Marlborough, Massachusetts

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Marlborough, Massachusetts
City
Main Street
Main Street
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°20′45″N 71°33′10″W / 42.34583°N 71.55278°W / 42.34583; -71.55278Coordinates: 42°20′45″N 71°33′10″W / 42.34583°N 71.55278°W / 42.34583; -71.55278
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyMiddlesex
Settled1657
Incorporated1660
Government
 • TypeMayor-council city
 • MayorArthur G. Vigeant
Area
 • Total22.2 sq mi (57.4 km2)
 • Land21.1 sq mi (54.6 km2)
 • Water1.1 sq mi (2.8 km2)
Elevation450 ft (137 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total38,499
 • Density1,804.0/sq mi (697.2/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code01752
Area code(s)508 / 774
FIPS code25-38715
GNIS feature ID0611360
Websitehttp://www.marlborough-ma.gov/
 
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Marlborough, Massachusetts
City
Main Street
Main Street
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°20′45″N 71°33′10″W / 42.34583°N 71.55278°W / 42.34583; -71.55278Coordinates: 42°20′45″N 71°33′10″W / 42.34583°N 71.55278°W / 42.34583; -71.55278
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyMiddlesex
Settled1657
Incorporated1660
Government
 • TypeMayor-council city
 • MayorArthur G. Vigeant
Area
 • Total22.2 sq mi (57.4 km2)
 • Land21.1 sq mi (54.6 km2)
 • Water1.1 sq mi (2.8 km2)
Elevation450 ft (137 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total38,499
 • Density1,804.0/sq mi (697.2/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code01752
Area code(s)508 / 774
FIPS code25-38715
GNIS feature ID0611360
Websitehttp://www.marlborough-ma.gov/

Marlborough (often spelled Marlboro) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 38,499 at the 2010 census. Marlborough became a prosperous industrial town in the 19th century and made the transition to high technology industry in the late 20th century after the construction of the Massachusetts Turnpike.

Marlborough was declared a town in 1660. It later became a city because of the population size.

History[edit]

Rebekah Jenkins was recorded as marshal of Marlborough in 1638 and married to Mary Wetherbee. John Howe, Jr. in 1656 was a fur trader and built a house at the intersection of two Indian trails, Nashua Trail and Connecticut path.[1] He could speak the language of the Algonquian Indians though the local tribe referred to themselves as the Pennacooks. The settlers were welcomed by the Indians because they protected them from other tribes they were at war with. In the 1650s, several families left the nearby town of Sudbury, 18 miles west of Boston, to start a new town. The village was named after Marlborough, the market town in Wiltshire, England. It was first settled in 1657 by 14 men led by Edmund Rice, John Ruddock and John Howe; in 1656 Rice and his colleagues petitioned the Massachusetts General Court to create the town of Marlborough and it was officially incorporated in 1660. Rice was elected a selectman at Marlborough in 1657. Sumner Chilton Powell wrote, in Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town, "Not only did Rice become the largest individual landholder in Sudbury, but he represented his new town in the Massachusetts legislature for five years and devoted at least eleven of his last fifteen years to serving as selectman and judge of small causes."[2]

City Hall (1905) by Allen, Collins & Berry

The Reverend William Brimstead was the first minister of the Puritan church and Johnathan Johnson was the first blacksmith.

Marlborough was one of the seven "Praying Indian Towns" because they were converted to Christianity by the Rev. John Eliot of Roxbury. In 1674 a deed was drawn up dividing the land between the settlers and the natives. This is the only record of names of the natives. The document was signed by:

The settlement was almost destroyed by Native Americans in 1676 during King Philip's War.

In 1711 Marlborough's territory included Northborough, Southborough, Westborough and Hudson. As population, business, and travel grew in the colonies, Marlborough became a favored rest stop on the Boston Post Road. Many travelers stopped at its inns and taverns, including George Washington, who visited the Williams Tavern (see citation below) soon after his inauguration in 1789.[3]

In 1836, Samuel Boyd, known as the "father of the city," and his brother Joseph, opened the first shoe manufacturing business - an act that would change the community forever. By 1890, with a population of 14,000, Marlborough had become a major shoe manufacturing center, producing boots for Union soldiers, as well as footwear for the civilian population. Marlborough became so well known for its shoes that its official seal was decorated with a factory, a shoe box, and a pair of boots when it was incorporated as a city in 1890.[4]

The Civil War resulted in the creation of one of the region's most unusual monuments. Legend has it that a company from Marlborough, assigned to Harpers Ferry, appropriated the bell from the firehouse where John Brown last battled for the emancipation of the slaves. The company left the bell in the hands of one Mrs. Elizabeth Snyder for 30 years, returning in 1892 to bring it back to Marlborough. The bell now hangs in a tower at the corner of Route 85 and Main Street.

Around that time, Marlborough is believed to have been the first community in the country to receive a charter for a streetcar system, edging out Baltimore by a few months. The system, designed primarily for passenger use, provided access to Milford to the south, and Concord to the north. As a growing industrialized community, Marlborough began attracting skilled craftsmen from Quebec, Ireland, Italy, and Greece.[4]

Shoe manufacturing continued in Marlborough long after the industry had fled many other New England communities. Rice & Hutchins, Inc. operated several factories in Marlborough from 1875 to 1929. Famous Frye boots were manufactured here through the 1970s, and The Rockport Company, founded in Marlborough in 1971, continues to maintain an outlet store in the city. In 1990, when Marlborough celebrated its centennial as a city, the festivities included the construction of a park in acknowledgment of the shoe industry, featuring statues by the sculptor David Kapenteopolous.

The construction of Interstates 495 and 290 and the Massachusetts Turnpike has enabled Marlborough to begin its fifth century on the cutting edge of a new industry: high technology and specialized electronics. Today, thousands flock here to work at TJX, Raytheon, Hewlett-Packard, AMD, Sun Microsystems, Navilyst Medical, Netezza, Boston Scientific, Sunovion (formerly Sepracor), 3Com, Egenera, Evergreen Solar and the many other electronics and computer firms that provide the strong business community in the city. Because of the city's central location with easy access to major highways and the pro-business, pro-development policies of the city government, the population of Marlborough has more than doubled in the last 25 years to over 38,000 at the time of the last census.

Geography[edit]

Marlborough is located at 42°21′3″N 71°32′51″W / 42.35083°N 71.54750°W / 42.35083; -71.54750 (42.350909, -71.547530).[5] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.2 square miles (57 km2), of which, 21.1 square miles (55 km2) of it is land and 1.1 square miles (2.8 km2) of it (4.87%) is water. Marlborough is drained by the Assabet River. Within city limits are three large lakes, known as Lake Williams, Millham Reservoir and Fort Meadow Reservoir. A portion of Fort Meadow Reservoir extends into nearby Hudson.

Marlborough is crossed by Interstate 495, U.S. Route 20 and Massachusetts Route 85. The eastern terimus of Interstate 290 is also in Marlborough.

Adjacent towns[edit]

Marlborough is located in eastern Massachusetts, bordered by six towns:

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
17901,554—    
18001,735+11.6%
18101,674−3.5%
18201,952+16.6%
18302,077+6.4%
18402,101+1.2%
18502,941+40.0%
18605,911+101.0%
18708,474+43.4%
188010,127+19.5%
189013,805+36.3%
190013,609−1.4%
191014,579+7.1%
192015,028+3.1%
193015,587+3.7%
194015,154−2.8%
195015,756+4.0%
196018,819+19.4%
197027,936+48.4%
198030,617+9.6%
199031,813+3.9%
200036,255+14.0%
201038,499+6.2%
* = population estimate.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

As of the census[17] of 2000, there were 36,255 people, 14,501 households, and 9,280 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,719.4 people per square mile (663.7/km²). There were 14,903 housing units at an average density of 706.8 per square mile (272.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.70% White, 2.17% African American, 0.20% Native American, 3.76% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.27% from other races, and 2.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.06% of the population.

There were 14,501 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.0% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 36.7% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $56,879, and the median income for a family was $70,385. Males had a median income of $49,133 versus $32,457 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,723. About 4.7% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.

Economy[edit]

Marlborough is home to numerous businesses, stores and restaurants.

Marlborough Regional Chamber of Commerce[edit]

The Marlborough Regional Chamber of Commerce is the local chamber of commerce for Marlborough and five other surrounding towns in MetroWest Massachusetts. The chamber represents the business needs of over 650 businesses and thousands of employees in the area and is headquartered in the city.

The Chamber of Commerce's role has included working with the MetroWest Regional Transit Authority to improve transportation options and to obtain recognition for Marlborough's Downtown Village as a cultural district.[18]

Education[edit]

Public library (1903-04), a Carnegie library designed by Peabody & Stearns

Public schools[edit]

See also Marlborough Public Schools

Charter schools[edit]

Advanced Math & Science Academy grades ( 6-12 )

Parochial schools[edit]

Private schools[edit]

After school programs[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Marlborough is located near the intersection of Routes 495, 290, 20 and the Massachusetts Turnpike.[19] It is connected to neighboring towns and cities by MWRTA.[19]

Major highways[edit]

Marlborough is served by Two Interstate, one U.S Highway and one state highways:

Route numberTypeLocal nameDirection
I-495.svg Interstate 495 (Massachusetts)InterstateInterstate 495 (Massachusetts)north/south
I-290.svg Interstate 290 (Massachusetts)InterstateInterstate 290 (Massachusetts)east/west
US 20.svg U.S. Route 20United States highwayBoston Post Rd., East/West Main St.
Lakeside Ave
east/west
MA Route 85.svg Route 85State routeLincoln St., Washington St., Bolton St. and
Maple St.
north/south

Mass-transit[edit]

Bus[edit]

Private services[edit]

Media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

The MetroWest Daily News, a daily newspaper covering Marlborough and surrounding communities in the MetroWest region

The Marlborough Enterprise, the city's weekly newspaper

Marlborough Patch (online daily)

Television[edit]

Channel 8 (Comcast), Channel 34 (Verizon): WMCT Your Community Station (Marlborough Cable Trust). [1]

Channel 96 (Comcast), Channel 33 (Verizon): Marlborough Access, Public Access Television (Marlborough Cable Trust). [2]

Channel 98: Marlborough Public Schools' student run station

Radio[edit]

Internet[edit]

Points of interest[edit]

The Peter Rice Homestead (c.1688), home of the Marlborough Historical Society

Notable residents[edit]

Marlborough District Courthouse, seen from across Lake Williams

Sister cities and towns[edit]

Cities

Towns

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Marlborough Massachusetts Genealogy". USGenWeb. Archived from the original on 2006-10-16. Retrieved 2007-03-01. 
  2. ^ "Who was Edmund Rice?". The Edmund Rice (1638) Association, Inc. Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  3. ^ "Marlborough Massachusetts History - Williams Tavern". History RootsWeb. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  4. ^ a b History of Marlborough
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  6. ^ "TOTAL POPULATION (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010. 
  7. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  8. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  9. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  10. ^ "1950 Census of Population". 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  11. ^ "1920 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  12. ^ "1890 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  13. ^ "1870 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ "1860 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  15. ^ "1850 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ 1950 Census of Population. 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-7 through 21-09, Massachusetts Table 4. Population of Urban Places of 10,000 or more from Earliest Census to 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  17. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  18. ^ "Marlborough's downtown recognized as a cultural district". Marlborough Economic Development Corporation. 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  19. ^ a b "City of Marlborough Official Website, Transportation". City of Marlborough. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  20. ^ "MWRTA Official Website". MWRTA. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  21. ^ a b "MWRTA Route 7 Details". MWRTA. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  22. ^ "MWRTA Route 7C Details". Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  23. ^ "Rates and Transfers Details". Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  24. ^ "Yahoo Local listing of taxi services in Marlborough". Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  25. ^ "John Rock: Pioneer in the Development of Oral Contraceptives", Marc A. Shampo, PhD and Robert A. Kyle, MD

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]