Mark Driscoll (pastor)

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Mark A. Driscoll
Born(1970-10-11) October 11, 1970 (age 43)
Grand Forks, North Dakota
OccupationPastor, Author, Co-Founder and Former President of the Acts 29 Network
Years active1990–
ReligionNew Calvinism (Evangelical Christianity)
Spouse(s)Grace Driscoll (née Martin)
ChurchMars Hill Church
 
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"Mark Driscoll" redirects here. For the screenwriter of the TV show Ellen, see Mark Driscoll (screenwriter).
Mark A. Driscoll
Born(1970-10-11) October 11, 1970 (age 43)
Grand Forks, North Dakota
OccupationPastor, Author, Co-Founder and Former President of the Acts 29 Network
Years active1990–
ReligionNew Calvinism (Evangelical Christianity)
Spouse(s)Grace Driscoll (née Martin)
ChurchMars Hill Church

Mark A. Driscoll (born October 11, 1970) is an evangelical Christian pastor and author, and current preaching pastor of Mars Hill Church, a megachurch in Seattle, Washington. In 1996, Driscoll co-founded Mars Hill Church, which as of 2014 has grown to 14,000 members in five states and fifteen locations.[1][2] He also founded The Resurgence, a theological cooperative, and co-founded several other parachurch organizations: Churches Helping Churches, the church planting Acts 29 Network,[3] and The Gospel Coalition.[4] He has written for the "Faith and Values" section of the Seattle Times,[5] OnFaith,[6] and the Fox News website.[7] Driscoll has also authored a number of popular Christian books. Described as "hip yet hard-line",[8] he is known for promoting "culturally relevant" yet theologically conservative Christianity. He favors "vintage" aesthetics and a "down to earth", yet at times "aggressive" preaching style.[9][10][11]

In 2011, Preaching magazine named Driscoll one of the 25 most influential [English-speaking] pastors of the past 25 years.[12] His influence is polarizing; he is described in a profile by Salon as being the center of a cult of personality, and using controversy to increase his visibility. The New York Times Magazine called him "one of the most admired – and reviled – figures among evangelicals nationwide."[13] Controversy has often surrounded his complementarian view of gender roles, Calvinist theology, and perceived misogyny.[13][14][15]

Early life[edit]

Driscoll was born in Grand Forks, North Dakota, and was raised Roman Catholic in the Riverton Heights area of Seatac, WA,[13] which he described as "a very rough neighborhood".[16] He was the oldest of five children, and son of a union drywaller.[13] In high school, he met his future wife[13] Grace Martin,[17] daughter of Gib Martin, an evangelical pastor. In 1989, he graduated from Highline High School in Burien, Washington, where he served as student body president, captain of the baseball team, and editor of the school newspaper.[17] At 19 years old, as a college freshman, Driscoll converted to evangelical Christianity. The same year, according to Driscoll: "God spoke to me... He told me to marry Grace, preach the Bible, train men, and plant churches... I began preparing to devote my life to obey [God's] call for me."[18] He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in communications from Washington State University[17] with a minor in philosophy and holds a Master of Arts degree in exegetical theology from Western Seminary.[19]

Career[edit]

After graduation, Mark and Grace relocated to Seattle, where they attended Antioch Bible Church and worked with that church's college ministry as volunteers. Mark was hired as an intern a few months later. Through his internship, Mark met Mike Gunn, who worked for an Athletes in Action ministry at the University of Washington,[20] and Lief Moi, a radio show host. The three men began to discuss planting an "urban, postmodern" church in Seattle. Greg Kappas, the pastor responsible for Antioch Bible Church's new church planting ministry, mentored the three and helped them develop their plans.[21]

Founding Mars Hill Church[edit]

Main article: Mars Hill Church

Driscoll, Lief Moi and Mike Gunn founded[22] Mars Hill Church in spring 1996 and officially launched it in fall 1996.[23] The church first met in the Driscolls' home. By spring 1997, the church had relocated and expanded to two services. Driscoll later reflected that he was "not ready" when he planted Mars Hill at age 25.[24]

Later in 1997, Driscoll was invited to speak at a Leadership Network pastors' conference in California.[25] The speech Driscoll made inspired many within the nascent emerging church movement and according to Driscoll, shifted the movement's focus from reaching Generation X to reaching the postmodern world.[26] As a result, Mars Hill Church and Driscoll were thrust into the national spotlight – Driscoll was interviewed on National Public Radio[27] and Mother Jones magazine[28] published a feature on the church.[29]

Founding the Acts 29 Network[edit]

Main article: Acts 29 Network

In 1998, Driscoll and David Nicholas founded Acts 29, a church planting network, in response to people approaching Driscoll for advice on planting churches.[9] The goal of this parachurch organization was to plant 1000 new churches around the world[17] "through recruiting, assessing, training, funding, and coaching."[30] Acts 29 started slowly under Driscoll's tenure, with 11 churches at its inception and 17 by 2003. At that point, it began to grow rapidly, reaching 50 churches by 2006 and 410 churches by 2011. The majority are still located in the US, with 38 churches in 16 countries outside the US.[30]

According to Salon, Driscoll established directed Acts 29 to match his own "strict orthodoxy and views" on theology and politics, while allowing latitude in cultural specifics.[9] Among other specifics, prospective Acts 29 church planters must be led by men.[31]

The Resurgence[edit]

See also: The Resurgence

In 2006, Driscoll founded the Resurgence,[32] a "theological cooperative" whose partners include Acts 29 Network and Mars Hill Church. The Resurgence aims to train church leaders in conservative reformed theology. It has three main branches: Re:Lit, a publishing house; Re:Train, a missional training centre; and Re:Sound, a music arm.

Mars Hill Church reorganization (2006–08)[edit]

Driscoll was Mars Hill's first paid pastor, and has been its main preaching pastor and public face since its inception. As the church grew, he began to train other elders and deacons, moving himself into a more executive role in setting vision and continuing to preach.[33] By 2006, the church counted 5000 weekly attendees at three campuses in the Seattle region.[34] In that year, Driscoll reached a personal crisis due to his "overwhelming workload"—at this time he was the principal authority in Mars Hill, president of the Acts 29 Network, president of The Resurgence, an author, and an international traveler with speaking engagements. He was sleeping only 2–3 hours per night, began to despair and feared that he would die early from a heart attack. Ultimately, in 2006–2007, he began to restructure the church and divest power. Within Mars Hill, he resigned as legal president, president of the elder board, and chief of staff, while retaining his roles as public face and preaching pastor.[35] The restructuring including a change to bylaws that granted indefinite terms of office to the "executive elders" (Driscoll and a few others).[36] Two prominent pastors (Paul Petry and Bent Meyer) protested the restructuring plan, arguing that rather than sharing power, the new structure consolidated power with Driscoll and his trusted lieutenants;[13] both were fired during the debate, one for "verbally attacking the lead pastor [Driscoll]".[36][37] Around this time, Lief Moi, co-founder of Mars Hill and a close friend of Driscoll, left Mars Hill and started a pizzeria.[38]

ABC Nightline special (2009)[edit]

In March 2009, Driscoll was involved in an ABC Nightline debate entitled, "Does Satan Exist?". Driscoll and Annie Lobert, founder of the Hookers for Jesus Christianity ministry, argued for the existence of the devil against Deepak Chopra, philosopher, and Carlton Pearson, former fundamentalist minister and author of "The Gospel of Inclusion".[8] A commentator described the debate as "contentious", with all participants taking "uncompromising" positions.[8] Driscoll argued that a belief in both Satan and God was an essential tenet of Christianity. Driscoll has also been featured on the program discussing other topics including the Ten Commandments and sex.[39][40]

Haiti relief (2010)[edit]

After the catastrophic 2010 Haiti earthquake, Driscoll and James MacDonald founded Churches Helping Churches to help churches that rebuild after catastrophic natural disasters. They helped to rebuild "dozens" of churches in Haiti and Japan.[41] Driscoll first flew to Haiti shortly after the earthquake, and set up a partnership between his church and Jean F. E. St. Cyr, a Haitian pastor. Mars Hill Church donated $1.7 million in medical supplies.[42]

Publishing Real Marriage (2012)[edit]

Main article: Real Marriage

Mark and Grace Driscoll published their first book together, titled Real Marriage: The Truth About Sex, Friendship & Live Together, in January 2012. The book is a marriage and sex manual. Driscoll said that they wrote the book because "only two [Christian] books go into depth on sexuality... a lot of Christian teaching about sex is answering questions of a previous generation."[43] The Driscolls and Mars Hill Church heavily promoted the book, taking interviews with The View, Fox & Friends, and Piers Morgan Tonight.[44]

In the book, the Driscolls divulge details from their own life stories and problems in their marriage, including with past abuse in their background.[45] It includes a chapter titled "Can We ___?", discussing a biblical rationale for specific sexual acts[43] that evangelical pastors are considered reluctant to discuss.[45]

The Daily Beast described the book as controversial, writing that "evangelicals of all stripes are outraged... from conservatives shocked by the graphic sex descriptions to liberals who hate its degrading of women".[46] According to The Daily Mail, the book "gives a green light to a range of sexual taboos such as anal sex and using sex toys", thereby taking aim at conservative religious views on sexual acts.[47] Christian author and blogger Rachel Held Evans wrote, "Grace [Driscoll] is often cast as the damaged and sinful wife who withholds sex from her deserving husband, Mark the hero who is justified in leaving his wife but instead comes along to rescue her."[48]

Mark Driscoll responded to criticism in a post to CNN's Belief Blog, writing: "You try to write a book on marriage and sex with your wife and next thing you know there are a lot of ants crashing your picnic." He wrote that he and Grace anticipated criticism "from all sides" but felt it would be worthwhile anyway, because "we want to help marriages and single people aspiring to marry...."[49]

Resignation from Acts 29 and The Gospel Coalition (2012)[edit]

On March 29, 2012, Driscoll announced his resignation from two parachurch organizations he was involved in, Acts 29 and the Council of The Gospel Coalition.[50]

Driscoll was president of Acts 29 from 1998 to 2012, when he turned over his responsibilities to Matt Chandler.[3][51] Commenting on the transition, Chandler said, "[the Acts 29 board was] running a network of 422 churches on six continents the same way when it was 80 to 100 churches on one continent." Chandler also planned to disentangle Acts 29 from Mars Hill Church; prior to Driscoll's departure, Acts 29 was primarily funded by Mars Hill.[52] As of 2014, Driscoll is no longer on the board of Acts 29.[53]

Driscoll was a founding member of The Gospel Coalition, a fellowship of reformed evangelical churches. On his departure, he wrote he had no "relation conflict with anyone and no disagreement theologically"; rather, he explained that he was reorganizing his priorities and could not keep up with all of his commitments.[4] Driscoll indicated that he intended to devote more of his efforts on Mars Hill Church, more time with his family, and less time in travel.[54]

Dave Kraft litigation (2013)[edit]

In May 2013, now former Mars Hill elder Dave Kraft filed formal charges of "mistreatment" against Mark Driscoll and other leaders at Mars Hill. He specifically accused Driscoll of being "domineering, verbally violent, arrogant, and quick-tempered". Kraft further argued that this "established pattern of... behavior" disqualified Driscoll from church leadership.[note 1] Mars Hill Church's Board of Advisors and Accountability responded, saying that they sent one hundred letters to former elders and staff, in an effort to substantiate Kraft's charges. They received eighteen responses, which they reviewed, and determined them to be "non-disqualifying" with respect to Driscoll's leadership position. However, the Board did initiate a "reconciliation process" to address "many offenses and hurts that are still unresolved".[55]

Accusations of plagiarism in A Call to Resurgence (2013)[edit]

On November 21, 2013, radio host Janet Mefferd accused Driscoll of plagiarism. Mefferd claimed that 14 pages of Driscoll's book A Call to Resurgence[56] were quoted "extensively and without citation" from Peter Jones' 1999 book, Gospel Truth/Pagan Lies: Can You Tell the Difference?[57][58] and Jones' 2010 book One or Two: Seeing a World of Difference.[59] Driscoll's publisher Tyndale House stated that they performed a "thorough in-house review" and disagreed that this was a case of plagiarism. More allegations of plagiarism in other Driscoll soon surfaced, including passages from a sermon series companion text, Trial: 8 Witnesses From 1&2 Peter, which were copied verbatim from passages written by David Wheaton in the New Bible Commentary.[60][61] InterVarsity Press, publisher of the New Bible Commentary, stated that Driscoll failed to properly provide quotation or attribution for the material.[61] The relevant passages were posted online.[62] The allegations soon expanded to include claims that Driscoll used ghostwriters and researchers without giving them proper attribution.[63][64] Since mid-December 2013, neither Peter Jones, D.A. Carson, nor Janet Mefferd have made any further statements pertaining the case.[65]

Syndicator Salem Radio subsequently removed both the broadcast interview with Driscoll and associated materials from her programme website and apologized for raising the matter in a broadcast interview. This attempt to shut down the story provoked the resignation of a Salem Radio staff member, producer Ingrid Schlueter.[66] In explaining her resignation, Schlueter wrote the following regarding herself and Mefferd:[66]

"I was a part-time, topic producer for Janet Mefferd until [December 3, 2013] when I resigned over this situation. All I can share is that there is an evangelical celebrity machine that is more powerful than anyone realizes. You may not go up against the machine. That is all. Mark Driscoll clearly plagiarized and those who could have underscored the seriousness of it and demanded accountability did not. That is the reality of the evangelical industrial complex."

Driscoll apologized for "mistakes" related to the allegations on December 18 in a statement released to The Christian Post.[67]

Controversy: New York Times Bestseller List and Driscoll's Real Marriage (2014)[edit]

In March 2014, Warren Cole Smith of World magazine published an article[68] claiming that Mars Hill Church paid $210,000 to a marketing firm ResultSource, to manipulate sales[69] of Mark Driscoll's book Real Marriage and thereby attain a place on the New York Times bestseller list.[70][71] ResultSource accomplished this objective—briefly reaching #1 in the "Advice How-to" category—by buying the book using payment methods such as gift cards to temporarily boost the sales of the book at its release.[72][73]

The Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability stated that buying a place on bestseller lists violates its ethical standards, but that because this happened before Mars Hill Church joined they are unable to take action.[74] Christianity Today described the arrangement as "ethically questionable"[75] and Carl Trueman of religion journal First Things decried the revelation, writing "the overall picture is one of disaster" and "[it] has raised questions not simply about personal integrity but also the very culture of American Evangelicalism".[76]

Mars Hill Church responded in a statement,[77] writing "while not uncommon or illegal, this unwise strategy is not one we had used before or since, and not one we will use again." Mars Hill also claimed that the "true cost" of the effort was less than "what has been reported".[75] Driscoll personally responded to this controversy, writing that he will no longer claim to be a New York Times bestselling author, and that he now sees that the ResultSource marketing campaign as "manipulating a book sales reporting system, which is wrong."[78]

The repentant pastors (2014)[edit]

On March 29, 2014, four former Mars Hill elders (including Kyle Firstenberg, Dave Kraft, and co-founder Lief Moi) posted online "confessions and apologies" related to their leadership roles in Mars Hill. They wrote: "We recognize and confess that Mars Hill has hurt many people within the Mars Hill community, as well as those outside the community...."[79] Salon summarized the statements, writing that the former leaders emphasized their failures to "rein Driscoll in" and their complicity with Driscoll's "autocratic" management style.[14] Firstenberg wrote that while the church appeared to flourish, employees lived in constant stress, and "success was to be attained regardless of human and moral cost."[14]

Style of sermons[edit]

Mark Driscoll preaching at Mars Hill Church, set against a large projected image that reads "Ten Commandments: set free to live free"
Mark Driscoll preaching at Mars Hill Church.

Driscoll's style, he says, is influenced by stand-up comedians like Chris Rock.[80] Slate's Ruth Graham writes, "though he can resemble a hipster ex-wrestler as he paces the stage in sneakers and jeans, his theology is old-school Calvinist."[81] A Crosscut.com article described his presentation style as follows: "Pacing the stage at the main Ballard campus, he delivered a sermon on marriage roles as he saw them set forth in the Song of Solomon. He told stories from his own marriage, offered statistics, and dropped jokes without their feeling forced. Every few minutes he would sniff in a thoughtful, practiced sort of way. This untucked, down-to-earth demeanor was the opposite of a huckster televangelist, but polished in its own way. It makes the guy easy to listen to."[82] The New York Times Magazine's Molly Worthen wrote, "he has the coolest style and foulest mouth of any preacher you've ever seen."[13] The Seattles Times wrote: "Preaching and communicating lie at the heart of Driscoll's draw. People call him a very compelling speaker, 'gifted.'"[17]

Driscoll has preached sermon series such as: Vintage Jesus, Religion Saves and Nine Other Misconceptions; The Peasant Princess; Ten Commandments: Set Free to Live Free; and Malachi: Living for a Legacy. His sermons focus on books of the Bible or a particular topic. He has addressed some racy topics, including "Biblical Oral Sex" and "Pleasuring Your Spouse".[13]

Rob Wall, a professor at Seattle Pacific University, links the success of Mars Hill Church to Mark Driscoll's direct answers to complicated spiritual questions: "His style of public rhetoric is very authoritative. Whether it's about the Bible, or about culture, he is very clear and definitive."[83]

Beliefs[edit]

Driscoll is an evangelical Christian. Within that broad movement, Driscoll is theologically and socially conservative.[84] He adheres to Reformed or Calvinist theology. Driscoll characterizes his position as New Calvinism, which he distinguishes from traditional Calvinism in two major ways: first, in being continuationist with regard to spiritual gifts;[85][86] and second, in being missional[87]—interested in being relevant to culture with a view to redeeming it, rather than rejecting or embracing it.[88] On gender roles, he is a complementarian[89] who endorse male headship of the home and church.[9] On church government, he opposes congregationalist polity and favors an elder-led approach.[33] On the Bible, he is a literalist and inerrantist.[9] He is also a creationist, and does not believe that Christians are free to assent to evolution.[90]

His theology draws inspiration from historical theologians including Augustine, John Calvin, Martin Luther, along with the Puritans, Jonathan Edwards and Charles Spurgeon.[91] He also respects evangelical leaders such as Billy Graham, J. I. Packer, Francis Schaeffer, and John Stott. His contemporary influences include Lesslie Newbigin[92] and the group he terms the "Missional Reformed Evangelicals": Don Carson and John Piper for theology, and Tim Keller and Ed Stetzer for missiology.[93][94]

Driscoll's combination of theological conservatism and his "missional" embrace of contemporary culture contribute to controversies. The New York Times Magazine's Molly Worthen writes: "Conservatives call Driscoll 'the cussing pastor' and wish that he’d trade in his fashionably distressed jeans and taste for indie rock for a suit and tie and placid choral arrangements. Liberals wince at his hellfire theology and insistence that women submit to their husbands."[13]

Calvinism[edit]

Driscoll distinguishes between double and single predestination, and says that unlike John Calvin, he believes only in single predestination.[95]

Driscoll denies the orthodox Calvinist view of limited atonement and believes instead that Jesus died for all people in some sense, and for some people (the elect) in another sense.[96][97] He thinks this position was what John Calvin believed, saying in a humorous tone: 'Calvinism came after Calvin... I will argue that the Calvinists are not very Calvin. I will argue against Calvinism with Calvin... What kind of Calvinist are you? I'm a Calvin, not a Calvinist, that came later'.[96] Driscoll also believes that this position (or slight variations thereof) was held by men like Charles Spurgeon, John Bunyan, Martin Luther, and Richard Baxter.[96]

Wrath of God[edit]

Driscoll preaches the Calvinist belief that people deserve the wrath of God because of their sins and depravity, and that therefore God hates them, unless they repent and turn to Jesus to enter into God's love.[98]

In late 2011, Driscoll preached a controversial sermon on the "wrath of God". In the sermon, he said:[99][100]

Some of you, God hates you. Some of you, God is sick of you. God is frustrated with you. God is wearied by you. God has suffered long enough with you. He doesn’t think you’re cute. He doesn’t think it’s funny. He doesn’t think your excuse is meritious [sic]. He doesn’t care if you compare yourself to someone worse than you, He hates them too. God hates, right now, personally, objectively hates some of you.

Emerging church[edit]

Driscoll was associated with the emerging church movement. He described the movement as follows:[84]

The emerging church is a growing, loosely connected movement of primarily young pastors who are glad to see the end of modernity and are seeking to function as missionaries who bring the gospel of Jesus Christ to emerging and postmodern cultures. The emerging church welcomes the tension of holding in one closed hand the unchanging truth of evangelical Christian theology (Jude 3) and holding in one open hand the many cultural ways of showing and speaking Christian truth as a missionary to America (1 Cor 9:19–23). Since the movement, if it can be called that, is young and is still defining its theological center, I do not want to portray the movement as ideologically unified because I myself swim in the theologically conservative stream of the emerging church.

Driscoll later distanced himself from the movement:[101]

In the mid-1990s I was part of what is now known as the emerging church and spent some time traveling the country to speak on the emerging church in the emerging culture on a team put together by Leadership Network called the Young Leader Network. But, I eventually had to distance myself from the emergent stream of the network because friends like Brian McLaren and Doug Pagitt began pushing a theological agenda that greatly troubled me. Examples include referring to God as a chick, questioning God's sovereignty over and knowledge of the future, denial of the substitutionary atonement at the cross, a low view of Scripture, and denial of hell which is one hell of a mistake.

Gender roles[edit]

Driscoll holds to a complementarian view of gender roles[89] – that is, men and women have different but complement roles within the family and the church.

When evangelical pastor Ted Haggard resigned from church leadership after a sex scandal involving a male escort, Driscoll raised an uproar with the comment on his blog: "A wife who lets herself go and is not sexually available to her husband in the ways that the Song of Songs is so frank about is not responsible for her husband's sin, but she may not be helping him either."[82][102] Driscoll later apologized for his statement, stating that he did not intend for his comment to reflect on Haggard's wife personally.[103] After the incident, the Seattle Times discontinued Driscoll as one of its religion columnists.[34]

Male leadership in the church[edit]

Male leadership of the church is crucial, according to Driscoll, who believes that God called him specifically to "train men". He traces modern spiritual and social problems to the failure of female leadership. In the Garden of Eden, Driscoll describes Eve's temptation by the serpent as "the first invitation to an independent feminism". For Eve to eat the forbidden fruit was "the first exercising of a woman's role in leadership in the tome and in the church in the history of the world. It does not go well."[31]

Driscoll believes that Christianity has been feminized. In a 2006 interview with Desiring God, he said, "The problem with the church today, it's just a bunch of nice, soft, tender, 'chickified' [sic] church boys. Sixty percent of Christians are chicks, and the forty percent that are dudes are still sort of chicks.... The whole architecture and the whole aesthetic [of church buildings] is really feminine."[104] In reaction, Driscoll emphasizes what he perceives as macho behavior in the actions of biblical protagonists; he describes Jesus, Paul the Apostle, and King David saying: "... these guys were dudes. Heterosexual, win-a-fight, punch-you-in-the-nose, dudes."[31] He believes that in order to be innovative, the church needs to get entrepreneurial young men involved, who will "make the culture of the future."[104]

He sometimes asks his wife to come up on stage to help him answer questions texted in from the audience,[105] and believes that this does not clash with his understanding that preaching/teaching by women is prohibited by Paul in 1 Timothy 2:12.[106]

When the Episcopal Church elected Katharine Jefferts Schori as its first female Presiding Bishop, Driscoll wrote on his blog, "if Christian males do not man up soon, the Episcopalians may vote a fluffy baby bunny rabbit as their next bishop to lead God's men."[107]

According to Mother Jones profile on Driscoll in 1998, Driscoll may have held egalitarian views at that time. He offered church courses in "evangelical feminism" and is quoted as saying "the Bible is clear that men and women are both created by God in His image and likeness and totally equal in every way."[28] In 2003, Driscoll said that he wished he could change the parts of the Bible that he believes restricted women from being pastors.[17]

Homosexuality[edit]

Driscoll believes that homosexuality is sinful[108] and that marriage is between one man and one woman.[109]

Works[edit]

Books[edit]

eBooks[edit]

Documentaries[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Specifically, Kraft said that Driscoll's behavior violated three different bible passages that give the qualifications for church elders. As a teaching pastor, Driscoll would be expected to meet the biblical standards of a church elder. The passages were: 1 Timothy 3, Titus 1, and 1 Peter 5.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Connelly, Joel (Mar 20, 2014). "Ex-Mars Hill pastors want mediation, repentance". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 
  2. ^ Lee, Morgan (Nov 23, 2013). "Mars Hill Church in 'Early Stages' of Planting in Spokane, WA". Christian Post. 
  3. ^ a b Driscoll, Mark (Mar 28, 2012), A Note on Some Transitions, Acts 29 Network, retrieved Dec 8, 2012 
  4. ^ a b Carson, D. A.; Keller, Tim (Mar 28, 2012). "Driscoll Steps Down from TGC Council". The Gospel Coalition. Retrieved Apr 9, 2014. 
  5. ^ Driscoll, Mark (Aug 13, 2005). "Convict finds salvation in prison cell, becomes pastor and counselor". Seattle Times. 
  6. ^ "Mark Driscoll". OnFaith. FaithStreet. 
  7. ^ "Pastor Mark Driscoll - Archive". FoxNews.com. Retrieved 2013-12-05. 
  8. ^ a b c Harris, Dan (Mar 26, 2009). "Tempers Flare at Debate on the Devil". ABC News. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Sandler, Lauren (Sep 13, 2006). "Come as you are". Salon. Retrieved Apr 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Mark Driscoll". Christianity Today. Retrieved Apr 10, 2014. "Known for his aggressive preaching style (Donald Miller immortalized him as “Mark the Cussing Pastor” in Blue Like Jazz), Driscoll has stirred controversy over comments about masculine Christianity, sexuality, and women." 
  11. ^ Merritt, Jonathan (Oct 23, 2013). "Divisive pastor Mark Driscoll says Christians should stop infighting". Religion News Service. Retrieved Apr 13, 2014. "Controversial pastor... Mark Driscoll has been called a lot of things: bully, sexist, fundamentalist, bigot.... Driscoll's list of divisive comments runs much deeper than these isolated incidents." 
  12. ^ Duduit, Michael (2011). "The 25 Most Influential Pastors of the Past 25 Years". Preaching. Salem Publishing. Retrieved Apr 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Worthen, Molly (Jan 6, 2009). "Who Would Jesus Smack Down?". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 5, 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c Tarico, Valerie (Apr 3, 2014). "Christian right mega-church minister faces mega-mutiny for alleged abusive behavior". Salon. Retrieved Apr 9, 2014. 
  15. ^ Wieman, Roxanne (Sep 9, 2010). "Mark Driscoll Says Just Grow Up". Relevant (magazine). 
  16. ^ Driscoll & Driscoll 2012, p. 5.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Tu, Janet (Nov 28, 2003). "Pastor Mark packs 'em in". Seattle Times. Retrieved Jul 11, 2010. 
  18. ^ Driscoll & Breshears 2009, p. 152.
  19. ^ "Pastor Profile: Mark Driscoll". Mars Hill Church. Retrieved Apr 9, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Mike & Donna Gunn". OCF Church. Retrieved Apr 29, 2014. 
  21. ^ Driscoll, Mark (2000). "Seasons of Grace: The Story of Mars Hill". Mars Hill Fellowship. Archived from the original on Dec 10, 2000. 
  22. ^ Driscoll 2006, p. 54.
  23. ^ Driscoll 2006, p. 38.
  24. ^ Driscoll, Mark (Jan 31, 2012). "Ten Reflections on the Elephant Room". "I did not grow up in an evangelical church. I was saved at 19 and planted a church at 25, which was too early, as I was not ready. The church I pastor is the only church of which I’ve ever been a member." 
  25. ^ "Generation X...Three Myths and Realities". NetFax. Leadership Network. Feb 3, 1997. Archived from the original on Jun 19, 2010. Retrieved 2008-11-09. "General sessions will feature Mark Driscoll..." 
  26. ^ Driscoll 2006, p. 98. "And it shifted the conversation from reaching Generation X to the emerging mission of reaching postmodern culture."
  27. ^ Reporter: Lynn Neary (Mar 1, 1999). "Youth and Religion". All Things Considered. National Public Radio.
  28. ^ a b Leibovich, Lori. "Generation: A look inside fundamentalism's answer to MTV: the postmodern church.". Mother Jones (July–August 1998). Retrieved Apr 14, 2014. 
  29. ^ Driscoll 2006, p. 98. "I was not prepared for the media onslaught that came shortly thereafter. Before I knew it, NPR was interviewing me, Mother Jones magazine did a feature on our church, Pat Robertson's 700 Club gave me a plaque for being America's "Church of the Week" and did a television story on us, other media outlets started asking for interviews, large denominations were asking me to be a consultant..."
  30. ^ a b Thomas, Scott (Oct 11, 2011). "Happy Birthday and Happy 15th Anniversary, Mark Driscoll". Acts 29 Network. 
  31. ^ a b c Sargent, Alison; Brown, Ryan (2012). "Life on Mars (Hill)". Bitch Magazine. 
  32. ^ "Mark Driscoll". The Resurgence. Retrieved Apr 9, 2014. 
  33. ^ a b Driscoll, Mark. "10 Painful Lessons from the Early Days of Mars Hill Church". pastormark.tv. Retrieved Apr 14, 2014. 
  34. ^ a b King, Marsha (Dec 4, 2006). "Pastor's apology defuses demonstration at church". Seattle Times. 
  35. ^ Driscoll & Breshears 2009, pp. 152-155.
  36. ^ a b Tu, Janet I. (Nov 7, 2007). "Firing of pastors roils Mars Hill Church". Seattle Times. 
  37. ^ Kiley, Brendan (Feb 1, 2012). "Church or Cult? The Control-Freaky Ways of Mars Hill Church". The Stranger. 
  38. ^ Ball, Linda (Dec 6, 2012). "Coming full circle". Issaquah Reporter. 
  39. ^ Brown, Ely; Johnson, Eric (13 Mar 2009). "Nightline Face-Off: Does Satan Exist?". ABC News. Retrieved Apr 9, 2014. 
  40. ^ Nightline Satan Debate. Mars Hill Church. 26 Mar 2009. 
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