Clam chowder

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Clam chowder
Quail 07 bg 041506.jpg
New England clam chowder.
Origin
Place of originUnited States of America
Region or stateNew England
Details
TypeChowder
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredient(s)Clams, broth, butter; usually potatoes and onions
VariationsNew England Clam Chower, Boston Clam Chowder, Manhattan Clam Chowder, Rhode Island Clam Chowder, others
 
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Clam chowder
Quail 07 bg 041506.jpg
New England clam chowder.
Origin
Place of originUnited States of America
Region or stateNew England
Details
TypeChowder
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredient(s)Clams, broth, butter; usually potatoes and onions
VariationsNew England Clam Chower, Boston Clam Chowder, Manhattan Clam Chowder, Rhode Island Clam Chowder, others

Clam chowder is any of several chowders containing clams and broth. Along with the clams, diced potato is common, as are onions, which are occasionally sauteed in the drippings from salt pork or bacon. Celery is frequently used. Other vegetables are uncommon, but small carrot strips might occasionally be added, primarily for color. A garnish of parsley serves the same purpose. Bay leaves are also sometimes used as a garnish and flavoring. It is believed that clams were added to chowder because of their relative ease to collect.[1]

Clam chowder is often served in restaurants on Fridays in order to provide a seafood option for those who abstain from meat every Friday, which used to be a requirement for Catholics before liturgical changes in Vatican II. Though the period of strict abstinence from meat on Fridays was reduced to Lent,[2] the year-round tradition of serving clam chowder on Fridays remains.

Contents

Primary variants and styles

New England clam chowder

Traditional New England clam chowder is thickened with oyster crackers, instead of flour.

New England clam chowder is a milk- or cream-based chowder, commonly made with potatoes, onion, and clams. Including tomatoes is shunned; a 1939 bill making tomatoes in clam chowder illegal was introduced in the Maine legislature.[3] It is occasionally referred to as Boston Clam Chowder in the Midwest.

New England clam chowder is usually accompanied with oyster crackers (similar to hardtack). Crown Pilot Crackers were a popular brand of cracker to accompany chowder, until the product was discontinued in 2008. Crackers may be crushed and mixed into the soup for thickener, or used as a garnish.[4]

Manhattan clam chowder

Manhattan clam chowder

Manhattan clam chowder has clear broth, plus tomato for red color and flavor. In the 1890s, this chowder was called "New York clam chowder" and "Fulton Fish Market clam chowder." Clam chowder, in its cream-based New England version, has been around since the mid-18th century, and no mention of any Manhattan chowder has been found that predates the 1930s. Many restaurants in northern Rhode Island sell both red and white chowders, while the southern coast favors clear and white chowders. Often they are served alongside clam cakes.

The addition of tomatoes in place of milk was initially the work of Portuguese immigrants in Rhode Island, as tomato-based stews were already a traditional part of Portuguese cuisine. Scornful New Englanders called this modified version "Manhattan-style" clam chowder because, in their view, calling someone a New Yorker is an insult.[5]

Rhode Island clam chowder

The traditional Rhode Island clam chowder has a clear broth and is called "South County Style", referring to the southern beach and fishing counties where it originated. This chowders is still served, especially at long-established New England restaurants and hotels, such as those on Block Island, and on the south coast of the state, where tourists favor white chowders while natives prefer the clear. This traditional clear chowder generally contains quahogs, broth, potatoes, onions, and bacon.

In some parts of the state, a red chowder is served as Rhode Island clam chowder. This red chowder has a tomato broth base and potatoes; unlike Manhattan red chowder, it does not have chunks of tomato, and does not contain other vegetables (such as carrots or beans). This is the recipe served for decades with clamcakes at the memorable establishments like Rocky Point and Crescent Park.

New Jersey clam chowder

Primary ingredients are bacon, onion, chowder clams, potatoes, pepper, celery powder, parsley, crab spice (Old Bay), asparagus, light cream, tomatoes cut & seeded.

Delaware clam chowder

This variety typically consisted of cubed salt pork that is pre-fried, salt water, potatoes, diced onions, quahogs, butter, salt and pepper. This variety was more common in the early and mid 20th century and likely shares most recent common ancestry with New England clam chowder.

Hatteras clam chowder

Served throughout North Carolina's Outer Banks region, this variation of clam chowder has clear broth, bacon, potatoes, onions, and flour as a thickening agent. It is usually seasoned with copious amounts of white and/or black pepper, but occasionally with chopped green onions or even hot pepper sauce.

Minorcan clam chowder

Minorcan clam chowder is a spicy traditional version found in Florida restaurants near St. Augustine and the northeast corner of the Sunshine State. It has a tomato broth base, with a "secret ingredient", Spanish datil pepper, an extremely hot chili comparable to the habanero. The datil pepper is believed to have been brought to St. Augustine by the Minorcan settlers in the 18th century, and tradition holds among Minorcan descendants that it will only thrive and grow in two places - Minorca, Spain and St. Augustine, Florida.[6]

Other clam chowder variations

Some restaurants also serve their own unique clam chowders that do not fall into any of these five types. Clam chowder is usually served with saltine crackers or small, hexagonal oyster crackers. Throughout the United States, creamy New England-style clam chowder is sometimes served in sourdough bread bowls, especially in San Francisco where sourdough is popular with tourists and has been considered a signature dish since 1849. In Seattle and Portland Smoked Salmon is often added to New England Style Chowder instead of smoked pork.[7][8]

Fish chowder is a similar to clam chowder except that shredded fish, often cod, is substituted for the clams. It is made with cream, fish, and often onions and/or corn. Chowder can be made with both clams and fish then it is both clam and fish chowder.

Except for the substitution of smoked haddock for clams, the chowders are remarkably similar to the traditional Scots broth Cullen Skink.

Long Island Clam Chowder is a variant that is part New England style and part Manhattan style, making it a creamy tomato clam chowder. The name is a geographical pun, noting that the location of Long Island, just like the recipe is about halfway between Manhattan and New England. This variant is popular in many small restaurants across Suffolk County.

Chowder has become a very popular menu item over the past three decades in Irish pubs.

See also

References

External links