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Martin Edward Hellman  

Born  New York  October 2, 1945
Nationality  American 
Fields  Cryptography 
Alma mater  New York University (BSc) Stanford University (PhD) 
Thesis  Learning with Finite Memory (1969) 
Doctoral advisor  Thomas Cover 
Doctoral students  Taher Elgamal 
Known for  Diffie–Hellman key exchange 
Website  
wwwee.stanford.edu/~hellman 
Martin Edward Hellman  

Born  New York  October 2, 1945
Nationality  American 
Fields  Cryptography 
Alma mater  New York University (BSc) Stanford University (PhD) 
Thesis  Learning with Finite Memory (1969) 
Doctoral advisor  Thomas Cover 
Doctoral students  Taher Elgamal 
Known for  Diffie–Hellman key exchange 
Website  
wwwee.stanford.edu/~hellman 
Martin Edward Hellman (born October 2, 1945) is an American cryptologist, and is best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]} Hellman is a longtime contributor to the computer privacy debate and is more recently known for promoting risk analysis studies on nuclear threats, including the NuclearRisk.org^{[8]} website.
Hellman graduated from the Bronx High School of Science. He went on to earn his Bachelor's degree from New York University in 1966, and at Stanford University he earned a Master's degree in 1967 and a Ph.D. in 1969,^{[9]} all in electrical engineering.^{[10]} From 1968–1969 he worked at IBM's Watson Research Center where he encountered Horst Feistel. From 1969–1971 he was an assistant professor at MIT. He joined Stanford in 1971 as a professor, serving until 1996 when he became Professor Emeritus.^{[10]}
Hellman and Whitfield Diffie's paper New Directions in Cryptography was published in 1976. It introduced a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, which went far toward solving one of the fundamental problems of cryptography, key distribution. It has become known as Diffie–Hellman key exchange. The article also seems to have stimulated the almost immediate public development of a new class of encryption algorithms, the asymmetric key algorithms. Hellman and Whitfield Diffie were awarded the Marconi Fellowship and accompanying prize in 2000 for work on publickey cryptography and for helping make cryptography a legitimate area of academic research.^{[11]}
Hellman has been a longtime contributor to the computer privacy debate. He and Diffie were the most prominent critics of the short key size of the Data Encryption Standard in 1975. An audio recording survives of their review of DES at Stanford in 1976 with Dennis Branstad of NBS and representatives of the National Security Agency.^{[12]} Their concern was wellfounded: subsequent history has shown not only that NSA actively intervened with IBM and NBS to shorten the key size, but also that the short key size enabled exactly the kind of massively parallel key crackers that Hellman and Diffie sketched out, which when ultimately built outside the classified world, made it clear that DES was insecure and obsolete. In 2012, a $10,000 commercially available machine can recover a DES key in days. Hellman also served (1994–96) on the National Research Council's Committee to Study National Cryptographic Policy, whose main recommendations have since been implemented.
Hellman has been active in researching international security since 1985.
Hellman was involved in the original Beyond War movement, serving as the principle editor for the "BEYOND WAR: A New Way of Thinking" booklet.^{[13]}
In 1987, over 30 scholars came together to produce Russian and English editions of "Breakthrough: Emerging New Thinking, Soviet and Western Scholars Issue a Challenge to Build a World Beyond War". Anatoly Gromyko and Martin Hellman were the chief editors of this book. The authors of this book examine questions such as: How can we overcome the inexorable forces leading toward a clash between the United States and the Soviet Union? How do we build a common vision for the future? How can we restructure our thinking to synchronize with the imperative of our modern world?,^{[14]}^{[15]}
Martin's current project in International Security is to defuse the Nuclear threat. In particular, Hellman is studying the probabilities and risks associated with nuclear weapons and encouraging further international research in this area. His website NuclearRisk.org^{[8]} has been endorsed by a number of prominent individuals including a former Director of the National Security Agency, Stanford's President Emeritus, and two Nobel Laureates.
In 1997 he was awarded The Franklin Institute's Louis E. Levy Medal,^{[16]} in 1981 the IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award (together with Whitfield Diffie),^{[17]} in 1998 a Golden Jubilee Award for Technological Innovation from the IEEE Information Theory Society,^{[18]} and in 2010 he was awarded the IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal.^{[19]}
In 2011, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.^{[20]}
Also in 2011, Hellman was made a Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for his work, with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle, on public key cryptography."^{[21]}
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