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Management information system
Management information systems (MIS) is the study of people, technology, organizations, and the relationships among them. MIS professionals help firms realize maximum benefit from investment in personnel, equipment, and business processes. MIS is a people-oriented field with an emphasis on service through technology. Management information systems are typically computer systems used for data managing to make searching, analyzing data, and spring information easier.
Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems. Many business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities) have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and may award degrees (at undergrad, masters, and PhD levels) in MIS.
There are different areas of concentration with different duties and responsibilities in information system managers starting from the Chief information officer(CIOs),Chief technology officer(CTOs),IT directors and IT security managers. Chief information officer (CIOs) are responsible for the overall technology stately of their organizations. Basically they are more of the decision makers and action takers when it comes down determining the technology or information goals an organization and making sure the necessary planning to implement those goals are being met. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/computer-and-information-systems-managers.htm#tab-2
Chief technology officer (CTOs) are responsible for evaluating how new technology can help their organization. They usually recommend technological solutions to support the policies issued by the CIO. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/computer-and-information-systems-managers.htm#tab-2
IT directors including MIS directors are in charge of both their organizations Information technology departments and the supervision of there of. They are also in charge of implementing the policies that have been chosen by the other top branches (CIOs,CTOs). It is their role to ensure the availability of data and network services by coordinating IT activities
IT Security Managers oversee the network and security data as the title implies. They develop programs to offer information and awareness to their employees about security threats. This team is very important because they must keep up to date on It security measures in order to be successful in their organization. Any security violations need to be investigated and supervised by this specific team.
Kenneth and Jane Laudon identify five eras of Management Information System evolution corresponding to the five phases in the development of computing technology: 1) mainframe and minicomputer computing, 2) personal computers, 3) client/server networks, 4) enterprise computing, and 5) cloud computing.
The first era (mainframe and minicomputer) was ruled by IBM and their mainframe computers; these computers would often take up whole rooms and require teams to run them — IBM supplied the hardware and the software. As technology advanced, these computers were able to handle greater capacities and therefore reduce their cost. Smaller, more affordable minicomputers allowed larger businesses to run their own computing centers in-house.
The second era (personal computer) began in 1965 as microprocessors started to compete with mainframes and minicomputers and accelerated the process of decentralizing computing power from large data centers to smaller offices. In the late 1970s minicomputer technology gave way to personal computers and relatively low cost computers were becoming mass market commodities, allowing businesses to provide their employees access to computing power that ten years before would have cost tens of thousands of dollars. This proliferation of computers created a ready market for interconnecting networks and the popularization of the Internet.
As technological complexity increased and costs decreased, the need to share information within an enterprise also grew—giving rise to the third era (client/server), in which computers on a common network access shared information on a server. This lets thousands and even millions of people access data simultaneously. The fourth era (enterprise) enabled by high speed networks, tied all aspects of the business enterprise together offering rich information access encompassing the complete management structure.Every computer is utilized.
The fifth era (cloud computing) is the latest and employs networking technology to deliver applications as well as data storage independent of the configuration, location or nature of the hardware. This, along with high speed cellphone and wifi networks, has led to new levels of mobility in which managers may access the MIS remotely with laptop, tablet computers and smartphones.
The terms management information system (MIS), information system, enterprise resource planning (ERP), and information technology management are often confused. Information systems and MIS are broader categories that include ERP. Information technology management concerns the operation and organization of information technology resources independent of their purpose.
Most management information systems specialize in particular commercial, and industrial sectors, aspects of the enterprise, or management substructure.
The following are some of the benefits that can be attained using MISs.
"The actions that are taken to create an information system that solves an organizational problem are called system development". These include system analysis, system design, computer programming/implementation, testing, conversion, production and finally maintenance.
Conversion is the process of changing or converting the old system into the new. This can be done in three basic ways, though newer methods (prototyping, Extreme Programming, JAD, etc.) are replacing these traditional conversion methods in many cases:
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Management information system