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View of Maastricht city centre with its ancient Roman bridge on the Meuse river
View of Maastricht city centre with its ancient Roman bridge on the Meuse river
Flag of Maastricht
Coat of arms of Maastricht
Coat of arms
Anthem: Mestreechs Volksleed
Highlighted position of Maastricht in a municipal map of Limburg
Location in Limburg
Coordinates: 50°51′N 5°41′E / 50.850°N 5.683°E / 50.850; 5.683Coordinates: 50°51′N 5°41′E / 50.850°N 5.683°E / 50.850; 5.683
Settled500 BC
City rights1204
 • BodyMunicipal council
 • MayorOnno Hoes (VVD)
 • Municipality60.03 km2 (23.18 sq mi)
 • Land56.81 km2 (21.93 sq mi)
 • Water3.22 km2 (1.24 sq mi)
Elevation[3]49 m (161 ft)
Population (Municipality, December 2013; Urban and Metro, November 2013)[4][5]
 • Municipality122,480
 • Density2,156/km2 (5,580/sq mi)
 • Urban122,776
 • Metro183,708
 Urban and metro population for Dutch area only, thus excluding Belgian environs[6]
Demonym(Dutch) Maastrichtenaar;
(Limb.) Mestreechteneer or Sjeng
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Area code043
Twin cities
 • LiègeBelgium
 • KoblenzGermany
 • El RamaNicaragua
 • ChengduChina
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View of Maastricht city centre with its ancient Roman bridge on the Meuse river
View of Maastricht city centre with its ancient Roman bridge on the Meuse river
Flag of Maastricht
Coat of arms of Maastricht
Coat of arms
Anthem: Mestreechs Volksleed
Highlighted position of Maastricht in a municipal map of Limburg
Location in Limburg
Coordinates: 50°51′N 5°41′E / 50.850°N 5.683°E / 50.850; 5.683Coordinates: 50°51′N 5°41′E / 50.850°N 5.683°E / 50.850; 5.683
Settled500 BC
City rights1204
 • BodyMunicipal council
 • MayorOnno Hoes (VVD)
 • Municipality60.03 km2 (23.18 sq mi)
 • Land56.81 km2 (21.93 sq mi)
 • Water3.22 km2 (1.24 sq mi)
Elevation[3]49 m (161 ft)
Population (Municipality, December 2013; Urban and Metro, November 2013)[4][5]
 • Municipality122,480
 • Density2,156/km2 (5,580/sq mi)
 • Urban122,776
 • Metro183,708
 Urban and metro population for Dutch area only, thus excluding Belgian environs[6]
Demonym(Dutch) Maastrichtenaar;
(Limb.) Mestreechteneer or Sjeng
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Area code043
Twin cities
 • LiègeBelgium
 • KoblenzGermany
 • El RamaNicaragua
 • ChengduChina

Maastricht ([maːˈstʁɪçt] (southern Dutch and locally) or [maːˈstɾɪxt] ( ) (northern Dutch); Limburgish (incl. Maastrichtian): Mestreech [məˈstʁeːç]; French: Maestricht (archaic); Spanish: Mastrique (archaic)) is a town and a municipality in the Southeast of the European country the Netherlands. It is the capital city in the province of Limburg.

Maastricht is located on both sides of the Meuse river (Dutch: Maas), at the point where the Jeker River (French: Geer) joins it.

In history Maastricht developed from a Belgic settlement, that in the Gallic Wars was conquered by the Romans and thus became a Roman settlement, to a religious centre, a garrison city and an early industrial city.[7] Nowadays, it is known as a city of especially culture (including local folklore) and education.[8] Maastricht's rich history shows from the fact that in this town no less than 1677 national heritage sites (Rijksmonumenten) are located, which is the second highest amount in a Dutch town, after Amsterdam. Furthermore, it has become known, by way of the Maastricht Treaty, as the birthplace of the European Union, European citizenship, and the single European currency, the euro.[9][10] The town is popular with tourists for shopping and recreation, and has a large growing international student population. Maastricht is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network[11] and is part of the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion, which includes nearby cities Aachen, Eupen, Hasselt, Liège and Tongeren.


Typical street Jekerkwartier
"Onze Lieve Vrouweplein", one of several terraced squares in Maastricht city.

Maastricht consists of five districts and over 40 neighbourhoods. Each neighbourhood has a number which corresponds to its postal code.

  1. Maastricht Centrum (Binnenstad, Jekerkwartier, Kommelkwartier, Statenkwartier, Boschstraatkwartier, Sint Maartenspoort, Wyck-Céramique)
  2. South-West (Villapark, Jekerdal, Biesland, Campagne, Wolder, Sint Pieter)
  3. North-West (Brusselsepoort, Mariaberg, Belfort, Pottenberg, Malpertuis, Caberg, Malberg, Dousberg-Hazendans, Daalhof, Boschpoort, Bosscherveld, Frontenkwartier, Belvédère, Lanakerveld)
  4. North-East (Beatrixhaven, Borgharen, Itteren, Meerssenhoven, Wyckerpoort, Wittevrouwenveld, Nazareth, Limmel, Amby)
  5. South-East (Randwyck, Heugem, Heugemerveld, Scharn, Heer, De Heeg, Vroendaal)

The neighbourhoods of Itteren, Borgharen, Limmel, Amby, Heer, Heugem, Scharn, Oud-Caberg, Sint Pieter and Wolder all used to be separate municipalities or villages until they were annexed by the city of Maastricht in the course of the twentieth century.


Maastricht is a city of linguistic diversity, as a result of among others its location at the crossroads of multiple language areas and its international student population.


Etymology and 'oldest city in the Netherlands' dispute[edit]

The name Maastricht is derived from Latin Trajectum ad Mosam (or Mosae Trajectum), meaning 'crossing at the Meuse', and referring to the bridge built by the Romans. The Latin name first appears in medieval documents and it is not known whether this was Maastricht's official name during Roman times.

There is some debate as to whether Maastricht is the oldest city in the Netherlands. Some people consider Nijmegen the oldest, mainly because it was the first settlement in the Netherlands to receive Roman city rights. Maastricht never did, but it may be considerably older as a settlement. In addition, Maastricht can claim uninterrupted habitation since Roman times. A large number of archeological finds confirms this. Nijmegen has a gap in its history: there is practically no evidence of habitation in the early Middle Ages.

A resident of Maastricht is referred to as Maastrichtenaar whilst in the local dialect it is either Mestreechteneer or, colloquially, Sjeng (derived from the formerly popular French name Jean).

Roman roads around Traiectum ad Mosam
View of Maastricht, coloured engraving by Philippo Bellomonte, 1580/82
Maquette of Maastricht in 1750
Map of the Netherlands in 1843

Early history[edit]

Neanderthal remains have been found to the west of Maastricht (Belvédère excavations). Of a later date are Paleolithic remains, between 8,000 and 25,000 years old. Celts lived here around 500 BC, at a spot where the river Meuse was shallow and therefore easy to cross.

It is not known exactly when the Romans arrived in Maastricht, or whether the settlement was founded by them. It is known, though, that the Romans built a bridge over the Meuse in the 1st century AD, during the reign of Augustus Caesar. The bridge was an important link in the main road between Bavay and Cologne. Roman Maastricht was probably relatively small. Remains of the Roman road, the bridge, a religious shrine, a Roman bath, a granary, some houses and the 4th-century castrum walls and gates, have been excavated. Fragments of provincial Roman sculptures, as well as coins, jewelry, glass, pottery and other objects from Roman Maastricht are on display in the exhibition space of the city's public library (Centre Céramique).

According to legend, the Armenian-born Saint Servatius, bishop of Tongeren, died in Maastricht in 384 and was buried there along the Roman road, outside the castrum. According to Gregory of Tours it was bishop Monulph who, around 570, built the first stone church on the grave of Servatius, the present-day Basilica of Saint Servatius. The city remained an early Christian diocese until it lost this position to nearby Liège in the early 8th century.

Middle Ages[edit]

In the early Middle Ages Maastricht was, along with Aachen and the area around Liège, part of the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. The town was an important centre for trade and manufacturing. Merovingian coins minted in Maastricht have been found in many places throughout Europe. In the 10th century Maastricht briefly became the capital of the duchy of Lower Lorraine.

During the 12th century the town flourished culturally. The provosts of the church of Saint Servatius held important positions in the Holy Roman Empire during this era. The city's two main churches were largely rebuilt and redecorated. Maastricht Romanesque stone sculpture is regarded as one of the highlights of Mosan art. Maastricht painters were praised by Wolfram von Eschenbach in his Parzival. Around the same time, the poet Henric van Veldeke wrote a legend of Saint Servatius, one of the earliest works in Dutch literature.

Shortly after 1200 the city received dual authority, with the prince-bishops of Liège and the dukes of Brabant holding joint sovereignty over the city. Maastricht received city rights in 1204. Soon afterwards the first ring of medieval walls were built. Throughout the Middle Ages, the city remained a centre for trade and manufacturing of wool and leather but gradually economic decline set in. After a brief period of economic prosperity in the 15th century, the city's economy suffered during the wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, and recovery did not happen until the industrial revolution in the early 19th century.

16th to 19th century[edit]

The important strategic location of Maastricht resulted in the construction of an impressive array of fortifications around the city during this period. The Spanish and Dutch garrisons became an important factor in the city's economy. In 1579 the city was sacked by the Spanish army under general Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (Siege of Maastricht, 1579). For over fifty years the Spanish crown took over the role of the dukes of Brabant in the joint sovereignty over Maastricht. In 1632 the city was conquered by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and the Dutch States General replaced the Spanish crown in the joint government of Maastricht.

Another Siege of Maastricht (1673) took place during the Franco-Dutch War. In June 1673, Louis XIV laid siege to the city because French battle supply lines were being threatened. During this siege, Vauban, the famous French military engineer, developed a new strategy in order to break down the strong fortifications surrounding Maastricht. His systematic approach remained the standard method of attacking fortresses until the 20th century. On 25 June 1673, while preparing to storm the city, captain-lieutenant Charles de Batz de Castelmore, also known as the comte d'Artagnan, was killed by a musket shot outside Tongerse Poort. This event was embellished in Alexandre Dumas' novel The Vicomte de Bragelonne, part of the D'Artagnan Romances. French troops occupied Maastricht from 1673 to 1678.

In 1748 the French once again conquered the city at what is known as the Second French Siege of Maastricht, during the War of Austrian Succession. The French took the city one last time in 1794, when the condominium was dissolved and Maastricht was annexed to the First French Empire. For twenty years Maastricht was the capital of the French département of Meuse-Inférieure.

After the Napoleonic era, Maastricht became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. It was made the capital of the newly formed Province of Limburg (1815–1839). When the southern provinces of the newly formed kingdom seceded in 1830 (Belgian Revolution), the Dutch garrison in Maastricht remained loyal to the Dutch king, William I of the Netherlands, even when most of the inhabitants of the town and the surrounding area sided with the Belgian revolutionaries. In 1831, arbitration by the Great Powers allocated the city to the Netherlands. However, neither the Dutch nor the Belgians agreed to this and it was not until the 1839 Treaty of London that the arrangement was implemented.

Because of its eccentric location in the Netherlands, and its geographical and cultural proximity to Belgium, integration of Maastricht and Limburg into the Netherlands did not come about easily. Maastricht retained a distinctly non-Dutch appearance during much of the 19th century and it was not until the First World War that the city was forced to look northwards.

20th century and onwards[edit]

Maastricht did not escape the ravages of World War II. It was quickly taken by the Germans during the Battle of Maastricht in May 1940, but on 14 September 1944 it was also the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces. The three Meuse bridges were destroyed or severely damaged during the war. The majority of Maastricht Jews were murdered in Nazi concentration camps.

The latter half of the century saw the decline of traditional industries (such as the famous Maastricht potteries) and a shift to a service economy. Maastricht University was founded in 1976. Several European institutions have found their base in Maastricht. In 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was negotiated and signed here, leading to the creation of the European Union and the euro.[14]

In recent years, under mayor Gerd Leers, Maastricht launched a campaign against drug-related problems. Leers instigated a controversial plan to relocate some of the cannabis coffee shops—where the purchase of soft drugs in limited quantities is tolerated—from the city centre to the outskirts, in an attempt to stop (foreign) buyers from causing trouble in the downtown area.[15] Although the so-called "coffee corner plan" has not been entirely abandoned, the new mayor Onno Hoes has given priority to the Dutch government's approach of limiting entrance to 'coffee shops' to Dutch adults only, and to tackle the problem of drug runners in cooperation with the city of Rotterdam (where the majority of drug runners are from).

On a positive note, large parts of the city centre were thoroughly refurbished in recent years, including the area around the main railway station, the main shopping streets, the Entre Deux and Mosae Forum shopping centres, and the Maasboulevard promenade along the Meuse. Also, a new quarter, including the new Bonnefanten Museum, a public library, a theater and several housing blocks designed by international architects, was built on the grounds of the former Céramique potteries near the town centre. As a result, Maastricht looks notably smarter. Further large-scale projects, such as the redevelopment of the Sphinx and Belvédère areas, are underway.


Maastricht features the same climate as most of the Netherlands (Cfb, Oceanic climate), however, due to its more inland location in between hills, summers tend to be warmer (especially in the Meuse valley, which lies 70 meters lower than the meteorological station) and winters a bit colder, although the difference is only remarkable at a few days a year. Notable is the second highest temperature recorded in the Netherlands, and the highest temperature of a still existing station on June 27, 1947 at 38.4 °C (101.1 °F).[16]

Climate data for Maastricht
Record high °C (°F)15.5
Average high °C (°F)5.2
Daily mean °C (°F)2.7
Average low °C (°F)0.0
Record low °C (°F)−19.3
Precipitation mm (inches)65.3
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)1210129101010109101212126
Avg. snowy days77520000003630
 % humidity87848074737575768285898980.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours59.979.3119.3164.0194.9188.9202.8187.3140.0113.665.944.91,560.8
Source #1: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1981–2010 normals, snowy days normals for 1971–2000)[17]
Source #2: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1971–2000 extremes)[18]

Culture and tourism[edit]

Sights of Maastricht[edit]

Fortress of Sint Pieter on top of the Mount Saint Peter
"Onze-Lieve-Vrouwewal" ("Our Lady wall")
Vrijthof, Saint Servatius Basilica
Henri Hermanspark

Maastricht is known for its picturesque squares, romantic streets, and historical buildings. The tourist information office (VVV) is located in the Dinghuis, a 15th-century former town hall and law courts building on the corner of Grote Staat and Kleine Staat. The main sights include:

Museums in Maastricht[edit]

The landmark tower of the Bonnefanten Museum on the east bank of the Meuse river in the Wyck quarter.
Museum aan het Vrijthof

Events and festivals[edit]

Furthermore, the Maastricht Exposition and Congress Centre (MECC) hosts many events throughout the year.


On 16 December 2010, the Court of Justice of the European Union upheld a local Maastricht ban on the sale of cannabis to foreign tourists, restricting coffee shops to residents of Maastricht.[21] The ban did not affect scientific or medical usage. While the ban is now legal to enforce, its future is uncertain as the city council of Maastricht and other cities have voted against the planned "cannabis pass system".[22]


Total population[edit]

1960 (Jan)90,202 [24]
1970 (Jan)93,927 [24]
1980 (Jan)109,285 [24]
1990 (Jan)117,008 [24]
2000 (Jan)122,070 [24]
2010 (Jan)118,533 [24]
2013 (Jan)121,831 [25]

Inhabitants by nationality[edit]

Top 10 (2002-2012)2012 (Jan)[26]2002 (Jan)[26] % change
 Netherlands108,403115.465Decrease -6.12%
 Germany3,477877Increase +296.47%
 Belgium1,012912Increase +10.96%
United Kingdom United Kingdom560336Increase +66.67%
 Italy497277Increase +79.42%
 United States461170Increase +171.18%
 China421204Increase +106.37%
 Turkey373391Decrease -4.60%
 Spain325246Increase +32.11%
 France307145Increase +111.72%

Inhabitants by country of birth[edit]

Overview2012 (Jan)[27] % of total2002 (Jan)[27] % change
Total population121,050100%122.005Decrease -0.78%
Total foreign-born population20,01716.54%13.348Increase +49.96%
European Union Total EU (excl. Netherlands)9,3597.73%4856Increase +92.73%
Top 10 countries2012 (Jan)[27] % of total2002 (Jan)[27] % change
 Netherlands101,03383.46%108.657Decrease -7.02%
 Germany3,8573.18%1508Increase +155.77%
 Belgium1,9231.59%1860Increase +3.39%
 Indonesia1,2121.00%1498Decrease -19.09%
 Turkey8840.73%796Increase +11.06%
 Morocco8540.71%881Decrease -3.07%
Former Soviet Union7700.64%291Increase +164.61%
 United States5990.50%231Increase +159.31%
United Kingdom United Kingdom5530.46%355Increase +55.78%
 China (excl. Hong Kong and Macau)5330.44%326Increase +63.50%


Maastricht University, Campus Randwyck
Hotel Management School at Bethlehem Castle

Secondary education[edit]

Tertiary education[edit]



Private companies based in Maastricht[edit]

ENCI quarry
Office park Randwyck-Noord
Provincial Government Buildings
  • ENCI – First Dutch Cement Industry
  • Sappi – South African Pulp and Paper Industry
  • Mosa – ceramic tiles
  • BASF – previously Ten Horn, pigments
  • Hewlett-Packard – previously Indigo, manufacturer of electronic data systems
  • Vodafone – mobile phone company
  • DHL – international express mail services
  • Teleperformance – contact center services
  • Mercedes-Benz – customer contact centre for Europe
  • VGZ – health insurance, customer contact centre
  • Esaote (former Pie Medical Equipment) – manufacturer of medical and veterinary diagnostic equipment
  • Pie Medical Imaging – cardiovascular quantitative analysis software
  • CardioTek – manufacturer of medical equipment for Cardiac electrophysiology procedures
  • BioPartner Centre Maastricht – life sciences spin-off companies

Public institutions[edit]


  • In football, Maastricht is represented by MVV Maastricht (Dutch: Maatschappelijke Voetbal Vereniging Maastricht), currently playing in the Dutch first division of the national competition (which is actually the second league after the Eredivisie league). MVV's home is the Geusselt stadium near the A2 motorway.
  • Maastricht is also home to the Maastricht Wildcats, an American Football League team and member of the AFBN (American Football Bond Nederland).
  • Since 1998, Maastricht has been the traditional starting place of the annual Amstel Gold Race, the only Dutch cycling classic. For several years the race also finished in Maastricht, but since 2002 the finale has been on the Cauberg hill in nearby Valkenburg.


Election results of 2010: council seats
PartySeatsCompared to 2006
Partij Veilig2+2

The municipal government of Maastricht consists of a city council, a mayor and a number of aldermen. The city council, a 39-member legislative body directly elected for four years, appoints the aldermen on the basis of a coalition agreement between two or more parties after each election. The 2006 municipal elections in the Netherlands were, as often, dominated by national politics and led to a shift from right to left throughout the country. In Maastricht, the traditional broad governing coalition of Christian Democrats (CDA), Labour (PvdA), Greens (GreenLeft) and Liberals (VVD) was replaced by a centre-left coalition of Labour, Christian Democrats and Greens. Two Labour aldermen were appointed, along with one Christian Democrat and one Green alderman. Due to internal disagreements, one of the VVD council members left the party in 2005 and formed a new liberal group in 2006 (Liberalen Maastricht). The other opposition parties in the current city council are the Socialist Party (SP), the Democrats (D66) and two local parties (Stadsbelangen Mestreech (SBM) and the Seniorenpartij).

The aldermen and the mayor make up the executive branch of the municipal government. The current mayor of Maastricht is Onno Hoes, a Liberal (VVD), who was appointed after the popular previous mayor, Gerd Leers (CDA), decided to step down in January 2010 following the 'Bulgarian Villa' affair.

One controversial issue which has characterized Maastricht politics for years and which has also affected national and even international politics, is the city's approach to soft drug policy. Under the pragmatic Dutch soft drug policy, a policy of non-enforcement, individuals may buy and use cannabis from 'coffeeshops' (cannabis bars) under certain conditions. Maastricht, like many other border towns, has seen a growing influx of 'drug tourists', mainly young people from Belgium, France and Germany, who provide a large amount of revenue for the coffeeshops in the city centre. The city government, most notably ex-mayor Leers, have been actively promoting drug policy reform in order to deal with its negative side effects.

Former mayor of Maastricht Gerd Leers

Under one of the latest proposals, known as the 'Coffee Corner Plan' and proposed by then-mayor Leers,[28] the city council unanimously voted in November 2008 to relocate most of its coffeeshops from the city centre to the edge of town, where the sale and use of cannabis can more easily be monitored. The purpose of this plan was to reduce the impact of drug tourism on the city centre, such as parking problems and the more serious issue of the illegal sale of hard drugs in the vicinity of the coffeeshops. The Coffee Corner Plan, however, has met with fierce opposition from neighbouring municipalities and from national government, where the Christian Democrats take a notably more conservative approach to soft drugs than their local party and mayor. Bordering towns and the federal government in Belgium have also opposed the city's policy, citing Maastricht's plan to move the coffeeshops towards the Belgian borders as a violation of European law. The plan has been the subject of various legal challenges and has not yet been carried out.


By car[edit]

A2 motorway in Maastricht
Dutch Topographic map of Maastricht, July 2013

Maastricht is served by the A2 and A79 motorways. The city can be reached from Brussels and Cologne in approximately one hour and from Amsterdam in about two and a half hours.

The A2 motorway that runs through Maastricht is heavily congested and causes air pollution in the urban area. Construction of a two-level tunnel designed to solve these problems is scheduled to start in 2011 and last until 2016.[29]

In spite of several large underground car parks, parking in the city centre forms a major problem during weekends and bank holidays due to the large numbers of visitors. Parking fees are high in order to incite visitors to use public transport or park and ride facilities away from the centre.

By train[edit]

Maastricht is served by three rail operators, all of which call at the main Maastricht railway station near the centre and the smaller Maastricht Randwyck, located near the business and university district. The in 2013 opened Maastricht Noord is currently served by Veolia only. Services northwards are operated by Dutch Railways, including regular intercity trains to Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Den Bosch and Utrecht. The National Railway Company of Belgium runs south to Liège in Belgium. The line to Heerlen, Valkenburg and Kerkrade is operated by Veolia. The former railway to Aachen was closed down in the 1980s. The old westbound railway to Hasselt (Belgium) is currently being restored. This line will be used as a modern tramline, scheduled to open in 2017.[30][31]

By bus[edit]

Regular bus lines connect the city centre, outer areas, business districts and railway stations. The regional Veolia bus network extends to most parts of South Limburg as well as to Hasselt, Tongeren and Liège in Belgium, and Aachen in Germany.

By air[edit]

Maastricht is served by nearby Maastricht Aachen Airport - locally known as Beek - with scheduled flights to Alicante, Berlin, Faro, Girona, Málaga, Pisa, Reus, Trapani and charters to popular holiday destinations during the summer season. The airport is located about 10 kilometres (6 miles) north of Maastricht's centre.

By boat[edit]

Maastricht has a river port (Beatrixhaven) and is connected by water with Belgium and the rest of the Netherlands through the river Meuse, the Juliana Canal, the Albert Canal and the Zuid-Willemsvaart. Although there are no regular boat connections to other cities, various organized boat trips for tourists connect Maastricht with Belgium cities such as Liège.

Distances to other cities[edit]

These distances are as the crow flies and therefore not represent actual overland distances.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Maastricht is twinned with:

Other relations[edit]

Well-known natives of Maastricht[edit]

See also People from Maastricht
Willy Brokamp

Originating from elsewhere[edit]

  • Jo Bonfrere (1946) - football
  • Willy Brokamp (1946) star football player of MVV Maastricht in the early seventies, which were "the golden years" for this club. Also former caterer in several Maastricht establishments.


The town of Maastricht has insofar played a part in the birth of contemporary philosophy of life called "Vivism", that its founder, Nicolas Pleumekers, originating from a nearby village, went to college here and later on, after having finished his academic study, lived here permanently for eight years. In this context one of the main facts of that stay was that during these years he decided to stop eating plants.[32]

Local anthem[edit]

In 2002 the municipal government officially adopted a local anthem (Limburgish (Maastrichtian variant): Mestreechs Volksleed, Dutch: Maastrichts Volkslied) composed of lyrics in Maastrichtian. The theme was originally written by Alfons Olterdissen (1865–1923) as finishing stanza of the Maastrichtian opera "Trijn de Begijn" of 1910.[33]


Vrijthof square, early morning
Panorama from Saint Servatius Bridge over Meuse river

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Dhr. Onno Hoes" [Mr. Onno Hoes] (in Dutch). Gemeente Maastricht. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  2. ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 
  3. ^ "Postcodetool for 6211DW". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  5. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "Stadsgewesten en stedelijke agglomeraties Nederland 2011". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. 2011. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  7. ^ "Zicht op Maastricht". Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  8. ^ "VVV Maastricht". Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  9. ^ Sponsored by. "The Economist ''Charlemagne: Return to Maastricht'' Oct 8th 2011". Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  10. ^ BBC News Is Brighton the next Maastricht March 29th 2012
  11. ^ MAETN (1999). "diktyo". Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  12. ^ Gussenhoven, C. & Aarts, F. (1999). "The dialect of Maastricht". University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  13. ^ Kessels-van der Heijde, Maria (2002). Maastricht, Maestricht, Mestreech. Hilversum, Netherlands: Uitgeverij Verloren. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  14. ^ Gnesotto, N. (1992). European union after Minsk and Maastricht. International Affairs. 68(2), 223-232.
  15. ^ MaastrichtVan onze verslaggever. "Coffee Corner: Dagblad de Limburger". Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  16. ^ "KNMI 1947: de zomer van de 20e eeuw". 2001-08-22. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  17. ^ "Klimaattabel Maastricht, langjarige gemiddelden, tijdvak 1981–2010" (in Dutch). Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  18. ^ "Klimaattabel Maastricht, langjarige extremen, tijdvak 1971–2000" (in Dutch). Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  19. ^ "Entre Deux". Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  20. ^ "Top shelves". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  21. ^ "Marc Michel Josemans v. Burgemeester van Maastricht, case C‑137/09". Court of Justice of the European Union. December 16, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Eindhoven joins opposition to cannabis pass system". February 9, 2011. 
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  24. ^ a b c d e f Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per jaar". Retrieved 17 December. 
  25. ^ Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand". Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
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  28. ^ Cannabis Cafes Get Nudge to Fringes of a Dutch City, The New York Times, 20 August 2006.
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  31. ^ Tramverbinding tussen Nederland en België (Dutch)
  32. ^ Webpage about birth of Vivism and further developements
  33. ^ Municipality of Maastricht (2008). "Municipality of Maastricht: Maastrichts Volkslied". N.A. Maastricht. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 

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