Macaron

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Macaron
Confectionery
Arc-en-ciel comestible.jpg
Macarons from Ladurée, Paris, France.
Place of origin:
France
Main ingredient(s):
Biscuit: Egg whites, icing sugar, granulated sugar, almond powder or ground almond, food coloring
Filling: buttercream, ganache, or jam
Recipes at Wikibooks:
Cookbook Macaron
Media at Wikimedia Commons:
Wikimedia Commons  Macaron
 
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Macaron
Confectionery
Arc-en-ciel comestible.jpg
Macarons from Ladurée, Paris, France.
Place of origin:
France
Main ingredient(s):
Biscuit: Egg whites, icing sugar, granulated sugar, almond powder or ground almond, food coloring
Filling: buttercream, ganache, or jam
Recipes at Wikibooks:
Cookbook Macaron
Media at Wikimedia Commons:
Wikimedia Commons  Macaron

A macaron (/mɑːkɑːrɔːn/ mah-kah-RŌN;[1] French pronunciation: ​[makaˈʁɔ̃][2]) is a sweet meringue-based confection made with eggs, icing sugar, granulated sugar, almond powder or ground almond, and food colouring. It is also called Luxemburgerli.[3] The macaron is commonly filled with ganache, buttercream or jam filling sandwiched between two biscuits. The name is derived from the Italian word macarone, maccarone or maccherone, the Italian meringue.

The confection is characterised by smooth, squared top, ruffled circumference (referred to as the "foot" or "pied"), and a flat base. It is mildly moist and easily melts in the mouth.[4] Macarons can be found in a wide variety of flavors that range from the traditional (raspberry, chocolate) to the new (foie gras, matcha).[5]

The macaroon is often mistaken as the macaron; many have adopted the French spelling of macaron to distinguish the two items in the English language. However, this has caused confusion over the correct spelling. Some recipes exclude the use of macaroon to refer to this French confection while others think that they are synonymous.[6]

History[edit]

Picture from Dictionnaire encyclopédique de l'épicerie et des industries annexes, by Albert Seigneurie, edited by L'Épicier in 1904, page 431.

Although the macaron is predominantly a French confection, there has been much debate about its origins. Larousse Gastronomique cites the macaron as being created in 791 in a convent near Cormery. Some have traced its French debut back to the arrival of Catherine de' Medici's Italian pastry chefs whom she brought with her in 1533 upon marrying Henry II of France.[7]

In the 1830s, macarons were serving two-by-two with the addition of jams, liqueurs, and spices. The macaron as it is known today, composed of two almond meringue discs filled with a layer of buttercream, jam, or ganache filling, was originally called the "Gerbet" or the "Paris macaron." Pierre Desfontaines of the French pâtisserie Ladurée has sometimes been credited with its creation in the early part of the 20th century, but another baker, Claude Gerbet, also claims to have invented it.[8][9][10]

Variations[edit]

Macarons in a variety of colours.
Macarons in Paris (foremost plate)
Macarons from La Grande Épicerie, the deli department of Le Bon Marché, Paris
Macaron cookie base

French regional variations[edit]

Several French cities and regions claim long histories and variations, notably Lorraine (Nancy and Boulay), Basque Country (Saint-Jean-de-Luz), Saint-Emilion, Amiens, Montmorillon, Le Dorat, Sault, Chartres, Cormery Joyeuse and Sainte-Croix in Burgundy.

Macarons d'Amiens, made in Amiens, are small, round-shaped biscuit-type macaroons made from almond paste, fruit and honey, which were first recorded in 1855.[11]

The city of Montmorillon is well known for its macarons and has a museum dedicated to it. The Maison Rannou-Métivier is the oldest macaron bakery in Montmorillon, dating back to 1920. The traditional recipe for Montmorillon macarons remains unchanged for over 150 years.[12]

The town of Nancy in the Lorraine region has a storied history with the macaron. It is said that the abbess of Remiremont founded an order of nuns called the "Dames du Saint-Sacrement" with strict dietary rules prohibiting the consumption of meat. Two nuns, Sisters Marguerite and Marie-Elisabeth are credited with creating the Nancy macaron to fit their dietary requirements. They became known as the 'Macaron Sisters' (Les Soeurs Macarons). In 1952, the city of Nancy honored them by giving their name to the Rue de la Hache, where the macaroon was invented.[13]

Switzerland[edit]

In Switzerland the Luxemburgerli (also Luxembourger) is a bit smaller than a French macaron, and it is said to be lighter and more airy in consistency.[14]

Korea[edit]

Macarons are popular in South Korea,[15] pronounced as "ma-ka-rong" in Korean. Green tea powder or leaves can be used to make green tea macarons.[16][17]

Japan[edit]

Macarons in Japan are a popular confection known as "makaron".[18] There is also a version of the same name which substitutes peanut flour for almond and is flavored in wagashi style, widely available in Japan.

Popularity[edit]

In Paris, the Ladurée chain of pastry shops has been known for its macarons for about 150 years.[19][20] In France, McDonald's sells macarons in their McCafés (sometimes using advertising that likens the shape of a macaron to that of a hamburger).[19] McCafé macarons are produced by Château Blanc, which, like Ladurée, is a subsidiary of Groupe Holder, though they do not use the same macaron recipe.[19]

Outside of Europe, the French-style macaron can be found in Canada[21] and the United States.[22][23][24][25]

In Australia, Adriano Zumbo along with the TV series MasterChef have seen the macaron become a popular sweet treat, and it is now sold by McDonald's in its McCafe outlets.[26]

See also[edit]

Bibliography.[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sciolino, Elaine (22 July 2013). "Fads Aside, the Perfect Macaron Is Timeless". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Henry, Liz (2 May 2010). "Eats: Food quest — Paradise found: The search for the elusive macaron pays off.". Sun Journal. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  3. ^ "Macaron vs. Macaroons: What's the Difference?". Sucré. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  4. ^ Comparison of good and bad recipes on making macarons, Wikimama.com
  5. ^ "Macaron". Dessert Eater. 
  6. ^ "Macaron vs Macaroon". Foodpr0n.com. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  7. ^ History of Macarons, Madmacnyc.com
  8. ^ The story of the Macaron, Laduree.fr
  9. ^ Macarons, the Daddy Mac of Cookies, Fox News
  10. ^ Jurafsky, Dan. "Macarons, Macaroons, Macaroni: the curious history.". Slate.com. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  11. ^ Nick Rider (1 May 2005). Short Breaks Northern France. New Holland Publishers. p. 135. 
  12. ^ Press book, Musée de l'Amande et du Macaron, see article La Maison Rannou-Métiviere, July/August 2003.
  13. ^ Notre Histoire Maison des soeurs, Achat-nancy.com
  14. ^ Luxemburgerli – die luftig leichte Versuchung, Spruengli.ch
  15. ^ Cha, Daniella: "Macarons: The New Trend for Desserts." Phoenix Plume. The official newspaper for Korea International School, 27 April 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  16. ^ "마카롱,마카롱만드는법" (in Korean). Naver. 7 August 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  17. ^ "Green tea French macaron recipe". Graceful Cuisine. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  18. ^ "ジャン=フィリップ・ダルシー「夏の新作マカロン」" (in Japanese). Fukui News. 9 July 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c Jargon, Julie (March 2, 2010). "Mon Dieu! Will Newfound Popularity Spoil the Dainty Macaron?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 29, 2010. 
  20. ^ Reed, M. H. (January 29, 2009). "Macaroon Delight". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2010. 
  21. ^ Chesterman, Lesley (October 11, 2008). "Macaron mania hits Montreal - finally!". The Gazette (Montreal). Retrieved December 29, 2010. 
  22. ^ Denn, Rebekah (October 25, 2009). "French macarons are sweet, light and luscious". The Seattle Times. 
  23. ^ Greenspan, Dorie (April 1, 2010). "Macarons: New to The Easter Parade This Year". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 29, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Move Over, Cupcake: Make Way For The Macaroon". NPR. February 12, 2010. Retrieved December 29, 2010. 
  25. ^ "eggzmacaron". Il est difficile de résister à atteindre pour un autre!. 
  26. ^ Chavassieu, Olivia. "Heaven on Earth". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 7 March 2012.