Brooke, John L. (2010). Columbia Rising: Civil Life on the Upper Hudson from the Revolution to the Age of Jackson. University of North Carolina Press. p. 230. 
  11. ^ Fleming, Thomas J. (1999). Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Future of America. Basic Books. p. 213. 
  12. ^ Henry, William Smith (1925). History of the Cabinet of the United States of America. Industrial Printing Company. p. 88. 
  13. ^ Lazo, Caroline Evensen (2005). Martin Van Buren. Lerner Publications Company. p. 14. 
  14. ^ Matuz, Roger (2012). The Presidents Fact Book. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers. p. 152. 
  15. ^ McCullough, Noah (2006). The Essential Book of Presidential Trivia. Random House. p. 44. 
  16. ^ Marchese, Allison Guertin (2014). Hidden History of Columbia County, New York. The History Press. p. 88. 
  17. ^ Silbey (2002) p.27
  18. ^ McGeehan, John R. (2007). The Everything American History Book. Adams Media. p. 295. 
  19. ^ Brooke, John L. (2010). Columbia Rising: Civil Life on the Upper Hudson from the Revolution to the Age of Jackson. University of North Carolina Press. p. 283. 
  20. ^ Mackenzie, William Lyon (1846). The Life and Times of Martin Van Buren. Cooke & Co. pp. 21–22. 
  21. ^ Wilson, James Grant (1898). The Presidents of the United States 1789-1897. D. Appleton and Company. pp. 169–170. 
  22. ^ Shepard, Edward Morse (1896). American Statesman: Martin Van Buren. Houghton, Mifflin and Company. p. 44. 
  23. ^ Weed, Thurlow; Parsons, John D. (1879). Civil List and Forms of Government of the Colony and State of New York. Weed, Parsons & Co. p. 345. 
  24. ^ Nowlan, Robert A. (2012). The American Presidents, Washington to Tyler: What They Did, What They Said, What Was Said About Them, with Full Source Notes. McFarland Publishing. p. 315. 
  25. ^ "Martin Van Buren". The White House. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  26. ^ Keyssar, Alexander (2000). The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. Basic Books. p. 55. 
  27. ^ "Martin Van Buren", pp. 103–114
  28. ^ Dodd, William Edward (1899). American Statesmen: Martin Van Buren. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. p. 76. 
  29. ^ Holland, William M. (1836). The Life and Political Opinions of Martin Van Buren. Belknap & Hammersley. pp. 269–273. 
  30. ^ Krabbendam, Hans, editor (2009). Four Centuries of Dutch-American Relations: 1609-2009. State University of New York Press. p. 251. 
  31. ^ Silbey, Joel H. (2002). Martin Van Buren and the Emergence of American Popular Politics. Rowman and Littlefield. p. 44. 
  32. ^ Shea, M. V., editor-in-chief (1920). The World Book Encyclopedia, Volume 10. W. F. Quarrie & Co. p. 6026. 
  33. ^ Stoddard, William Osborn (1887). Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. Frederick A. Stokes Company. p. 284. 
  34. ^ Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin Van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton University Press. p. 111. 
  35. ^ Loizeau, Pierre-Marie (2008). Martin Van Buren: The Little Magician. Nova Science Publishers. p. 51. 
  36. ^ Shepard, Edward M. (1899). American Statesmen: Martin Van Buren. Houghton, Mifflin and Company. p. 138. 
  37. ^ Ayers, William L. (2009). American Passages: A History of the United States. Wadsworth Cengage Learning. p. 284. 
  38. ^ Richter, William L. (2006). The A to Z of the Old South. Scarecrow Press. p. 335. 
  39. ^ Force, Peter (1840). The Northern Man With Southern Principles, and the Southern Man With American Principles: Gen. William H. Harrison and Martin Van Buren, Esq.. p. 27. 
  40. ^ Martin Van Buren to Thomas Ritchie, January 13, 1827.
  41. ^ Remini, Robert V. (2002). John Quincy Adams: The American Presidents Series: The 6th President, 1825-1829. Henry Holt and Company. p. 127. 
  42. ^ Benjamin, Gerald (2012). The Oxford Handbook of New York State Government and Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 322. 
  43. ^ Neu, Irene D. (1960). Erastus Corning: Merchant and Financier, 1794-1872. Cornell University Press. p. 91. 
  44. ^ The Annals of Albany published by Joel Munsell (Albany, 1855; p. 183)
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  46. ^ Heller III, J. Roderick (2010). Democracy's Lawyer: Felix Grundy of the Old Southwest. Louisiana State University Press. p. 177. 
  47. ^ Cheathem, Mark Renfred; Peter C. (2008). Jacksonian and Antebellum Age: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO, Inc. p. 30. 
  48. ^ Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin Van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton University Press. p. 203. 
  49. ^ "Martin Van Buren". Biographies of the Secretaries of State. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  50. ^ Kincade, Vance Robert (2000). Heirs Apparent: Solving the Vice Presidential Dilemma. Praeger Publishers. p. 49. 
  51. ^ "Martin Van Buren". Biographies of the Secretaries of State. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  52. ^ Purcell, L. Edward (2010). Vice Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. Facts on File, Inc. p. 79. 
  53. ^ Meacham, Jon, American Lion, Random House (2008), p. 308
  54. ^ Watson, Robert P. (2012). Affairs of State: The Untold History of Presidential Love, Sex, and Scandal, 1789-1900. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 197–198. 
  55. ^ AOL.com, Kitchen Cabinet, Columbia Encyclopedia
  56. ^ Shepard, Edward Shepard (1899). American Statesmen: Martin Van Buren. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. p. 224. 
  57. ^ Polk, James Knox (1886). Correspondence of James K. Polk: January-June 1845. University of Tennessee Press. p. 357. 
  58. ^ Remini, Robert V. (1991). Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 380. 
  59. ^ Risjord, Norman K. (2001). Representative Americans: The Romantics. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 42. 
  60. ^ Howe, Daniel Walker (2007). What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. Oxford University Press. p. 378. 
  61. ^ Haynes, Stan M. (2012). The First American Political Conventions: Transforming Presidential Nominations, 1832-1872. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 34. 
  62. ^ Silbey, Joel H. (2002). Martin Van Buren and the Emergence of American Popular Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 81–82. 
  63. ^ Leeper, Clare D'Artois (2012). Louisiana Place Names: Popular, Unusual, and Forgotten Stories of Towns, Cities, Plantations, Bayous, and even some Cemeteries. Louisiana State University Press. p. 256. 
  64. ^ Holland, William M. (1836). The Life and Political Opinions of Martin Van Buren, Vice President of the United States. Belknap & Hammersley. p. 344. 
  65. ^ Purcell, L. Edward (2010). Vice Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. Facts on File, Inc. p. 81. 
  66. ^ Remini, Robert V. (1984). Andrew Jackson: The Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845, Volume 3. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 107–108. 
  67. ^ Hall, Kermit L. (2000). A Nation of States: Federalism at the Bar of the Supreme Court. Routledge. p. 300. 
  68. ^ Smith, William Henry (1925). History of the Cabinet of the United States of America. Industrial Printing Company. p. 96. 
  69. ^ Navarro, Bob (2006). The Era of Change: Executives and Events in a Period of Rapid Expansion. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 77–78. 
  70. ^ Boller, Paul F. (1996). Presidential Anecdotes. Oxford University Press. p. 87. 
  71. ^ Murrin, John (2009). Liberty, Equality, Power: Enhanced Concise Edition. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 327. 
  72. ^ Bathory, Peter Dennis (2001). Friends and Citizens: Essays in Honor of Wilson Carey McWilliams. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 91. 
  73. ^ Howe, Daniel Walker (2007). What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. Oxford University Press. pp. 508–509. 
  74. ^ Nowlan, Robert A. The American Presidents, Washington to Tyler: What They Did, What They Said, What Was Said About Them, With Full Source Notes. McFarland Books. p. 319. 
  75. ^ "Martin Van Buren, 8th Vice President (1833-1837)". U.S. Senate History. U.S. Senate, Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  76. ^ Nelson, Michael (2013). Guide to the Presidency and the Executive Branch. CQ Press. p. 1962. 
  77. ^ "President Elect: 1836". PresidentElect.org. James R Whitson. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  78. ^ Lederer, Richard; McCullagh, Caroline (2012). American Trivia. Gibbs Smith. pp. 49–50. 
  79. ^ W. J. Rorabaugh, Donald T. Critchlow, Paula C. Baker (2004). "America's promise: a concise history of the United States". Rowman & Littlefield. p.210. ISBN 0742511898
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  81. ^ "Extermination Order". LDS FAQ. Retrieved 22 August 2005. 
  82. ^ Boggs, Extermination Order
  83. ^ Smith, Joseph Fielding (1946–1949). "Church History and Modern Revelation" 4. Deseret. pp. 167–173. 
  84. ^ Ann Eliza Young, John Bartholomew Gough, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore (1876). Wife no. 19, or, the story of a life of bondage. p. 55. 
  85. ^ Junius P. Rodriguez (1997). "The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery". ABC-CLIO. p.280. ISBN 0-87436-885-5
  86. ^ Robin Santos Doak (2003). "The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery". Compass Point Books. p.22. ISBN 0-7565-0256-X
  87. ^ "Martin Van Buren, First Inaugural, March 4, 1837 | AMDOCS: Documents for the Study of American History". Vlib.us. Retrieved 5 December 2011. 
  88. ^ Lamb, Brian & the C-SPAN staff (2000). Who's Buried in Grant's Tomb?: A Tour of Presidential Gravesites. Washington, DC: NationaL Cable Satellite Corporation. ISBN 1-881846-07-5. 
  89. ^ Martin Van Buren at Find a Grave
  90. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 309. 
  91. ^ Webber, A. L. (1908). History and Directory of Cass County, Missouri. The Cass County Leader. pp. 43–45. 
  92. ^ "Van Buren: Historic City on the Arkansas". Van Buren, Arkansas: Historic Sites & Points of Interest. ExploreSouthernHistory.com. Retrieved November 22, 2014. 
  93. ^ Chamberlain, E. (1849). The Indiana Gazetteer: Or Topographical Dictionary of the State of Indiana. Chapman's and Spann's Power Press. p. 406. 
  94. ^ History of LaPorte County, Indiana: And History of Indiana. Chas. C. Chapman. 1880. p. 442. 
  95. ^ Roberts, Nelson Commins; Moorhead, Samuel W. (1914). Story of Lee County, Iowa, Volume 1. S. J. Clarke Publishing Company. p. 107. 
  96. ^ Hamilton, William Baillie (1996). Place Names of Atlantic Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 132. 
  97. ^ Romig, Walter (1973). Michigan Place Names. Wayne State University Press. pp. 355, 569. 
  98. ^ Glines, Karen; O'Donnell, Billyo (2008). Painting Missouri: The Counties en Plein Air. University of Missouri Press. p. 36. 
  99. ^ Upham, Warren (1920). Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, Volume XVII: Minnesota Geographic Names. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 491. 
  100. ^ "Van Buren: Itawamba County's Old River Port Town Revisited". Itawamba History Review. Itawamba Historical Society. May 27, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2014. 
  101. ^ "Town of Van Buren Clerk Archival Records Listing". Historical Records, Onondaga County Clerk. Onondaga County, New York. Retrieved November 22, 2014. 
  102. ^ Romig, Walter (1986). Michigan Place Names. Wayne State University Press. p. 569. 
  103. ^ Mann, Kelly L. (October 14, 2002). "Van Buren County trails are havens for nature lovers". St. Joseph (Michigan) Herald Palladium. 
  104. ^ "Van Buren State Park". www.stateparks.com. StateParks.com. Retrieved November 21, 2014. 
  105. ^ "Geographical Names: Van Buren, Mount: Antarctica". Geographical Names. ITA - Information Technology Associates. Retrieved November 13, 2014. 
  106. ^ "Van Buren I". History Central. MultiEducator, Inc. Retrieved November 13, 2014. 
  107. ^ Widmer, Ted (2005). The American Presidents Series: Martin Van Buren, The 8th President, 1837-1841. Henry Holt and Company, LLC. p. 170. 
  108. ^ Loizeau, Pierre-Marie (2008). Martin Van Buren: The Little Magician. Nova Science Publishers. p. 1. 
  109. ^ "The Van Buren Boys". Seinfeld Scripts. SeinfeldScripts.com. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  110. ^ Amistad at the Internet Movie Database
  111. ^ The Two Faces of January at the Internet Movie Database
  112. ^ "ONTD Original: The Two Faces of January aka the View From My Bed". Oh No They Didn't. November 9, 2014. 
  113. ^ "Season 4 - Episode 10 - Free Ride". NCIS: Los Angeles. CBS. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Alexander, Holmes (1935). The American Talleyrand: Martin Van Buren. 
  • Brooke, John L. (2010). Columbia Rising: Civil Life on the Upper Hudson from the Revolution to the Age of Jackson. Chapel Hill: Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3323-0. 
  • Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin Van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04715-7. 
  • Curtis, James C. (1970). The Fox at Bay: Martin Van Buren and the Presidency, 1837–1841. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-1214-5. 
  • Gammon, Samuel Rhea (1922). The Presidential Campaign of 1832. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. 
  • Henretta, James A. (2004). "Martin Van Buren". In Brinkley, Alan; Dyer, Davis. The American Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 103–114. ISBN 0-618-38273-9. 
  • Holt, Michael F. (1999). The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505544-3. 
  • Lynch, Denis Tilden (1929). An Epoch and a Man: Martin Van Buren and His Times. New York: H. Liveright. 
  • Niven, John (1983). Martin Van Buren: The Romantic Age of American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-503238-3. 
  • Remini, Robert V. (1959). Martin Van Buren and the Making of the Democratic Party. New York: Columbia University Press. 
  • Schouler, James (1889). History of the United States of America: 1831–1847. Democrats and Whigs 4. Washington, D.C.: W. H. Morrison. 
  • Silbey, Joel H. (2002). Martin Van Buren and the Emergence of American Popular Politics. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-2243-5. 
  • Silbey, Joel H. (2009). Party Over Section: The Rough and Ready Presidential Election of 1848. Lawrence, Kan: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1640-4. 
  • Wilson, Major L. (1984). The Presidency of Martin Van Buren. Lawrence, Kan: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-0238-4. 

External links[edit]