There were 5,485 households of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the borough, 23.7% of the population were under the age of 18, 13.6% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.0 years. For every 100 females there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.3 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $106,070 (with a margin of error of +/- $8,499) and the median family income was $139,886 (+/- $18,117). Males had a median income of $100,289 (+/- $12,722) versus $64,684 (+/- $10,127) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $54,518 (+/- $4,561). About 1.1% of families and 4.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.6% of those under age 18 and 2.7% of those age 65 or over.
There were 5,520 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.6% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.4% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.05.
The population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 17.6% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, and 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males.
The median income for a household was $82,847 and the median income for a family was $101,798. Males had a median income of $62,303 versus $42,097 for females. The per capita income was $38,416. About 2.0% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.8% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over.
Native Americans occupied the areas that would become New Jersey and Madison following the retreat of the Wisconsin Glacier for many thousands of years. Settlements of the Lenape were agriculturally-based following matrilineal lines. Occupation changed with the seasons, the variable nature of the climate, and to preserve the fertility of the rich soil. Their fishing and hunting territories were wide-ranging and similarly divided among the three clans of the matrilineal culture in this Eastern Woodland environment. Trade with these native peoples for food and furs was conducted by the Dutch during the period of colonization of New Netherland. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required their colonists to purchase land that they settled, but typically, trading relationships were established in this area, rather than Dutch settlements.
During the British colonial period, the earliest settlers of European descent arrived in this portion of the colony of New Jersey. Traditional native trails and pathways were followed as settlement began. Pressures upon the Lenape constantly drove them westward. About 1715 the village of Bottle Hill was established at the crossing of Ridgedale Avenue and Kings Road. Village governance principles followed the British model. The Luke Miller house at 105 Ridgedale Avenue is thought to be the oldest remaining home, having been built around 1730. During British colonial rule, Kings Road was a toll road that assessed fees levied by the government appointed by the English king. Farther south was the Shunpike, a road with a parallel path that was used deliberately by colonists to avoid the fees.
Morris County, created in 1739, was divided into three townships. The portion of the village north of Kings Road was put under the governance of Hanover Township and the portion to the south, under the governance of Morris Township. A meeting house for the Presbyterian Church of South Hanover, as Madison was called at that time, was started in 1747 where the Presbyterian Cemetery still exists between Kings Road and Madison Avenue. With the Treaty of Easton in 1758, the Lenape were required to vacate their lands in colonial New Jersey and to move westward. Later, their leaders allied with the colonists during the American Revolutionary War in hopes of regaining former lands, but that was never realized.
Presbyterian Church of Madison
Following the revolution, changes to governing methods in the former colonies occurred eventually as the new nation organized herself. The state of New Jersey formed its government and debated best policies. During the reorganization of Morris County in 1806, Chatham Township was established and included all of present-dey Chatham Township, along with the three existing pre-revolutionary villages (the current municipalities of Chatham, Florham Park, and Madison) as well as all of the lands still governed by the current Chatham Township, and thus the governmental division of Bottle Hill was ended.
In 1834, the name of the settlement was changed to Madison. On December 27, 1889, based on the results of a referendum passed on December 24, 1889, the village seceded from Chatham Township and adopted the newly created, borough form of government (when it first became available), in order to develop a local water supply system for its population of 3,250. Madison annexed additional portions of Chatham Township in 1891, and again each year from 1894–1898, which was followed by an exchange of certain lands in 1899 with Chatham Township.
Influence of early railroad
Madison's growth accelerated after the Civil War A railroad provided good transportation for farm produce grown at Madison. Later, the railroad made possible the establishment of a flourishing rose growing industry, still commemorated in Madison's nickname, The Rose City. The rail service connected the commerce to the markets of Manhattan. The Morris and Essex Lines became one of America's first commuter railroads, attracting well-to-do families from Manhattan (many of whom already owned large parcels land in the area for farming, hunting, and recreation) and contributing to the development of "Millionaire's Row," which stretched from downtown Madison to downtown Morristown. Greenhouses dotted the countryside. Talented horticulturalists were attracted to the area for employment at the many wealthy estates in the immediate area and to establish related businesses. One of the first grand houses to be built on "Millionaire's Row" was the Ross Estate.
The historic railroad station was donated to the community by the Dodges. The tracks were elevated through the downtown and no established roadways were hindered by crossing delays. The station included baggage and cargo facilities readily accessible by wagons as well as the stationmaster offices, a newsstand, and waiting facilities featuring extensive banks of high-backed wooden seating. Weeping Mulberry trees were planted among the landscaping and in natural areas in the parking area.
The rose industry and the large estates in the area attracted working-class people of all kinds. As a result, Madison developed a diverse population very early, both in terms of socioeconomic status and ethnic background. The original settlers were of British stock; French settlers came after the American Revolution; African Americans have been members of the community from early in the nineteenth century; Irish came in the mid-nineteenth century; and then Germans and Italians arrived around the turn of the twentieth century. To this day there is a substantial population of Italian descent in Madison. Today Madison also remains a diverse community, with many of the more recent newcomers arriving from Central America, South America, and Asia. Madison is a railroad suburb of New York City.
Hartley Dodge Memorial, donated by Geraldine Rockefeller Dodge, houses Madison's local government seat and faces a railroad station she also donated to the community
Madison is governed under the borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The government consists of a mayor and a borough Council, comprising six members, with all positions elected at large. A mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The borough council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year.
As of 2013[update], the mayor of Madison is Robert H. Conley (D, term ends December 31, 2015). Members of the borough council are President Carmela Vitale (D, 2014), Jeannie Tsukamoto (R, 2013), Robert G. Catalanello (R, 2013), Robert Landrigan (R, 2014), Astri J. Baillie (D, 2015), and Benjamin Wolkowitz (D, 2015).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 9,769 registered voters in Madison, of which 2,577 (26.4%) were registered as Democrats, 3,312 (33.9%) were registered as Republicans and 3,869 (39.6%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 11 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 51.6% of the vote here (4,038 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 46.7% (3,656 votes) and other candidates with 1.0% (75 votes), among the 7,830 ballots cast by the borough's 10,180 registered voters, for a turnout of 76.9%. In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 50.9% of the vote here (3,881 ballots cast), outpolling Democrat John Kerry with 47.9% (3,648 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (62 votes), among the 7,618 ballots cast by the borough's 10,422 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 73.1.
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 52.2% of the vote here (2,809 ballots cast), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 36.3% (1,954 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 10.0% (541 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (27 votes), among the 5,385 ballots cast by the borough's 9,862 registered voters, yielding a 54.6% turnout.
There is also a shuttle bus running along Madison Avenue. 
Madison's downtown is supported by the Madison Downtown Development Commission and a downtown manager. Many historical buildings remain in the community. The Madison Civic Commercial Historic District, which includes much of "downtown" as well as the borough hall and the train station, is listed on the State Register of Historic Places. The borough hall and the train station were donated to the community by Geraldine R. Dodge and Marcellus Hartley Dodge, Sr. as a memorial to their son who died in an automobile crash shortly after his graduation from Princeton University. Commercial vacancy rates are low. In recent years Madison has become noted for the number and quality of its restaurants.
Giralda Farms, a planned office development, occupies 175 acres (0.71 km2) of the former Geraldine R. Dodge estate in Madison (she and her husband had separate estates). The site includes the corporate headquarters of the Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company (until its liquidation in 2011), Maersk Lines and Quest Diagnostics. Covering 181 acres (73 ha), the site requires that all parking be underground and that 85% of the land be undeveloped.
Episodes of the television series, The Sopranos, were filmed in Madison. A scene was filmed on the Drew University campus, while another scene was filmed at Rod's Steak House, just west of the borough limits in Convent Station.
The Madison train station played the role of Cranford, New Jersey in the 2005 film, Guess Who starring Bernie Mac and Ashton Kutcher. The train station, the Hartley-Dodge Memorial building, and the center of Madison, serve as backdrops to this movie, and a panorama of the borough is shown during the final credits.
Scenes from Rich and Famous (1981), George Cukor's final film, were shot on Lincoln Place, and show the Madison Theatre and the train station as backdrops.
Scenes from The Family Stone (2005) were shot downtown at the intersection of Main Street and Waverly Place and Drew University. Despite the fact that the fictional town is supposed to be in New England, one may see a train, clearly marked New Jersey Transit, crossing through Waverly Place in one of the scenes. Additionally, the bus station featured in the movie was shot on Drew University's campus in Madison.
Scenes from television show Pretty Little Liars were filmed in Madison. The train station and Hartley Dodge memorial were visible as well as a separate aerial shot which shows behind 54 Main and Rocco's as well as the downtown main street area.
Dick DeBiasse, automotive engineer and machinist (founder of AER Research, also located in Madison), is credited with having contributed to the success of the Lake Underwood team that established Porsche as a winning race car in the United States. He also did the motor work for Mark Donohue in the following decade.
^[Fillimon, Chris. "Who was Luke Miller?", The Luke Miller House. Accessed August 13, 2013. "The Luke Miller House (also referred to as Miller’s Station) is considered the oldest existing home in Madison. It was built between 1730 and 1750, by Luke Miller’s grandfather, Andrew Miller"
^Staff. "Jersey Borough 100 Years Old.", The New York Times, August 31, 1934. Accessed July 19, 2011. "Flags were flying today in Madison as the borough celebrated the 100th anniversary of the day on which its name was changed from Bottle Hill to Madison. Protests of citizens who thought the original name intemperate occasioned the change in 1834."
^via Associated Press. "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in", NJ.com, October 31, 2013. Accessed October 31, 2013. "Former Newark Mayor Cory Booker was sworn in as a Democratic senator from New Jersey today, taking the oath of office, exchanging hugs with Vice President Joe Biden and acknowledging the applause of friends and family members seated in the visitor's gallery that rings the chamber.... Booker, 44, was elected to fill out the term of the late Sen. Frank Lautenberg, who died earlier this year."
^Open Space and Recreation Plan Update - 2009, Borough of Madison. Accessed August 13, 2013. "Giralda Farms is the largest and made up of six parcels that total 181 acres. Giralda Farms is the former estate of Geraldine R. Dodge. After her death she left $85 million to establish the Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation. Development regulations on the Giralda Farms property require that 85% of the land be maintained for open space purposes. Additionally, almost all vehicle parking is to remain underground."
^Staff. "Greeting movie", Daily Record (Morristown), September 10, 2004. Accessed August 12, 2012. "Downtown Madison found itself in a swirl of Hollywood-style chaos Saturday morning while film crews and a pair of high-profile stars shot a modern-day spin-off of the 1967 film "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner" in and around the borough's historic train station."
^The Fantastically Flighty Gray Goose, Aerofiles.com. Accessed March 11, 2011. "By 1931 Caldwell had failed to produce a viable ornithopter in Nevada and Colorado and moved his enterprise to the east coast, evidently first to Orangeburg NY and, later, to Madison NJ."
^Fox, Margalit. "Robert Chapman, 81, Roget's Thesaurus Editor". The New York Times. February 5, 2002. Accessed January 21, 2012. "Robert L. Chapman, an editor of Roget's Thesaurus who built a distinguished career on the difference between the right word and the almost right word and who streamlined the work for postmodern users, died Saturday in Morristown, N.J. He was 81 and lived in Madison, N.J."
^Cerdeira, Marian. "Madison remembered Hartley Dodge on his 100th birthday", Independent Press, August 13, 2008. Accessed March 11, 2011. "Hartley Jr., born July 29, 1908, at Rockwood Hall, his maternal grandparents' home in North Tarrytown, N.Y. (now known as Sleepy Hollow, N.Y.) and moved with his parents to Madison later that same year. During his youth, young Hartley took advantage of the Morris County countryside and the family home at Giralda Farms to become an expert equestrian."
^Horowitz, Ben. "Hard-rock jock blares his independence weekly", copy of article from The Star-Ledger, April 16, 2000. Accessed November 8, 2008. "Trunk, 35, grew up in Madison and continues to live in Morris County. His radio career began with a summer show at the Drew University radio station while he was a student at Madison High School."