Hungarians

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Hungarians
Magyarok
Famous Hungarians.jpg
Total population
c. 13.2–14.5 million[note 1]
Regions with significant populations
Hungary Hungary[note 2] 8,504,492[1]
Neighbors of Hungaryc. 2.2 million
 Romania1,227,623  (2011)[2]
 Slovakia[note 3]458,467  (2011)[3]
 Serbia253,899   (2011)[4]
 Ukraine156,566  (2001)[5]
 Austria40,583  (2001)[6]
 Croatia16,595  (2001)[7]
 Slovenia6,243  (2002)[8]
Rest of Europec. 0.3–0.5 million
 Germany120,000  (2004)[9]
 France100,000 to 200,000  (2004)[9]
 United Kingdom80,135  (2001)
 Sweden40,000–70,000
 Czech Republic14,672  (2001)[10]
 Ireland8,034  (2011)[11]
 Turkey6,800  (2001)[12]
 Russia3,768  (2002)[13]
 Macedonia2,003  (2002)[14]
North Americac. 1.9 million
 United States1,563,081  (2006)[12]
 Puerto Rico1,050
 Canada315,510  (2006)[15]
South Americac. 0.15 – 0.2 million
 Brazil80,000[16]
 Chile50,000[17]
 Argentina40,000–50,000[18]
Oceaniac. 70,000[12]
 Australia67,616[19]
 New Zealand1,476
Asiac. 10,000
 Thailand3,029
 Philippines1,114
Languages
Hungarian
Religion

Roman Catholicism
Protestantism (Calvinism, Lutheranism and Unitarianism).
Greek Catholicism,

Judaism and irreligion.
 
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Hungarians
Magyarok
Famous Hungarians.jpg
Total population
c. 13.2–14.5 million[note 1]
Regions with significant populations
Hungary Hungary[note 2] 8,504,492[1]
Neighbors of Hungaryc. 2.2 million
 Romania1,227,623  (2011)[2]
 Slovakia[note 3]458,467  (2011)[3]
 Serbia253,899   (2011)[4]
 Ukraine156,566  (2001)[5]
 Austria40,583  (2001)[6]
 Croatia16,595  (2001)[7]
 Slovenia6,243  (2002)[8]
Rest of Europec. 0.3–0.5 million
 Germany120,000  (2004)[9]
 France100,000 to 200,000  (2004)[9]
 United Kingdom80,135  (2001)
 Sweden40,000–70,000
 Czech Republic14,672  (2001)[10]
 Ireland8,034  (2011)[11]
 Turkey6,800  (2001)[12]
 Russia3,768  (2002)[13]
 Macedonia2,003  (2002)[14]
North Americac. 1.9 million
 United States1,563,081  (2006)[12]
 Puerto Rico1,050
 Canada315,510  (2006)[15]
South Americac. 0.15 – 0.2 million
 Brazil80,000[16]
 Chile50,000[17]
 Argentina40,000–50,000[18]
Oceaniac. 70,000[12]
 Australia67,616[19]
 New Zealand1,476
Asiac. 10,000
 Thailand3,029
 Philippines1,114
Languages
Hungarian
Religion

Roman Catholicism
Protestantism (Calvinism, Lutheranism and Unitarianism).
Greek Catholicism,

Judaism and irreligion.
Part of a series on the
History of Hungary
Coat of arms of Hungary
Prehistory and early history
Middle Ages
Principality895–1000
High Medieval Kingdom1000–1301
Late Medieval Kingdom1301–1526
Ottoman Wars1366–1526
Early modern history
Habsburg kingdom1526–1867
Eastern kingdom1526–1570
Ottoman Hungary1541–1699
Principality of Transylvania1570–1711
Late modern period
Rákóczi's War1703–1711
Revolution of 18481848–1849
Austria-Hungary1867–1918
Lands of the Crown1867–1918
World War I1914–1918
Interwar period1918–1941
Kingdom of Hungary1920–1946
World War II1941–1945
Contemporary history
Republic of Hungary1946–1949
People's Republic1949–1989
Revolution of 1956 
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Hungarians, also known as Magyars (Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group who speak Hungarian and are primarily associated with Hungary. There are around 13.2–14.5 million Hungarians, of whom 9–9.5 million live in today's Hungary (as of 2011).[20] At least 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon, and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania, Slovakia, Serbia and Ukraine. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Australia, Chile, and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; subgroups with distinct identities include the Székely, the Csángó, the Palóc, and the Jassic (Jász) people.

Name[edit]

The possible homeland of the Hungarians was situated at the regions of Southern Ural.

The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from the Bulgar-Turkic On-Ogur (meaning "ten" Ogurs),[21] which was the name of the Utigur Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars, although written sources called Magyars "Hungarians" prior to the conquest of the Carpathian Basin when they still lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe (in 837 "Ungri" mentioned by Georgius Monachus, in 862 "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani, in 881 "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus). The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, and it is possible that they became its ethnic majority.[21] In the Early Middle Ages the Hungarians had many different names, such as "Ungar" (in German) or "Hungarus".[22] The "H-" prefix is an addition in Medieval Latin.

Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian word Yugra (Югра). It may refer to the Hungarians at a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their settlement of Hungary.[23]

The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than the term "Hungarian".[21] Magyar is a Finno-Ugric word[24] from the Old Hungarian, mogyër. The term "Magyar" possibly comes from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, called Megyer. The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" referring to the Hungarian people as a whole.[25][26][27] The term Magyar may also come from the Hunnic term "Muageris" or Mugel.[28]

The historical Latin term Natio Hungarica ("Hungarian nation") had a wider meaning, as it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, irrespective of their ethnicity.

Ethnic affiliations and genetic origins[edit]

The linguistic heritage of the Hungarians comes from Finno-Ugric peoples. A branch of Uralic speakers migrated from their earlier homeland near the Ural mountains and settled in various places in Eastern Europe, until they conquered the Carpathian Basin between the 9th and 10th centuries. Genetically, the present-day Hungarian population preserves much of an older European genetic makeup.[29][30] The vast majority of the Hungarian population in the 10th and 11th centuries, according to genetic and palaeoanthropological studies, showed features of European biological descent.[31][32]

Pre-4th century AD[edit]

During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up. Some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards.[33] From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community. Judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Andronovo Culture,[34] furthermore, the type of Hungarians of the Conquest period shows related features to that of the Andronovo people.[35]

4th century to c. 830 AD[edit]

In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved to the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria (Bashkortostan) and Perm Krai.

In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga, Don and the Seversky Donets rivers.[36] Meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241.

The Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars (Proto-Bulgarians, Onogurs) and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds that the Hungarians were organized in a confederacy of seven tribes. The names of the seven tribes were: Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, and Tarján.

c. 830 to c. 895[edit]

Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate. As a result, three Kabar tribes[37] of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River, (today's Ukraine).[citation needed] The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854,[36] though other sources state that an attack by Pechenegs was the reason for their departure to Etelköz. The new neighbours of the Hungarians were the Varangians and the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Hungarians (already referred to as the Ungri) along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz into the Carpathian Basin, mostly against the Eastern Frankish Empire (Germany) and Great Moravia, but also against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria.[38]

Entering the Carpathian Basin (c. 895)[edit]

Prince Árpád crossing the Carpathians. A detail from the Arrival of the Hungarians, Árpád Feszty's and his assistants' vast cyclorama (over 1800 m²), painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Hungarians conquest of Hungary, now displayed at the Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park in Hungary.

In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin. The tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. At the same time (c. 895), due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Hungarians in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and then by their old enemies the Pechenegs. The Bulgarians won the decisive battle of Southern Buh. It is uncertain whether or not those conflicts were the cause of the Hungarian departure from Etelköz.

From the upper Tisza region of the Carpathian Basin, the Hungarians intensified their looting raids across continental Europe. In 900, they moved from the upper Tisza river to Transdanubia (Pannonia),[citation needed] which later became the core of the arising Hungarian state. At the time of the Hungarian migration, the land was inhabited only by a sparse population of Slavs, numbering about 200,000,[36] who were either assimilated or enslaved by the Hungarians.[36]

Archaeological findings (e.g. in the Polish city of Przemyśl) suggest that many Hungarians remained to the north of the Carpathians after 895/896.[39] There is also a consistent Hungarian population in Transylvania, the Székelys, who comprise 40% of the Hungarians in Romania.[40][41] The Székely people's origin, and in particular the time of their settlement in Transylvania, is a matter of historical controversy.

History after 900[edit]

Medieval Hungary controlled more territory than medieval France, and the population of medieval Hungary was the third largest of any country in Europe. The Hungarian leader Árpád is believed to have led the Hungarians into the Carpathian Basin in 896. In 907, the Hungarians destroyed a Bavarian army in the Battle of Pressburg and laid the territories of present-day Germany, France, and Italy open to Hungarian raids, which were fast and devastating. The Hungarians defeated the Imperial Army of Louis the Child, son of Arnulf of Carinthia and last legitimate descendent of the German branch of the house of Charlemagne, near Augsburg in 910. From 917 to 925, Hungarians raided through Basle, Alsace, Burgundy, Saxony, and Provence.[42] Hungarians expansion was checked at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, ending their raids against Western Europe, but the raids on the Balkan Peninsula continued until 970.[43] Hungarian settlement in the area was approved by the Pope when their leaders accepted Christianity, and Stephen I the Saint (Szent István) was crowned King of Hungary in 1001. The century between the arrival of the Hungarians from the eastern European plains and the consolidation of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1001 was dominated by pillaging campaigns across Europe, from Dania (Denmark) to the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal).[44] After the acceptance of the country into Christian Europe under Stephen I, Hungary served as a bulwark against further invasions from the east and south, especially against the Turks.

Population growth of the Hungarians (900–1980)

At this time, the Hungarian nation numbered around 400,000 people.[36] The first accurate measurements of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary including ethnic composition were carried out in 1850–51. There is a debate among Hungarian and non-Hungarian (especially Slovak and Romanian) historians about the possible changes in the ethnic structure of the region throughout history. Some historians support the theory that the proportion of Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin was at an almost constant 80% during the Middle Ages.[45][46][47][48][49] Non-Hungarians numbered hardly more than 20% to 25% of the total population.[45] The Hungarian population began to decrease only at the time of the Ottoman conquest,[45][46][49] reaching as low as around 39% by the end of the 18th century. The decline of the Hungarians was due to the constant wars, Ottoman raids, famines, and plagues during the 150 years of Ottoman rule.[45][46][49] The main zones of war were the territories inhabited by the Hungarians, so the death toll depleted them at a much higher rate than among other nationalities.[45][49] In the 18th century their proportion declined further because of the influx of new settlers from Europe, especially Slovaks, Serbs, Croats,[citation needed] and Germans.[45][46][49][50] According to the immigrationist theory of the origins of the Romanian people,[51] it is suggested that Romanians entered Transylvania during the same period.[46][50][52] As a consequence of Turkish occupation and Habsburg colonization policies, the country underwent a great change in ethnic composition as its population more than tripled to 8 million between 1720 and 1787, while only 39% of its people were Hungarians, who lived primarily in the centre of the country.[45][46][47][49]

Other historians, particularly Slovaks and Romanians, argue that the drastic change in the ethnic structure hypothesized by Hungarian historians in fact did not occur. They argue that the Hungarians accounted for only about 30–40%[citation needed] of the Kingdom's population since its establishment. In particular, there is a fierce debate among Hungarians and Romanian historians about the ethnic composition of Transylvania through these times.

In the 19th century, the proportion of Hungarians in the Kingdom of Hungary rose gradually, reaching over 50% by 1900 due to higher natural growth and Magyarization. Between 1787 and 1910 number of ethnic Hungarians rose from 2.3 million to 10.2 million due to population explosion, generated by the resettlement of the Great Hungarian Plain and Voivodina by mainly Roman Catholic Hungarian settlers from the northern and western counties of the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1715 (after the Ottoman occupation) the Southern Great Plain was nearly uninhabited but now has 1.3 million inhabitants, homogeneous with ethnic Hungarians.

Spontaneous assimilation was an important factor, especially among the German and Jewish minorities and the citizens of the bigger towns. On the other hand, about 1.5 million people (about two-thirds non-Hungarian) left the Kingdom of Hungary between 1890–1910 to escape from poverty.[53]

The Treaty of Trianon: Kingdom of Hungary lost 72% of its land and 3.3 million people of Hungarian ethnicity.

The years 1918 to 1920 were a turning point in the Hungarians' history. By the Treaty of Trianon, the Kingdom had been cut into several parts, leaving only a quarter of its original size. One-third of the Hungarians became minorities in the neighbouring countries.[54] During the remainder of the 20th century, the Hungarians population of Hungary grew from 7.1 million (1920) to around 10.4 million (1980), despite losses during the Second World War and the wave of emigration after the attempted revolution in 1956. The number of Hungarians in the neighbouring countries tended to remain the same or slightly decreased, mostly due to assimilation (sometimes forced; see Slovakization and Romanianization)[55][56][57] and to emigration to Hungary (in the 1990s, especially from Transylvania and Vojvodina).

After the "baby boom" of the 1950s (Ratkó era), a serious demographic crisis began to develop in Hungary and its neighbours.[58] The Hungarian population reached its maximum in 1980, then began to decline.[58]

For historical reasons (see Treaty of Trianon), significant Hungarian minority populations can be found in the surrounding countries, most of them in Romania (in Transylvania), Slovakia, and Serbia (in Vojvodina). Sizable minorities live also in Ukraine (in Transcarpathia), Croatia (primarily Slavonia), and Austria (in Burgenland). Slovenia is also host to a number of ethnic Hungarians, and Hungarian language has an official status in parts of the Prekmurje region. Today more than two million ethnic Hungarians live in nearby countries.[59]

There was a referendum in Hungary in December 2004 on whether to grant Hungarian citizenship to Hungarians living outside Hungary's borders (i.e. without requiring a permanent residence in Hungary). The referendum failed due to insufficient voter turnout. On May 26, 2010, Hungary's Parliament passed a bill granting dual citizenship to ethnic Hungarians living outside of Hungary. Some neighboring countries with sizable Hungarian minority expressed concerns over the legislation.[60]

Later influences[edit]

Besides the various peoples mentioned above, the Magyars assimilated or were influenced by subsequent peoples arriving in the Carpathian Basin. Among these are the Cumans, Pechenegs, Jazones, Germans, and other Western European settlers in the Middle Ages. Vlachs (Romanians) and Slavs have lived together and married with Hungarians since early medieval times. Ottomans, who occupied the central part of Hungary from c. 1526 until c. 1699, inevitably exerted an influence, as did the various nations (Germans, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, and others) that resettled depopulated territories after their departure. Similar to other European countries, Jewish, Armenians, and Roma (Gypsy) minorities have been living in Hungary since the Middle Ages.

Maps[edit]

Folklore and Landscape[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Though the number is based on the recent 2011 census data, it is a lower estimate, as both in Hungary and in Slovakia census participants had the option to opt out and not declare their ethnicity, hence about 2 million people decided to do so.[1]
  2. ^ This number is a lower estimate, as 1.44 million people opted out declaring ethnicity in 2011.
  3. ^ This number is a lower estimate, as 405.261 people (7,5% of the total population) did not specify their ethnicity at the 2011 Slovak Census.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ [2]. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  2. ^ (Romanian) "Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele definitive ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011", at the 2011 Romanian census site; accessed July 11, 2013
  3. ^ 2001 Slovakian Census
  4. ^ 2011 Serbian Census
  5. ^ National composition of population[dead link]
  6. ^ 2001 Austrian census[dead link]
  7. ^ Položaj Nacionalnih Manjina U Republici Hrvatskoj – Zakonodavstvo I Praska
  8. ^ Slovenia
  9. ^ a b Bund Ungarischer Organisationen in Deutschland[dead link]
  10. ^ Národnost ve sčítání lidu v českých zemích[dead link]
  11. ^ "CSO Emigration". Census Office Ireland. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c "2006 community survey". Factfinder2.census.gov. 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  13. ^ Russia Report to COE[dead link]
  14. ^ Republic of Macedonia – State Statistical Office[dead link]
  15. ^ "The 2006 census". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  16. ^ Revista Época Edição 214 24 June 2002[dead link]
  17. ^ Hungarian Immigration in Latin America
  18. ^ "Hungarian Embassy in Buenos Aires 20 June 2009". Mfa.gov.hu. 2007-03-14. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  19. ^ "Australian Bureau of Statistics (Census 2006)". Abs.gov.au. 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  20. ^ Eurostat. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  21. ^ a b c Peter F. Sugar, ed. (1990-11-22). A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-253-20867-5. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  22. ^ Edward Luttwak, The grand strategy of the Byzantine Empire, Harvard University Press, 2009, p. 156
  23. ^ OED (s.v. "Ugrian"): "Ugri, the name given by early Russian writers to an Asiatic race dwelling east of the Ural Mountains"
  24. ^ Robert B Kaplan, Ph.D., Richard B Baldauf, Jr., Language Planning And Policy In Europe: Finland, Hungary And Sweden, Multilingual Matters, 2005, p. 28
  25. ^ György Balázs, Károly Szelényi, The Magyars: the birth of a European nation, Corvina, 1989, p. 8
  26. ^ Alan W. Ertl, Toward an Understanding of Europe: A Political Economic Précis of Continental Integration, Universal-Publishers, 2008, p. 358
  27. ^ Z. J. Kosztolnyik, Hungary under the early Árpáds: 890s to 1063, Eastern European Monographs, 2002, p. 3
  28. ^ Kosztolnyik, Z. J., Hungary under the early Árpáds, 890s to 1063, Distributed by Columbia University Press, 2002, pp. 28–29, ISBN 0-88033-503-3, Library of Congress control number 2002112276
  29. ^ "Genetic structure in relation to the history of Hungarian ethnic groups". Human Biology. 1996. 
  30. ^ USA (2013-03-25). "Comparison of maternal lineage and biogeographic analyses of ancient and modern Hungarian populations, ''U.S. National Library of Medicine''". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  31. ^ Csanád Bálint (10 2008). "A történeti genetika és az eredetkérdés(ek)". Magyar Tudomány: 1170. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  32. ^ Pál Lipták: A magyarság etnogenezisének paleoantropológiája (The paleoanthropology of Hungarian people's ethnogenesis) (Antropológiai Közl., 1970. 14. sz.)
  33. ^ Róna-Tas, András (1999). Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages. p. 96. 
  34. ^ Blench, Roger; Matthew Briggs (1999). Archaeology and Language. Routledge. p. 210. ISBN 0-415-11761-5. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  35. ^ István Fodor (1982). In search of a new homeland: the prehistory of the Hungarian people and the conquest. Corvina. p. 122. 
  36. ^ a b c d e A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  37. ^ Peter F. Sugar, Péter Hanák, Tibor Frank, A History of Hungary, Indiana University Press, 1994 page 11. Google Books
  38. ^ "Magyars". Thenagain.info. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  39. ^ Koperski, A.: Przemyśl (Lengyelország). In: A honfoglaló magyarság. Kiállítási katalógus. Bp. 1996. pp. 439–448.
  40. ^ Piotr Eberhardt (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-century Central-Eastern Europe. M. E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY and London, England, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7656-0665-5. 
  41. ^ "Szekler people". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  42. ^ Stephen Wyley. "The Hungarians of Hungary". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  43. ^ "History of Hungary, 895–970". Zum.de. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  44. ^ "The Hungarians (650–997 AD)". Fanaticus.org. 2004-10-22. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Hungary. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  46. ^ a b c d e f A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  47. ^ a b "International Boundary Study – No. 47 – April 15, 1965 – Hungary – Romania (Rumania) Boundary". US Bureau of Intelligence and Research. 
  48. ^ Historical World Atlas. With the commendation of the Royal Geographical Society. Carthographia, Budapest, Hungary, 2005. ISBN 963-352-002-9CM
  49. ^ a b c d e f Steven W. Sowards. "Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History (The Balkans in the Age of Nationalism), Lecture 4: Hungary and the limits of Habsburg authority". Michigan State University Libraries. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  50. ^ a b C. A. MaCartney D. Litt. (1962). Hungary A Short History. Edinburgh University Press. 
  51. ^ Schramm 1997, pp. 304., 309.
  52. ^ Robert A. Kann (1980). A history of the Habsburg Empire, 1526–1918. University of California Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-520-04206-9. 
  53. ^ Peaks/waves of immigration[dead link]
  54. ^ Kocsis, Károly (1998). "Introduction". Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin. Simon Publications LLC. ISBN 1-931313-75-X. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  55. ^ Bugajski, Janusz (1995). Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe: A Guide to Nationality Policies, Organizations, and Parties. M.E. Sharpe (Washington, D.C.). ISBN 1-56324-283-4. 
  56. ^ Kovrig, Bennett (2000), Partitioned nation: Hungarian minorities in Central Europe, in: Michael Mandelbaum (ed.), The new European Diasporas: National Minorities and Conflict in Eastern Europe, New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, pp. 19–80.
  57. ^ Raffay Ernő: A vajdaságoktól a birodalomig. Az újkori Románia története (From voivodeships to the empire. The modern history of Romania). Publishing house JATE Kiadó, Szeged, 1989, pp. 155–156)
  58. ^ a b "Nyolcmillió lehet a magyar népesség 2050-re". origo. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  59. ^ Hungary: Transit Country Between East and West. Migration Information Source. November 2003.
  60. ^ Veronika Gulyas (May 26, 2010). "Hungary Citizenship Bill Irks Neighbor". The Wall Street Journal. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Genetic studies