Mandrill

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Mandrill[1]
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Primates
Family:Cercopithecidae
Genus:Mandrillus
Species:M. sphinx
Binomial name
Mandrillus sphinx
(Linnaeus, 1758)[3]
Mandrill range
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Mandrill[1]
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Primates
Family:Cercopithecidae
Genus:Mandrillus
Species:M. sphinx
Binomial name
Mandrillus sphinx
(Linnaeus, 1758)[3]
Mandrill range

The mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate of the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family,[4] closely related to the baboons and even more closely to the drill. It is found in southern Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Congo. Mandrills mostly live in tropical rainforests and forest-savanna mosaics. They live in groups called hordes. Mandrills have an omnivorous diet consisting mostly of fruits and insects. Their mating season takes place from June to October.

Both the mandrill and the drill were once classified as baboons in genus Papio, but recent research has determined they should be separated into their own genus, Mandrillus.[4] Mandrills are the world's largest monkeys. Charles Darwin wrote in The Descent of Man that "no other member in the whole class of mammals is coloured in so extraordinary a manner as the adult male mandrills."[5] The mandrill is classified as vulnerable by IUCN.

Description[edit]

A mandrill displays his exotic coloring.
The Mandrill's exotic coloring

The mandrill is the most colorful primate. It has an olive green or dark grey pelage with yellow and black bands and a white belly. Its hairless face has an elongated muzzle with distinctive characteristics such as a red stripe down the middle and protruding blue ridges on the sides. It also has red nostrils and lips, a yellow beard and white tuffs. The areas around the genitals and the anus are multi-colored, being colored red, pink, blue, scarlet, and purple.[6] They also have pale pink ischial callosities.[6] The coloration of the animal is more pronounced in dominant adult males. Both sexes have chest glands which are used in olfactory communication. These, too, are more prominent in dominant adult males.[7] Males also have longer canines than females, with an average of 4.5 cm (1.8 in) and 1.0 cm, respectively.[8]

The mandrill has one of the greatest sexual dimorphisms among the primates.[9] Males typically weigh 19–37 kg (42–82 lb), with an average mass of 32.3 kg (71 lb). Females weigh roughly half as much as the male, at 10–15 kg (22–33 lb) and an average of 12.4 kg (27 lb).[10] Exceptionally large males can weigh up to 54 kg (120 lb).[11][12][13] The average male is 75 to 95 cm (30 to 37 in) long and the female is 55–66 cm (22–26 in), with the short tail adding another 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in).[14][15] The shoulder height while on all fours can range from 45 to 50 cm (18 to 20 in) in females and 55 to 65 cm (22 to 26 in) in males. The male Mandrill is the heaviest monkey in the world, although its total length is relatively short due to its vestigial tail and, due to its high sexual dimorphism, baboons such as the Chacma and Olive average around the same weight. Compared to the largest baboons, the mandrill is more ape-like in structure, with a muscular and compact build, shorter, thicker limbs that are longer in the front and almost no tail.[16][17][18] Mandrills can survive up to 31 years in captivity. Females reach sexual maturity at about 3.5 years.

Mandrill Baboon Skull MHNT

Ecology and activities[edit]

Mandrill with a flower

The mandrill is found in Nigeria, southern Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Congo. Its distribution is bounded by the Sanaga River to the north and the Ogooué and White Rivers to the east. Recent research suggests mandrill populations north and south of the Ogooué river are so genetically different as to be separate subspecies. Mandrills prefer to live in tropical rainforests and forest-savanna mosaics. They also live in gallery forests adjacent to savannas, as well as rocky forests, riparian forests, cultivated areas and flooded forests and stream beds.[19][20] Mandrills will cross grass areas within their forest habitats.[21][22]

The mandrill is an omnivore. It usually consumes plants, of which it eats over a hundred species. It prefers to eat fruits, but will also eat leaves, lianas, bark, stems, and fibers. It also consumes mushrooms and soil.[20] Carnivorously, mandrills mostly eat invertebrates, particularly ants, beetles, termites, crickets, spiders, snails, and scorpions. It will also eat eggs, and even vertebrates such as birds, tortoises, frogs, porcupines, rats, and shrews.[20] Mandrills likely will eat larger vertebrates when they have the opportunity, such as juvenile bay duikers and other small antelope. Large prey are likely killed with a bite to the nape with the mandrill's long canines.[23] In males, the canines can measure over 6 cm (2.4 in) in length.[16] One study found the mandrill's diet was composed of fruit (50.7%), seeds (26.0%), leaves (8.2%), pith (6.8%), flowers (2.7%), and animal foods (4.1%), with other foods making up the remaining (1.4%).[24]

Mandrills are preyed upon mainly by leopards, in addition to crowned eagles and African Rock Pythons.[21] They may be bitten and killed by Gaboon vipers when they accidentally rouse the venomous snake. It is thought that most predators are a threat mainly to young mandrills, with the likelihood of predation decreasing in adult females and especially adult males. In a study where a mandrill troop was exposed to stimuli relating to their natural predators, only the leopard caused the larger part of the group to flee into trees. However, the large, dominant males were observed to remain in response to the images of the natural predators, even the leopard, and pace back and forth whilst bareing their teeth, generally indicating aggression and the defensive role they may play in such circumstances.[25]

Mandrills are mostly terrestrial but they are more arboreal than baboons and feed as high as the canopy.[6][8] When on the ground, mandrills walk by digitigrade quadrupedalism (walking on the toes of all four limbs). When in the trees, they often move by lateral jumps.[19] Mandrills are mostly diurnal, with activities extending from morning to evening.[26] They sleep in trees at a different site each night.[20] Mandrills have been observed using tools; In the wild and in captivity, mandrills have been observed using sticks to clean themselves.[27]

Social behavior and reproduction[edit]

Mandrills seem to live in large, stable groups called "hordes". Hordes often number in the hundreds, possibly averaging around 620 individuals and reaching as many as 845.[19][21][22] It is difficult to accurately estimate group size in the forest, but filming a group crossing a gap between two forest patches or crossing a road is a reliable way of estimating group size. The largest group verifiably observed in this way contained over 1,300 individuals, in Lopé National Park, Gabon—the largest aggregation of nonhuman primates ever recorded.[28] These groups are made of adult females and their dependent offspring.[29] Males live a solitary lifestyle, and only enter hordes when females are receptive to mating, which lasts three months each year.[21][29] All-male bachelor groups are not known to exist.[21][29]

Sleeping mother with young

The mating season of the mandrill takes place from June to October, which is when the sexual swellings of the female occur.[29] They breed every two years. When breeding, a male will follow and guard a female in estrus. Adult males exist in two different forms: the brightly colored and "fatted" dominant males, and the paler and "nonfatted" subordinate males. Both males engage in mating, but only the dominant males can sire offspring. Males sometimes fight for breeding rights which results in dominance. Though conflicts are rare, they can be deadly. Gaining dominance, that is becoming the alpha male, results in an "increased testicular volume, reddening of sexual skin on the face and genitalia, and heightened secretion of the sternal cutaneous gland".[30] When a male loses dominance or its alpha status, the reverse happens, although the blue ridges remain brightened. There is also a fall in its reproductive success. This effect is gradual and takes place over a few years.[31][32][33] When subordinates mate-guard a female, the competition between them allows the dominant males to have a greater chance of siring offspring,[34] since subordinates outnumber dominates 21 to 1. There is also a dominance hierarchy among females, with reproductive success being displayed in shorter interbirth intervals amongst these alpha figures and the beginning of reproduction at earlier ages.[34]

Mandrill births occur from January to May.[35] Most births in Gabon occur in the wet season, from January to March, and gestation usually lasts 175 days.[34] In captivity, 405 days separate each birth.[34] Young are born with a black natal coat and pink skin. The females do most of the raising of the young. Alloparenting exists in this species, with female relatives providing care for the young.[36] Males leave their natal groups when they are six years old and stay along the boundary of the social group.[21][29]

Mandrills will make a "silent, bared-teeth face", in which the teeth are bared, the head crest is erect and the head shakes. This may serve as a peaceful form of communication.[37][38] A mandrill submits by presenting its rump. With aggression, mandrills will stare, bob their heads, and slap the ground.[38] Vocalizations like roars, crowings, and "two-phase grunts" are made for long distances, while "yaks", grunts, "k-alarms", "k-sounds", screams, girneys, and grinds are made at short distances.[39]

Status and conservation[edit]

The mandrill is considered vulnerable and is affected by deforestation.[2] However, hunting for bushmeat is the more direct threat. Mandrills are particularly threatened in the Republic of the Congo.[2] Nevertheless, there have been captive-bred individuals that have been successfully reintroduced into the wild.[40]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 165. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b c Oates, J. F. & Butynski, T. M. (2008). Mandrillus sphinx. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  3. ^ Linne´, Carl von (1758). Systema naturæ. Regnum animale. (10 ed.). p. 25. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Nowak, Ronald M (1999). Primates of the World. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 151–152. ISBN 0-8018-6251-5. Retrieved 7 September 2010. 
  5. ^ Darwin, Charles (1871). The Descent of Man, and selection in relation to sex. D. Appleton and Co, New York. 
  6. ^ a b c Ankel-Simons F. (2007) Primate Anatomy: an introduction, 3rd Edition. San Diego: Elsevier Acad Press.
  7. ^ Feistner, Anna T.C. (1991). "Scent Marking in Mandrills, Mandrillus sphinx". Folia Primatologica 57: 42. doi:10.1159/000156563. 
  8. ^ a b Leigh SR, Setchell JM, Charpentier M, Knapp LA, Wickings EJ (2008). "Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)". Journal of Human Evolution 55 (1): 75–85. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.01.001. PMID 18472142. 
  9. ^ Sandhyarani, Ningthoujam (30 March 2011). "Mandrill Monkey Facts". Retrieved 5 February 2012. [unreliable source?]
  10. ^ Changes in the Secondary Sexual Adornments of Male Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) Are Associated with Gain and Loss of Alpha Status (Joanna (Jo) Setchell) – Academia.edu. Durham.academia.edu. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  11. ^ Mandrill. WAZA – World Association of Zoos and Aquariums – Virtual Zoo.
  12. ^ Setchell, J. M.; Lee, P. C.; Wickings, E. J.; Dixson, A. F. (2002). "Reproductive parameters and maternal investment in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)". International Journal of Primatology 23: 51. doi:10.1023/A:1013245707228.  edit
  13. ^ Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections: Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx). Brainmuseum.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  14. ^ "Mammals: Mandrill". San Diego Zoo. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  15. ^ "Mandrill". National Georgraphic. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  16. ^ a b Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645
  17. ^ Dechow, PC (1983). "Estimation of body weights from craniometric variables in baboons". American journal of physical anthropology 60 (1): 113–23. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330600116. PMID 6869499. 
  18. ^ Kingdon, Jonathan Kingdon Guide to African Mammals (1993) ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9
  19. ^ a b c Sabater Pí, J (1972). "Contribution to the ecology of Mandrillus sphinx Linnaeus 1758 of Rio Muni (Republic of Equatorial Guinea)". Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology 17 (4): 304–19. doi:10.1159/000155442. PMID 4624917. 
  20. ^ a b c d Hoshino J (1985). "Feeding ecology of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in Campo Animal Reserve, Cameroon". Primates 26 (3): 248. doi:10.1007/BF02382401. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f Harrison MJS (2009). "The mandrill in Gabon's rain forest-ecology, distribution and status". Oryx 22 (4): 218. doi:10.1017/S0030605300022365. 
  22. ^ a b Rogers, M. E., Abernethy, K.A., Fontaine, B., Wickings, E.J., White, L.J.T and Tutin, C.E.G. (1996). "Ten Days in the Life of a Mandrill Horde in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon". American Journal of Primatology 40 (4): 297. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(1996)40:4<297::AID-AJP1>3.0.CO;2-T. 
  23. ^ Kudo H, Mitani M. (1985). "New record of predatory behavior by the mandrill in Cameroon". Primates 26 (2): 161. doi:10.1007/BF02382015. 
  24. ^ Tutin CEG, Ham RM, White LJT, Harrison MJS (1997). "The primate community of the Lopé Reserve, Gabon: diets, responses to fruit scarcity, and effects on biomass". American journal of primatology 42 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(1997)42:1<1::AID-AJP1>3.0.CO;2-0. PMID 9108968. 
  25. ^ Yorzinski JL, Vehrencamp SL. "Mandrill antipredator behavior" (PDF). University of California. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  26. ^ Jouventin P. (1975) "Observations sur la socio-ecologie du mandrill". Terre et la Vie 29:493–532.
  27. ^ Gill, Victoria (22 July 2011). "Mandrill monkey makes 'pedicuring' tool". BBC. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  28. ^ "Gabon". Wildlife Conservation Society. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  29. ^ a b c d e Abernethy KA, White LJT, Wickings EJ (2002). "Hordes of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)". Journal of Zoology 258: 131. doi:10.1017/S0952836902001267. 
  30. ^ Setchell, J. M., and Dixson A.F. (2001). "Changes in the Secondary Sexual Adornments of Male Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) Are Associated with Gain and Loss of Alpha Status". Hormones and behavior 39 (3): 177–84. doi:10.1006/hbeh.2000.1628. PMID 11300708. 
  31. ^ "Mask of the Mandrill". PBS. November 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  32. ^ Setchell, J. M.; Jean Wickings, E. (2005). "Dominance, status signals and coloration in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)". Ethology 111: 25. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2004.01054.x.  edit
  33. ^ Dixson, A. F.; Bossi, T.; Wickings, E. J. (1993). "Male dominance and genetically determined reproductive success in the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx)". Primates 34 (4): 525. doi:10.1007/BF02382663.  edit
  34. ^ a b c d Setchell, J. M., and Dixson A.F. (2002). "Developmental Variables and Dominance Rank in Adolescent Male Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)". American journal of primatology 56 (1): 9–25. doi:10.1002/ajp.1060. PMID 11793410. 
  35. ^ Wickings, E. J., and Dixson, A.F. (1992). "Development from birth to sexual maturity in a semi-free-ranging colony of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in Gabon". Journal of reproduction and fertility 95 (1): 129–38. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0950129. PMID 1625228. 
  36. ^ Charpentier, M., Peignot, P., Hossaert-Mckey, M., Gimenez, O., Setchell, J.M. and Wickings, E.J. (2005). "Constraints on control: factors influencing reproductive success in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)". Behavioral Ecology 16 (3): 614. doi:10.1093/beheco/ari034. 
  37. ^ Bout N, Thierry B (2005). "Peaceful meaning for the silent bared-teeth displays of mandrills". International Journal of Primatology 26 (6): 1215. doi:10.1007/s10764-005-8850-1. 
  38. ^ a b Setchell JM, Wickings EJ (2005). "Dominance, status signals and coloration in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)". Ethology 111: 25. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2004.01054.x. 
  39. ^ Kudo H (1987). "The study of vocal communication of wild mandrills in Cameroon in relation to their social structure". Primates 28 (3): 289. doi:10.1007/BF02381013. 
  40. ^ Peignot P, Charpentier MJE, Bout N, Bourry O, Massima U, Dosimont O, Terramorsi R, WIckings EJ (2008). "Learning from the first release project of captive-bred mandrills Mandrillus sphinx in Gabon". Oryx 42. doi:10.1017/S0030605308000136. 

External links[edit]