Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán (August 30, 1850 – July 4, 1896) was a celebrated figure in the Philippine Revolution and a leading propagandist for reforms in the Philippines. Popularly known as Plaridel, he was the editor and co-publisher of La Solidaridad (The Solidarity).
Marcelo H. del Pilar was born on August 30, 1850. His parents were Julián H. del Pilar and Blasa Gatmaitán. To obey the 1849 decree of governor general Narciso Clavería to use Spanish surnames, he adapted the surname of his grandmother, del Pilar.
When he was very young he played the piano, violin, and flute. He studied first in the college owned by Hermenigildo Flores, then at the Colegio de San José, from where he transferred to the Universidad de Santo Tomás. He finished law in 1880.
On August 1, 1882, he co-founded the Diariong Tagalog (Tagalog Newspaper), the first Philippine bilingual newspaper. He organized anti-friar demonstrations, culminating in a petition signed by 800 people for the expulsion of friars in the Philippines and exile of the Archbishop.
On October 28, 1888, fleeing from clerical persecution, del Pilar went to Spain, leaving his family behind.
On December 15, 1889, he succeeded Graciano López Jaena as editor of the Filipino reformist periodical La Solidaridad. He promoted the objectives of the paper by contacting liberal Spaniards who would side with the Filipino cause. Under del Pilar, the aims of the newspaper were expanded to include the removal of the abuses by the friars; active Filipino participation in the affairs of the government; freedom of speech, of the press, and of assembly; wider social and political freedoms; equality before the law; assimilation; and representation in the Spanish Parliament.
Del Pilar's struggle increased when the money to support the paper were ignored and there were no sign of immediate response from the Spanish colonial government. He rejected the assimilationist stand and began planning an armed revolt. His ideas and values were soon inspired by Andrés Bonifacio, who would form the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary organization.
Del Pilar died of tuberculosis on July 4, 1896, barely a month before the outburst of the Philippine Revolution.
Del Pilar was initiated into Freemasonry in 1889. He was instrumental in establishing Filipino Masonry in the country and the approval by the Grande Oriente Español of the first national organization of Filipino Masons, the Gran Consejo Regional de Filipinas in 1893. For all his efforts, he is considered as the "Father of Philippine Masonry."
Organized in his memory, the Samahang Plaridel is a fellowship of journalists and other communicators that aims to propagate Marcelo H. del Pilar’s ideals. This fellowship fosters within its capacity, mutual help, cooperation, and assistance among its members; dedicated to the journalistic standards of accuracy and truth, and in promoting these standards in the practice of journalism.
Plaridel is the chosen patron saint of today’s journalists, as his life and works prized freedom of thought and opinion most highly, loving independence above any material gain. Plaridel’s ideology of truth, fairness and impartiality is anchored on democratic principles, as these are the bastions of a society acceptable to all Filipinos.
The building that houses the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Graduate School is named after him.
- Ang Pagibig sa Tinubúang Lupà (Love of country). This poem which was first published in the Diariong Tagalog on August 20, 1882, subsequently in Heraldo de la Revolución, December 20, 1898, and again, in the supplement of that paper, resembles the theme of José Rizal's Amor Patria. As the title indicates, the theme is directed to the Filipinos in order to arouse their spirit of nationalism and self-dependence.
- Caiigat Cayó (Be Like the Eel), published in Barcelona, 1888, and signed by Dolores Manapat, one of del Pilar's pseudonyms. This essay is a refutation of Fr. José Rodriguez's Cuestiones de Sumo Interés (Questions of Supreme Interest). The latter is an attack against the morality of the author of Noli Me Tángere (Rizal). In his essay, del Pilar recounts the fine qualities of Rizal, and as counter-attack, he accused the friars of carrying commerce in the church.
- Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayerbook and Teasing Game), Barcelona, 1888. This is a satire on the friars' hypocrisy, licentiousness and greed, which consists of parodies of the Sign of the Cross, the Act of Contrition, the Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, and the catechism. Rizal considers this as a model of classical prose and an excellent example of Tagalog humor, wit, and sarcasm.
- Ang Cadaquilaan nang Dios (The Greatness of God), Barcelona, 1888. In this essay the author adds to his characteristic invectiveness against the friars, a bit of philosophy and love of nature.
- La Soberanía Monacal en Filipinas (Monastic Sovereignty in the Philippines), Barcelona, 1888. Here he underscores the failure of government in making good the noble promises and aspirations of the first fruitful encounter between Spain and the Philippines that was formalized by an agreement officially sealed with the blood of Miguel López de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna.
- Pasióng Dapat Ipag-alab nang Puso nang Tauong Babasa (Passion That Should Inflame the Heart of the Reader), Barcelona, 1888. Here he recounts the abuses of the friars, and then concludes that the only time that the friars are kind to the parishioners is when the latter are rich and submissive to them.
- La Frailocracía Filipina (Frailocracy in the Philippines), Barcelona, 1889. This is an answer to a pamphlet entitled Los Frailes en Filipinas which was written by a Spaniard. The arguments were in five parts, namely, the much-mooted problem of filibusterism, the much-vaunted love of the friars for Spain, the disagreement of Filipino civilization by the friars, the influence of the friars on the Filipinos, and the aspirations of the Filipinos.
- Sagót ng España sa Hibíc ng Filipinas (Spain's Reply to the Cry of the Philippines), Barcelona, 1889. This is written in answer to Hermenigildo Flores' Hibíc ng Filipinas sa Inang España.
- Dupluhan... Dalits... Bugtongs (Malolos, 1907). These are fragments of del Pilar's farce, published after his death.
- Sa Bumabasang Kababayan (unpublished). This is a leaflet the purpose of which is to teach the Filipinos of their duties and obligations towards others.
- ^ Zaide 1984.
- ^ a b "La Solidaridad and La Liga Filipina". Philippine-History.org. http://www.philippine-history.org/la-solidaridad.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- ^ Keat 2004, p. 756
- ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 105.
- ^ Jernegan 1905, pp. 232-234.
- ^ Nepomuceno-Van Heugten, Maria Lina. "Edukasyon ng Bayani: Mga Impluwensya ng Edukasyong Natamo sa Kaisipang Rebolusyonaryo" (PDF). University of the Philippines Diliman Journals Online. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
- ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 106.
- ^ Schumacher 1997, pp. 114–115.
- ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 122.
- ^ del Pilar, Marcelo H. (April 25, 1889). "The aspirations of the Filipinos". Barcelona, Spain: La Solidaridad. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.filipiniana.net%2FArtifactView.do%3FartifactID%3DGVH200900006%26query%3Dla%2520solidaridad%26page%3D62&date=2010-07-13. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- ^ "Liberalism in the Philippines - The Revolution of 1898 : The Main Facts". sspxasia.com. http://www.sspxasia.com/Newsletters/2002/Jan-Mar/Liberalism_in_the_Philippines.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- ^ Trask 1996, p. 393.
- ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 293.
- ^ "Famous Filipino Mason - Marcelo H. Del Pilar". Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. http://www.glphils.org/famous-masons/fmhdelpilar.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-12.
- ^ 1863-1923 "Brief History of the Spanish Masonry". http://www.gle.org/ingles/i_historia.php#III 1863-1923. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- ^ José Rizal to Paciano Rizal (October 12, 1886; 40-11 Albertstrasse, Leipzig). I lacked many words, for example, for the word Freiheit or liberty. The Tagalog word kaligtasan cannot be used, because this means that formerly he was in some prison, slavery, etc. I found in the translation of Amor Patria the noun malayá, kalayahan that Marcelo del Pilar uses. In the only Tagalog book I have — Florante — I don't find an equivalent noun.
- ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 121.
- ^ Caiñgat Cayo! original image scans of the pamphlet written in 1889
- ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 125.
- ^ Ramos 1984, p. 86.
- ^ Tiongson 2004, p. 78.
- ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 126.
- ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 119.
- ^ As the word frailocracia cannot be found in most Spanish dictionaries nor the word “frailocracy” in the English, the term must have been coined by succeeding Filipino writers to refer to this 'unique' system of government
- ^ Lumbera 2001, p. 144.
- ^ Lumbera 2001, p. 145.
- ^ Mojares 1983, p. 132.
- Jernegan, Prescott Ford (1905), A Short History of the Philippines: For use in Philippine schools, D. Appleton and Company, New York, http://books.google.com/books?id=rldFAAAAIAAJ
- Keat, Gin Ooi (2004), Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1, BC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2, http://books.google.com/?id=QKgraWbb7yoC
- Lumbera, Bienvenido L. (2001), Tagalog Poetry, 1570–1898: Tradition and Influences in Its Development, Ateneo de Manila University Press, ISBN 971-550-374-8, http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=HTVRc_542KcC&dq=tagalog+poetry&source=gbs_navlinks_s
- Mojares, Resil B. (1983), Origins and Rise of the Filipino Novel: A Generic Study of the Novel Until 1940, University of the Philippines Press, ISBN 971-105-001-3
- Ramos, Maria S. (1984), Panitikang Pilipino, Katha Publishing Company, ISBN 971-150-051-5
- Schumacher, John N. (1997), The Propaganda Movement, 1880-1895: The Creation of a Filipino Consciousness, the Making of the Revolution, Ateneo de Manila University Press, ISBN 978-971-550-209-2, http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=6GU_Tzxu5qoC&dq=Propaganda+Movement&source=gbs_navlinks_s
- Tiongson, Nicanor G. (2004), The Women of Malolos, Ateneo de Manila University Press, ISBN 971-550-467-1
- Trask, David F. (1996), The War with Spain in 1898, U of Nebraska Press, ISBN 978-080-32-9429-5, http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=2f0Gf0DQfmUC&dq=The+War+with+Spain+in+1898&hl=fil&source=gbs_navlinks_s
- Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984), Philippine History and Government, National Bookstore Printing Press, ISBN 978-971-08-0490-0