Makemake (dwarf planet)

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Makemake
Makemake hubble.png
Makemake as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope
Discovery
Discovered by
Discovery dateMarch 31, 2005
Designations
MPC designation(136472) Makemake
Pronunciation/ˌmɑːkˈmɑːk/ or Listeni/ˌmɑːkˈmɑːk/[nb 1]
Named afterMakemake
Alternative names2005 FY9
Minor planet categoryDwarf planet, plutoid, TNO (cubewano)[1]
AdjectiveMakemakean
Orbital characteristics[6][7]
Epoch January 28, 1955 (JD 2 435 135.5)
Aphelion53.074 AU
7.939 Tm
Perihelion38.509 AU
5.760 Tm
Semi-major axis45.791 AU
6.850 Tm
Eccentricity0.159
Orbital period309.88 yr (113,183 d)
Average orbital speed4.419 km/s
Mean anomaly85.13°
Inclination28.96°
Longitude of ascending node79.382°
Argument of perihelion298.41°
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
  • 750+200
    −100
     km[8]
  • 710 ± 30 km[9]
Surface area~6,300,000 km2
Volume~1.5 × 109 km3
Mass~3 × 1021 kg (assumed)[nb 2]
0.0005 Earths
Mean density~2 g/cm3 (assumed)
Equatorial surface gravity~0.4 m/s2
Escape velocity~0.75 km/s
Sidereal rotation period7.771 ± 0.003 hours[10]
Axial tiltunknown
Albedo78.2+10.3
−8.6
(geometric)[8]
Temperature30–35 K[nb 3] (assuming the same albedo)
Spectral typeB-V=0.83, V-R=0.5[11]
Apparent magnitude16.7 (opposition)[12][13]
Absolute magnitude (H)−0.44[7]
 
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Makemake
Makemake hubble.png
Makemake as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope
Discovery
Discovered by
Discovery dateMarch 31, 2005
Designations
MPC designation(136472) Makemake
Pronunciation/ˌmɑːkˈmɑːk/ or Listeni/ˌmɑːkˈmɑːk/[nb 1]
Named afterMakemake
Alternative names2005 FY9
Minor planet categoryDwarf planet, plutoid, TNO (cubewano)[1]
AdjectiveMakemakean
Orbital characteristics[6][7]
Epoch January 28, 1955 (JD 2 435 135.5)
Aphelion53.074 AU
7.939 Tm
Perihelion38.509 AU
5.760 Tm
Semi-major axis45.791 AU
6.850 Tm
Eccentricity0.159
Orbital period309.88 yr (113,183 d)
Average orbital speed4.419 km/s
Mean anomaly85.13°
Inclination28.96°
Longitude of ascending node79.382°
Argument of perihelion298.41°
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
  • 750+200
    −100
     km[8]
  • 710 ± 30 km[9]
Surface area~6,300,000 km2
Volume~1.5 × 109 km3
Mass~3 × 1021 kg (assumed)[nb 2]
0.0005 Earths
Mean density~2 g/cm3 (assumed)
Equatorial surface gravity~0.4 m/s2
Escape velocity~0.75 km/s
Sidereal rotation period7.771 ± 0.003 hours[10]
Axial tiltunknown
Albedo78.2+10.3
−8.6
(geometric)[8]
Temperature30–35 K[nb 3] (assuming the same albedo)
Spectral typeB-V=0.83, V-R=0.5[11]
Apparent magnitude16.7 (opposition)[12][13]
Absolute magnitude (H)−0.44[7]

Makemake, formally designated (136472) Makemake, is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object (KBO) in the classical population,[nb 4] with a diameter that is probably about 2/3 the size of Pluto.[9][17] Makemake has no known satellites, which makes it unique among the largest KBOs and means that its mass can only be estimated. Its extremely low average temperature, about 30 K (−243.2 °C), means its surface is covered with methane, ethane, and possibly nitrogen ices.[14]

Initially known as 2005 FY9 and later given the minor planet number 136472, it was discovered on March 31, 2005, by a team led by Michael Brown, and announced on July 29, 2005. Its name derives from the Rapanui god Makemake. On June 11, 2008, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) included Makemake in its list of potential candidates to be given "plutoid" status, a term for dwarf planets beyond the orbit of Neptune that would place the object alongside Pluto, Haumea and Eris. Makemake was formally classified as a plutoid in July 2008.[18][17][19][20]

Contents

Discovery

Makemake was discovered on March 31, 2005, by a team at the Palomar Observatory, led by Michael Brown,[7] and was announced to the public on July 29, 2005. The discovery of Eris was made public the same day, following the announcement of Haumea two days earlier.[21]

Despite its relative brightness (it is about a fifth as bright as Pluto),[nb 5] Makemake was not discovered until well after many much fainter Kuiper belt objects. Most searches for minor planets are conducted relatively close to the ecliptic (the region of the sky that the Sun, Moon and planets appear to lie in, as seen from Earth), due to the greater likelihood of finding objects there. It probably escaped detection during the earlier surveys due to its relatively high orbital inclination, and the fact that it was at its farthest distance from the ecliptic at the time of its discovery, in the northern constellation of Coma Berenices.[13]

Besides Pluto, Makemake is the only other dwarf planet that was bright enough for Clyde Tombaugh to have possibly detected during his search for trans-Neptunian planets around 1930.[23] At the time of Tombaugh's survey, Makemake was only a few degrees from the ecliptic, near the border of Taurus and Auriga,[nb 6] at an apparent magnitude of 16.0.[13] This position, however, was also very near the Milky Way, and Makemake would have been almost impossible to find against the dense background of stars. Tombaugh continued searching for some years after the discovery of Pluto,[24] but he failed to find Makemake or any other trans-Neptunian objects.

Name

The provisional designation 2005 FY9 was given to Makemake when the discovery was made public. Before that, the discovery team used the codename "Easterbunny" for the object, because of its discovery shortly after Easter.[2]

In July 2008, in accordance with IAU rules for classical Kuiper belt objects, 2005 FY9 was given the name of a creator deity.[citation needed] The name of Makemake, the creator of humanity and god of fertility in the mythos of the Rapanui, the native people of Easter Island,[19] was chosen in part to preserve the object's connection with Easter.[2]

Orbit and classification

Orbits of Makemake (blue), Haumea (green), contrasted with the orbit of Pluto (red) and the ecliptic (grey). The perihelia (q)[7] and the aphelia (Q) are marked with the dates of passage. The positions on April 2006 are marked with the spheres illustrating relative sizes and differences in albedo and colour.

As of 2009, Makemake is at a distance of 52 astronomical units (7.8×109 km) from the Sun,[12][13] almost as far from the Sun as it ever reaches on its orbit.[14] Makemake follows an orbit very similar to that of Haumea: highly inclined at 29° and a moderate eccentricity of about 0.16.[25] Nevertheless, Makemake's orbit is slightly farther from the Sun in terms of both the semi-major axis and perihelion. Its orbital period is nearly 310 years,[6] more than Pluto's 248 years and Haumea's 283 years. Both Makemake and Haumea are currently far from the ecliptic—the angular distance is almost 29°. Makemake is approaching its 2033 aphelion,[13] while Haumea passed its aphelion in early 1992.[26]

Makemake is a classical Kuiper belt object,[1][nb 4] which means its orbit lies far enough from Neptune to remain stable over the age of the Solar System.[27][28] Unlike plutinos, which can cross Neptune's orbit due to their 2:3 resonance with the planet, the classical objects have perihelia further from the Sun, free from Neptune's perturbation.[27] Such objects have relatively low eccentricities (e below 0.2) and orbit the Sun in much the same way the planets do. Makemake, however, is a member of the "dynamically hot" class of classical KBOs, meaning that it has a high inclination compared to others in its population.[29] Makemake is, probably coincidentally, near the 11:6 resonance with Neptune.[30]

Physical characteristics

Brightness, size, and rotation

Makemake (apmag 16.9)

Makemake is currently visually the second-brightest Kuiper belt object after Pluto,[23] having a March opposition apparent magnitude of 16.7[12] in the constellation Coma Berenices.[13] This is bright enough to be visible using a high-end amateur telescope. Makemake's high albedo of roughly 80 percent suggests an average surface temperature of about 30 K.[nb 3][8] The size of Makemake is not precisely known, but the detection in infrared by the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Telescope, combined with the similarities of spectrum with Pluto, yielded an estimate of the diameter from 1,360 to 1,480 km.[9] This is slightly larger than Haumea, making Makemake likely the third largest known trans-Neptunian object after Eris and Pluto.[25] Makemake was the fourth dwarf planet recognized, as it has a bright V-band absolute magnitude of −0.44[7] that practically guarantees it is large enough to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium.

EarthDysnomiaErisCharonNixHydraS/2011 (134340) 1PlutoMakemakeNamakaHi'iakaHaumeaSedna2007 OR10WeywotQuaoarVanthOrcusFile:EightTNOs.png
Artistic comparison of Eris, Pluto, Makemake, Haumea, Sedna, 2007 OR10, Quaoar, Orcus, and Earth. These eight trans-Neptunian objects have the brightest absolute magnitudes, although several other TNOs have been found to be physically larger than Orcus, and several more may yet be found.

Spectra and surface

In a letter written to the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics in 2006, Licandro et al. reported the measurements of the visible and near-infrared spectrum of Makemake. They used the William Herschel Telescope and Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and showed that the surface of Makemake resembles that of Pluto.[31] Like Pluto, Makemake appears red in the visible spectrum, and significantly redder than the surface of Eris (see colour comparison of TNOs).[31] The near-infrared spectrum is marked by the presence of the broad methane (CH4) absorption bands. Methane is observed also on Pluto and Eris, but its spectral signature is much weaker.[31]

Spectral analysis of Makemake's surface revealed that methane must be present in the form of large grains at least one centimetre in size.[14] In addition, large amounts of ethane and tholins may be present as well, most likely created by photolysis of methane by solar radiation.[14] The tholins are probably responsible for the red color of the visible spectrum. Although evidence exists for the presence of nitrogen ice on its surface, at least mixed with other ices, there is nowhere near the same level of nitrogen as on Pluto and Triton, where it composes more than 98 percent of the crust. The relative lack of nitrogen ice suggests that its supply of nitrogen has somehow been depleted over the age of the Solar System.[14][32][33]

The far-infrared (24–70 μm) and submillimeter (70–500 μm) photometry performed by Spitzer and Herschel telescopes revealed that the surface of Makemake is not homogeneous. While the majority of it is covered by nitrogen and methane ices, where the albedo ranges from 78 to 90%, there are small patches of dark terrain whose albedo is only 2 to 12%, and which make up 3–7% of the surface.[9]

Atmosphere

The presence of methane and possibly nitrogen suggests that Makemake could have a transient atmosphere similar to that of Pluto near its perihelion.[31] Nitrogen, if present, will be the dominant component of it.[14] The existence of an atmosphere also provides a natural explanation for the nitrogen depletion: since the gravity of Makemake is weaker than that of Pluto, Eris and Triton, a large amount of nitrogen was probably lost via atmospheric escape; methane is lighter than nitrogen, but has significantly lower vapor pressure at temperatures prevalent at the surface of Makemake (30–35 K),[nb 3] which hinders its escape; the result of this process is a higher relative abundance of methane.[34]

Lack of satellites

No satellites have been detected around Makemake so far. A satellite having a brightness 1% of that of the primary would have been detected if it had been at the distance 0.4 arcseconds or further from Makemake.[23] This contrasts with the other largest trans-Neptunian objects, which all possess at least one satellite: Eris has one, Haumea has two and Pluto has five. 10% to 20% of all trans-Neptunian objects are expected to have one or more satellites.[23] Because satellites offer a simple method to measure an object's mass, the lack of a satellite makes obtaining an accurate figure for Makemake's mass more difficult.[23]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Rapa Nui pronunciation is [ˈmakeˈmake], which is approximated in English as US /ˌmɑːkˈmɑːk/ MAH-kee-MAH-kee,[2] UK /ˈmækˈmæk/ MAK-ee-MAK-ee, or as /ˌmɑːkˈmɑːk/ MAH-kay-MAH-kay.[3][4] The first is an anglicized pronunciation; the second is more Polynesian, and is used by Brown and his students.[5]
  2. ^ The mass value is based on an assumed density of 2 g/cm3. Makemake does not have a known satellite like Pluto, Eris, and Haumea have. A satellite offers a simple method to measure an object's mass.
  3. ^ a b c Calculated using the formula \begin{smallmatrix}T\ =\ \frac{T_{\textrm{eff}}(1-qp_{\nu})^{1/4}}{\sqrt{2}},\end{smallmatrix} where Teff =54.8 K at 52 AU, p_{\nu}=0.78 is the geometrical albedo, q=0.8 is the phase integral. Teff scales as \begin{smallmatrix}1/\sqrt{r}\end{smallmatrix}, where r is the distance from the Sun. This formula is a simplified version of that in section 2.2 of Stansberry, et al., 2007,[8] where emissivity and beaming paramter were assumed equal untiy, and \pi was replaced with 4 accounting for the difference between circle and sphere. All parameters mentioned above were taken from the same paper.
  4. ^ a b Astronomers Mike Brown, David Jewitt and Marc Buie classify Makemake as a near scattered object but the Minor Planet Center, from which Wikipedia draws most of its definitions for the trans-Neptunian population, places it among the main Kuiper belt population.[6][14][15][16] Haumea is comparable in size, but may be a resonant object.
  5. ^ It has an apparent magnitude in opposition of 16.7 vs. 15 for Pluto.[22]
  6. ^ Based on Minor Planet Center online Minor Planet Ephemeris Service: March 1, 1930: RA: 05h51m, Dec: +29.0.

References

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  4. ^ Robert D. Craig (2004). Handbook of Polynesian Mythology. ABC-CLIO. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-57607-894-5. http://books.google.com/?id=LOZuirJWXvUC&pg=PA63&dq=makemake. 
  5. ^ Podcast Dwarf Planet Haumea (Darin Ragozzine, at 3′11″)
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  30. ^ Preliminary simulation of Makemake (2005 FY9)'s orbit and the 2009-02-04 nominal (non-librating) rotating frame for Makemake. See (182294) 2001 KU76 for a proper 11:6 resonance libration.
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