Mains electricity by country

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This article includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they use for providing electrical power to small appliances and some major appliances. Every country has differing rules regarding distribution of electricity for portable appliances and lighting. Voltage, frequency, and plug type vary widely, but large regions may use common standards. Physical compatibility of receptacles may not ensure compatibility of voltage, frequency, or connection to earth ground.

This article lists the plug type, voltage and frequency commonly expected for many territories. In some areas, older standards may still exist. Foreign enclaves or buildings frequented by tourists may support plugs not otherwise used in a country, for the convenience of travellers.

Main Reference Source - IEC World Plugs[edit]

The IEC publishes a web microsite World Plugs[1][unreliable source?] which provides the main source for this page, except where other sources are indicated. World Plugs includes some history, a description of plug types, and a list of countries giving the type(s) used and the mains voltage and frequency. The lettering system used here is that described in World Plugs.

Although useful for quick reference, especially for travellers, IEC World Plugs may not be regarded as totally accurate as illustrated by the examples in the plugs section below, and errors such as Indonesia being listed as using both 220 V and 110 V when the Indonesian Standard SPLN 1[2] clearly states the voltage as 230 V.

Plugs[edit]

The lettering system used here is from World Plugs which defines the letter names and gives a (not always correct) list of what plug types are used where. Type A makes specific reference to American and Japanese plugs, as does Type B which is specifically rated at 15 A. Type C is specifically identified as the Europlug (which is defined in EN 50075) and described as a plug which fits into any socket that accepts 4.0–4.8 mm round contacts on 19 mm centres. Type D is specifically rated at 5 A. Type E (grounding pin in socket) and Type F (grounding clips on both sides) are specifically rated at 16 A and defined as having 4.8 mm pins on 19 mm centres. Type G is identified as the fused British plug. The Type H plug is described as unique to Israel. Type I (Australian) is described as having both 10 A and 15 A ratings. Type J (Swiss) is rated at 10 A and is differentiated from Type N. The Type K rating is not shown. The Type L (Italian) description includes both ratings and pin sizes. Type M is described as looking similar to Type D, but with much larger pins. The Type N description is of the two variations of Brazilian plug (Brazilian national standard NBR 14136), however, the original plug and socket is defined in IEC 60906-1 and has been adopted as a South African national Standard (SANS 164-2), the Brazilian version is non-compliant with the IEC standard. Not all plugs are included in the letter system, for example there is no designation for the plug defined by the Thai National Standard TIS116-2549.

IEC World Plugs is ambiguous in some areas, it does not reference national technical standards that define the dimensions and tolerances of devices. Plugs will usually mate with sockets which are intended to accept plugs classified under the same letter type, but there is no guarantee of this. There is also an issue relating to Type C, the EN 50075 Europlug which has no dedicated socket in the standard and is designed to fit sockets accepting "4.0 – 4.8 mm round contacts on 19 mm centres", implying that there must be usage of such sockets in the territories listed as using Type C plugs. Despite this, World Plugs lists seven territories as using only Type C (i.e., no mention of specific plug types whose mating sockets also accept Type C) and twenty one territories using Type C with no compatible types.[3]

The IEC also publishes IEC Technical Report 60083 which lists standards used by IEC member countries.[4]

The United States Department of Commerce published an earlier guide,[5] which is now obsolescent and which has known inaccuracies, see History of similar guides section below.

Safety considerations[edit]

Multi-standard sockets are sometimes used in China and some other Asian countries; these are intended to accommodate plugs conforming to various different standards. They do not normally have earthing (grounding) connections for either CEE 7/4 "Schuko" or CEE 7/5 (French). In multi-standard sockets, the aperture size for NEMA plugs is often the same for both Line (Hot) and Neutral, which allows a polarized plug to be inserted in either orientation thus defeating the safety feature. Also, in a socket designed to accept both NEMA and BS 1363 plugs, the polarization can only be correct for one type of plug, so only appliances which do not require specific polarization should be connected.[6] Multi-standard sockets are illegal in some countries such as the UK, and have been classified as a serious safety risk.[7]

Adapters that allow insertion of otherwise mechanically incompatible plugs into sockets are useful for travelers, but, as with multi-standard sockets, may not provide the grounding and polarization intended by a compatible system of plugs and sockets.

Plugs and power cords have a rated voltage and rated current assigned to them by the manufacturer, and these values are required to be marked on the plug. For a plug, the values are normally those specified in the relevant standard sheet. The international preferred rating for household plugs and sockets is either 130 V or 250 V, these are the values for normal use, and at which they are tested. (Plugs and power cords are also required to be tested at higher voltage for a brief period of 1 minute to test their electrical strength in case of fault conditions.)[8] The NEMA 1–15 U.S. 2 pin (Type A) and NEMA 5–15 U.S. 3 pin (Type B) plugs are rated at 125 V .[9] Travelers from countries which use mains voltages below 130 V, such as North America and Japan etc., should note that in countries which use the higher mains voltages in the range 220 – 250 V the plugs are rated at 250 V.[10] Travellers should ensure that they always use appliances, plugs and power cords which are appropriate for the territory they are in.

Sockets connected to mains voltages above 125 V and which accept Type A or B plugs may be suitable for plug-top chargers and power supplies with Type A pins, providing they have a suitable voltage rating.

Voltages[edit]

Voltages in this article are the nominal single-phase supply voltages. Three-phase and industrial loads will have other voltages.

All voltages are root mean square voltage; the peak AC voltage is greater by a factor of √2, and the peak to peak voltage greater by a factor of 2√2.

History of similar guides[edit]

In 1948 the US Government Printing Office published World electrical current characteristics.[11] This contained information on voltages used in the cities of many countries, but no information on plugs. The guide was republished by the US Department of commerce in 1954 as Electric Current Abroad. This was updated from time to time and the 1967 version includes some information on plugs,[12] however only 3 types were designated: Type A, illustrated by a US style 2 pin plug, Type B, illustrated by a sketch of a BS 546 type, and Type C, illustrated by a sketch of a BS 1363 type. The 1984 edition[13] uses the letters A to G in the same manner as they are used today. The last printed edition (listing plugs from A to H) was that of 1998, reprinted in 2002,[5] it includes brief textual descriptions of each type illustrated by a sketch, only Type F (described as a Schuko) is specifically linked to an a generally recognized type. The International Trade Administration of the US Department of Commerce now publishes a web version: Electric Current Worldwide which still does not include the full list of plug types, it does not describe Type M or type N. There are sketches and photographs of each type, but no textual description or references to actual standards. Examples of errors in this website include the failure to mention that Brazil uses Type N, although that has been the national standard in that country since 1998; stating that the UK uses type C, which is not permitted there; and claiming that China uses Type H (the Israeli plug) when the main Chinese plug is actually type I.

There are many web sites from unofficial sources which also purport to offer lists of voltages and plug types.

Table of mains voltages and frequencies[edit]

Except where other sources are indicated, the plug type, voltage and frequency in this table are sourced from an official web page of the IEC:World Plugs[1][unreliable source?]

Entries in the Plug Standard column refer to the National Standards pertaining to the relevant territory, and unless otherwise stated are sourced from IEC Technical Report 60083.[4]


Note: The table can be sorted using the Sort both.gif icon.

Country
or
Territory
Plug typePlug StandardResidential VoltageFrequencyComments
AfghanistanC, F220 V50 Hz
AlbaniaC, F,230 V50 Hz
AlgeriaC, F230 V50 Hz
American SamoaA, B, F, I120 V60 Hz
AndorraC, F230 V50 Hz
AngolaC ?[3]220 V50 Hz
AnguillaA110 V60 Hz
Antigua and BarbudaA, B230 V60 Hz
ArgentinaC ?,[3] I220 V50 HzWarning: Line/Neutral reversed compared to Chinese and Australian Type I
ArmeniaC, F230 V50 Hz
ArubaA, B, F127 V60 Hz
AustraliaIAS/NZS 3112230 V[14]50 HzWarning: Line/Neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
AustriaC
F
ÖVE-IG/EN 50075
ÖVEÖNORM E 8620
230 V50 Hz
AzerbaijanC, F230 V50 Hz
BahamasA, B120 V60 Hz
BahrainG230 V50 Hz
BangladeshC, D, G, K220 V50 Hz
BarbadosA, B115 V50 Hz
BelarusC, F220 V50 Hz
BelgiumC, ENBN C 61 112-1230 V50 Hz
BelizeA, B, G110 V
220 V
60 Hz
BeninC, E220 V50 Hz
BermudaA, B120 V60 Hz
BhutanC, D, F, G, M230 V50 Hz
BoliviaA, C ?[3]115 V
230 V
50 Hz
Bosnia and HerzegovinaC, F230 V50 Hz
BotswanaD, G, M230 V50 Hz
BrazilC, NNBR 14136127 V
220 V
60 HzSince Jan 1st 2010 all devices and new buildings must comply with NBR 14136.
British Virgin IslandsA, B110 V60 Hz
BruneiG240 V50 Hz
BulgariaC, F230 V50 Hz
Burkina FasoC, E220 V50 Hz
BurundiC, E220 V50 Hz
CambodiaA, C ?,[3] G230 V50 HzPower cords with type A plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
CameroonC, E220 V50 Hz
CanadaA
B
NEMA 1-15 P
NEMA 5-15 P
120 V60 Hz
Cape VerdeC, F220 V50 Hz
Caribbean Netherlands
[citation needed]
A, B, C127 V
220 V
50 Hz, 60 HzNo reliable source found. IEC World Plugs lists only the defunct Netherlands Antilles of which these islands were part.
Bonaire 127 V, 50 Hz, Receptacle is combination of A and C; Saba and St. Eustatius 110 V, 60 Hz, A, maybe B
Cayman IslandsA, B120 V60 Hz
Central African RepublicC, E220 V50 Hz
ChadC, D, E, F220 V50 Hz
ChileC, L220 V50 Hz
ChinaA, I
C
GB 1002
(?)
220 V50 HzMost wall outlets simultaneously support Types A and I. Some outlets support Type C as well (the holes in the outlets are flat in the middle and round on the sides) so that either a Type A, a Type C or a Type I (unearthed) plug can be used.[citation needed] (See photo at right.) A second outlet only type I (Earthed) is next to the unearthed multi Type A/C/I outlet. Voltage in China is always 220 V; power cords with type A plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used. Warning: Line/Neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
ColombiaA, B110 V60 Hz
ComorosC, E220 V50 Hz
Congo, Republic of theC, E230 V50 Hz
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
[citation needed]
C, D, E220 V50 Hz
Cook IslandsI240 V50 Hz
Costa RicaA, B120 V60 Hz
Côte d'IvoireC, E230 V50 Hz
CroatiaC, F230 V50 Hz
CubaA, B, C110 V60 Hz
Curaçao
[citation needed]
A, B, C127 V50 HzNo reliable source found. IEC World Plugs lists only the defunct Netherlands Antilles of which these islands were part.
CyprusG240 V50 Hz
Czech RepublicC, EČSN 35 4516230 V50 Hz
DenmarkC
E, F, K
DS/EN 50075
DS 60884-2-D1[15]
230 V50 Hz
DjiboutiC, E220 V50 Hz
DominicaD, G230 V50 Hz
Dominican RepublicA, B110 V60 Hz
EcuadorA, B120 V60 Hz
EgyptC, F220 V50 Hz
El SalvadorA, B115 V60 Hz
Equatorial GuineaC, E220 V50 Hz
EritreaC, L230 V50 Hz
EstoniaC, F230 V50 Hz
EthiopiaC, E, F, L220 V50 Hz
Falkland IslandsG240 V50 Hz
Faroe IslandsC, E, F, K220 V50 Hz
FijiI240 V50 Hz
FinlandC
F
SFS-EN 50075
SFS 5610
230 V50 Hz
FranceC
E
NF EN 50075
NF C 61-314
230 V50 Hz
French GuianaC, D, E220 V50 Hz
French Polynesia
[citation needed]
A, B, E110 V
220 V
60 Hz, 50 HzMarquesas Islands 50 Hz
No reliable source found. IEC World Plugs has no entry.
GabonC220 V50 Hz
GambiaG230 V50 Hz
GeorgiaC, F220 V50 Hz
GermanyC
F
DIN VDE 0620
DIN 49441
230 V50 Hz
GhanaD, G230 V50 Hz
GibraltarC ?,[3] G240 V50 Hz
GreeceC, F230 V50 Hz
GreenlandC, E, F, K220 V50 Hz
GrenadaG230 V50 Hz
GuadeloupeC, D, E230 V50 Hz
GuamA, B110 V60 Hz
GuatemalaA, B120 V60 Hz
GuernseyG230 V50 Hz
GuineaC, F, K220 V50 Hz
Guinea-BissauC ?[3]220 V50 Hz
GuyanaA, B, D, G110 V
220 V[16]
60 Hz
50 Hz[16]
Conversion of 50 Hz distribution to 60 Hz is ongoing[17]
HaitiA, B110 V60 Hz
HondurasA, B110 V60 Hz
Hong KongG, D220 V50 Hz
HungaryC
F
MSZ EN 50075
MSZ 9781-2
230 V50 Hz
IcelandC, F230 V50 Hz
IndiaC, D, MIS 1293[18]230 V50 HzMany power outlets are universal and accept many plugs without adapter. A combination receptacle for types C, D and M is usually present.[citation needed]
IndonesiaC, F, G230 V50 Hz
IranC, F220 V50 Hz
IraqC ?,[3] D, G230 V50 Hz
IrelandGI.S. 401[19]230 V50 Hz
Isle of ManG240 V50 Hz
IsraelC, H, M230 V50 HzType C, H, M also used in the Palestinian National Authority areas.[citation needed]
ItalyC
F, L
CEI 23-34
CEI 23-50
230 V50 Hz
JamaicaA, B110 V50 Hz
JapanA, BJIS C 8303100 V50 Hz, 60 HzEast Japan 50 Hz (Tokyo, Kawasaki, Sapporo, Yokohama, and Sendai); West Japan 60 Hz (Okinawa, Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe, Nagoya, Hiroshima).[citation needed] 120 V in military facilities in Okinawa.[citation needed]
JerseyG230 V50 Hz
JordanB, C, D, F, G, J230 V50 HzPower cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
KazakhstanC, F220 V50 Hz
KenyaG240 V50 Hz
KiribatiI240 V50 Hz
Kosovo
[citation needed]
C, F230 V50 Hz
KuwaitC ?[3] G240 V50 Hz
KyrgyzstanC, F220 V50 Hz
LaosC, E, F230 V50 Hz
LatviaC, F230 V50 Hz
LebanonA, B, C ?[3] D, G220 V50 HzPower cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
LesothoM220 V50 Hz
LiberiaA, B, C, E, F120 V
240 V
60 Hz
50 Hz
Now officially 50 Hz[citation needed] Local supplies may vary and may not match the usual voltage for a particular wall socket.[citation needed]
LibyaC, D, F, L127 V50 HzBarca, Benghazi, Derna, Sabha & Tobruk 230 V.[citation needed]
LithuaniaC, F230 V50 Hz
LiechtensteinC, J230 V50 Hz
LuxembourgC, F230 V50 Hz
MacauD, F, G, M220 V50 Hz
MacedoniaC, F230 V50 Hz
MadagascarC, D, E, J, K127 V
220 V
50 Hz
MalawiG230 V50 Hz
MalaysiaG[20]MS 589240 V50 Hz
MaldivesD, G, J, K, L230 V50 Hz
MaliC, E220 V50 Hz
MaltaG230 V50 Hz
MartiniqueC, D, E220 V50 Hz
MauritaniaC ?[3]220 V50 Hz
MauritiusC?[3] G230 V50 Hz
MexicoA, BNMX-J-163-ANCE127 V60 Hz
MicronesiaA, B120 V60 Hz
MoldovaC, F220 V50 Hz
MonacoC, D, E, F230 V50 Hz
MongoliaC, E220 V50 Hz
MontenegroC, F230 V50 Hz
MontserratA, B120 V
230 V
60 HzPower cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
MoroccoC, E127 V
220 V
50 Hz
MozambiqueC, F, M220 V50 Hz
MyanmarC, D, F, G230 V50 Hz
NamibiaD, M220 V50 Hz
NauruI240 V50 Hz
NepalC?[3] D, M230 V50 Hz
NetherlandsC
F
EN 50075
NEN 1020
230 V50 Hz
New CaledoniaC, F220 V50 Hz
New ZealandIAS/NZS 3112230 V50 Hz
NicaraguaA, B120 V60 Hz
NigerA, B, C, D, E, F220 V50 HzPower cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
NigeriaD, G240 V50 Hz
North KoreaA, C, F110 V
220 V
60 Hz
50 Hz
NorwayC
F
NEK EN 50075
NEK 502
240 V
50 Hz
OmanC?[3] G240 V50 Hz
PakistanC, D, G, M230 V50 Hz
PalauA, B120 V60 Hz
PanamaA, B110 V
120 V
60 Hz
Papua New GuineaI240 V50 Hz
ParaguayC ?[3]220 V50 Hz
PeruA, B, C ?[3]220 V60 HzTalara 110/220 V; some areas 50 Hz[21][unreliable source?]
PhilippinesA, B, C ?[3]220 V60 HzPower cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
PolandC, EBN-88/3064230 V50 Hz
PortugalC, FNP 1260230 V50 Hz
Puerto RicoA, B120 V60 Hz
QatarD, G240 V50 Hz
RéunionE220 V50 Hz
RomaniaC, F230 V50 Hz
RussiaC, F220 V50 HzUSSR (along with much of Eastern Europe) used GOST sockets with 4.0 mm pins similar to Type C plugs and the 4.8 mm standard used by Type E & F.[22]
RwandaC, J230 V50 Hz
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
[citation needed]
G220-240 V50 Hz
St. MartinC, F120 V
220 V
60 HzDutch Sint Maarten 120 V, 60 Hz; French Saint-Martin 230 V, 60 Hz;
St. Kitts and NevisA, B, D, G110 V
230 V
60 Hz
St. LuciaG240 V50 Hz
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
[citation needed]
E230 V50 Hz
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesC, E, G, I, K230 V50 Hz
SamoaI230 V50 Hz
San MarinoC, F, L230 V50 Hz
São Tomé and PríncipeC, F220 V50 Hz
Saudi ArabiaA, B
F
G
SASO 2204

SASO 2203
127 V
220 V
60 Hz
SenegalC, D, E, K230 V50 Hz
SerbiaC
F
JUS N.E3.552
JUS N.E3.553
230 V50 Hz
SeychellesG240 V50 Hz
Sierra LeoneD, G230 V50 Hz
SingaporeC ?[3]
G
M
-
SS 145
SS 472
230 V50 Hz
SlovakiaC, ESTN 34 4516230 V50 Hz
SloveniaC, F230 V50 Hz
Solomon IslandsI, G220 V50 Hz
SomaliaC ?[3]220 V50 Hz
South AfricaC, F, M, NSANS 164230 V50 Hz
South KoreaC, FKSC 8305220 V60 Hz
SpainC, FUNE 20315230 V50 Hz
Sri LankaD, G, M230 V50 Hz
SudanC ?[3] D230 V50 Hz
SurinameC, F127 V60 Hz
SwazilandM230 V50 Hz
SwedenC
F
SS-EN 50075
SS 428 08 34
230 V50 Hz
SwitzerlandC, J[23][24]SS SEV 1011230 V50 Hz
SyriaC, E, L220 V50 Hz
TaiwanA, B110 V60 HzSockets in older buildings are often unearthed and accept only Type A plugs.
TajikistanC, F, I220 V50 Hz
TanzaniaD, G230 V50 Hz
ThailandA, B
C, F
Thai plug
-
-
TIS 166-2549
220 V50 HzNewer buildings and installation use TIS116-2549 sockets.[25][26] Power cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Timor-Leste (East Timor)C, E, F, I220 V50 Hz
TogoC ?[3]220 V50 Hz
TongaI240 V50 Hz
Trinidad & TobagoA, B115 V60 Hz
TunisiaC, E230 V50 Hz
TurkeyC, F230 V50 Hz
TurkmenistanB, C, F220 V50 HzPower cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
TuvaluI220 V50 Hz
UgandaG240 V50 Hz
UkraineC, F220 V50 Hz
United Arab EmiratesC ?[3] D, G220 V50 Hz
United KingdomG[27]BS 1363230 V[28]50 HzA "shaver unit"[29] accepting BS 4573, Type C and 2-pin Type I, (sometimes also type A) is often found in bathrooms.
United StatesA
B
NEMA 1-15 P
NEMA 5-15 P
120 V60 Hz
US Virgin IslandsA
B
NEMA 1-15 P
NEMA 5-15 P
110 V60 Hz
UruguayC, F, I, L230 V50 Hz
UzbekistanC ?[3] I220 V50 Hz
VanuatuC ?[3] G, I220 V50 Hz
VenezuelaA, B120 V60 Hz
VietnamA, C ?[3] G220 V50 Hz
YemenA, D, G230 V50 HzPower cords with type A plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
ZambiaC ?[3] D, G230 V50 Hz
ZimbabweD, G220 V50 Hz
Type A (NEMA 1–15 U.S. 2 pin)
rated 125 V AC
Type B (NEMA 5–15 U.S. 3 pin)
rated 125 V AC
Standardized by IEC as IEC 60906-2
Type C (CEE 7/16 Europlug)
CEE 7/17 2-pin plug and unidentified 2-pin socket
Type D (BS 546 5 A)
Type E (CEE 7/5 French)
Type F (CEE 7/4 "Schuko")
CEE 7/7 plug, (combines earthing methods of Type E & Type F)
Type G (BS 1363 UK)
Type H (SI 32 Israel)
Type I (Australian AS/NZS 3112).
Type I, plus Chinese multiple socket
Type J (SEV-1011 Switzerland)
Type K (SRAF 1962/DB Denmark)
Type L (CEI 23-16)
Type M (15 A BS 546)
Type N (Brazilian NBR 14136)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b World Plugs Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  2. ^ SPLN 1 : 1995, Standar PLN. "Tegangan-tegangan Standar". Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "IEC World Plugs" lists the following territories as using Type C only: Angola, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Paraguay, Somalia, Togo. It also lists the following territories as using Type C without compatible socket types: Argentina, Bolivia, Cambodia, China, Gibraltar, India, Iraq, Isle of Man, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Peru, Singapore, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Zambia. |World Plugs
  4. ^ a b IEC/TR 60083 ed6.0: Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC. International Electrotechnical Commission, February 2009. This 384-page technical report describes many national standards for domestic plugs and sockets. The first edition was published in January 1957 The 7th edition was approved in December 2012 and awaits publication as at January 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Electric Current Abroad" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration. 2002. 
  6. ^ "Universal socket-outlets – friend or foe?", SwitchedOn issue 29 (UK: Electrical Safety Council), 2013 
  7. ^ Weekly overview report of RAPEX notifications Report 5, EU: European Commission, 2013 
  8. ^ IEC 60884-1 Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes – Part 1: General requirements (standard), Geneva, Switzerland: IEC 
  9. ^ WD6, Dimensional requirements for plugs and receptacles (standard), USA: NEMA 
  10. ^ IEC/TR 60083 Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC (standard), Geneva, Switzerland: IEC 
  11. ^ [1]. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
  12. ^ [2]. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
  13. ^ [3]. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
  14. ^ AS60038-2000 Standards AustraliaStandard Voltages
  15. ^ DS 60884-2-D1:2011
  16. ^ a b History of Guyana Power and Light. Gplinc.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  17. ^ GPL Converting Parts of the City to 60 Hz, retrieved 2009 July 31. Stabroeknews.com (2009-07-10). Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  18. ^ IS 1293
  19. ^ I.S. 401, "Safety requirements for rewirable and non-rewirable 13A fused plugs for normal and rough use having insulating sleeves on live and neutral pins", NSAI (National Standards Authority of Ireland), (1997), Dublin
  20. ^ [4] – Energy Commission of Malaysia.
  21. ^ Dilwyn Jenkins, The Rough Guide to Peru 2003 Rough Guides, ISBN 1-84353-074-0, p. 57
  22. ^ ГОСТ 7396.1–89. Elec.ru (2013-01-30). Retrieved on 2013-02-05.
  23. ^ Referenzübersicht des Schweizerischen Starkstrominspektorats (Information by Swiss Federal Administration)
  24. ^ New standard for plugs in Switzerland starting from 2013 (PDF, 191 KiB, German/English)
  25. ^ TIS 166-2549 (2006): Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes : plugs and socket-outlets with rated voltage not exceeding 250 (English translation)
  26. ^ TIS 166-2549 (2006) (Original Thai)
  27. ^ Geoff Cronshaw: The 17th edition: a brief overview
  28. ^ The Electricity Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations 2002 PART VII Regulation 27, UK: UK Government, 2002 
  29. ^ BS EN 61558-2-5:2010, standard covering shaver supply units

External links[edit]