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Malaya may refer to:
Malaya including Singapore
- British Malaya (18th century–1946), a loose collection of British-controlled states
- the States of Malaya (also known as Peninsular Malaysia) together with Singapore (1946–present).
Malaya excluding Singapore
- The Malay states, locally-ruled states under British protection (divided into the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States)
- The Malayan Union (1946–1948), a post-war British colony consisting of all states in British Malaya except Singapore
- The Federation of Malaya (1948–1963), the successor to the Malayan Union (also excluding Singapore), which gained independence within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1957
- Present-day Peninsular Malaysia (1963–present), also formally known as the States of Malaya or West Malaysia, includes the states and territories formerly composing the Federation of Malaya
- Malaya (film), a 1949 American film set in Japanese occupied Malaya
- Malayan (film), a 2009 Tamil film
- HMS Malaya, a Queen Elizabeth class battleship of the Royal Navy
- Operation Malaya, an ongoing police investigation taking place in Spain
- Oxana Malaya (born 1983), Ukrainian mental patient known for her morbid dog-like childhood behaviour
- Malaya (newspaper), after the Tagalog word meaning "free" or "freedom"
- The name of a "National Forest" or sacred garden, comparable to the Garden of Eden, in Shambhala tradition
- The Malayan tribe of Kerala State in India
- In Russian names, малая, feminine singular nominative of the Russian adjective малый = "small"
- Swahili for a "woman of the town"
- Malaya, a genus of the mosquito