MRAP

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

MRAP
FPCougar.jpg
An MRAP Cougar HE tested in January 2007, with landmines detonating around it.
TypeArmored personnel carrier (wheeled)
Service history
In service2007–present[1]
Used byCroatia, United States of America, International Security Assistance Force
WarsIraq, Afghanistan
Production history
Manufacturervarious
Specifications
Weight14-18 tons
Length233 in[2]
Width108 in[2]
Height9 feet[2]
Crew5-10[2]

Engine110[2]
Operational
range
600 miles[2]
Speed65 m/h[2]
 
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see MRAP (disambiguation).
MRAP
FPCougar.jpg
An MRAP Cougar HE tested in January 2007, with landmines detonating around it.
TypeArmored personnel carrier (wheeled)
Service history
In service2007–present[1]
Used byCroatia, United States of America, International Security Assistance Force
WarsIraq, Afghanistan
Production history
Manufacturervarious
Specifications
Weight14-18 tons
Length233 in[2]
Width108 in[2]
Height9 feet[2]
Crew5-10[2]

Engine110[2]
Operational
range
600 miles[2]
Speed65 m/h[2]

Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP; /ˈɛmræp/ EM-rap) is an American term for vehicles that are designed specifically to withstand improvised explosive device (IED) attacks and ambushes. Armored vehicles designed specifically to counter the land mine threat were first used during the Rhodesian Bush War; the technology was subsequently matured by the South African Defence Force with development of the Casspir armored fighting vehicle, which inspired the American MRAP program and was the basis for some of the program's vehicles. From 2007 until 2012 the Pentagon's MRAP program deployed more than 12,000 MRAPs in the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan. Some MRAPs left behind, originally intended for the rebuilt Iraqi Army, have been captured and used by ISIS.

Design overview[edit]

Writing on the door of an MRAP reads "This truck saved my life as well as 5 others on 02 Apr 08 at 2300 L(local) in Basrah, IZ."

The MRAP design was first introduced in specialized vehicles the 1970s built by and for the Rhodesian army, and further developed by South African manufacturers, starting in 1978 with the Buffel (Buffalo) armored personnel carrier (APC).[citation needed] The Casspir armored fighting vehicle was developed for the South African Defence Force after 1980;[3] this was the inspiration for the American MRAP program and the basis for some of the program's vehicles.[4][5][6]

There is no common MRAP vehicle design, as there are several vendors, each with its own vehicle. MRAP vehicles usually have "V"-shaped hulls to deflect explosive forces from land mines or IEDs below the vehicle, thereby protecting vehicle and passengers.[2] MRAPs weigh 14 to 18 tons, 9 feet high, and cost between $500,000 and $1,000,000.[2][7]

US MRAP initiative[edit]

The TSG/FPI Cougar designed by a British-led U.S. team in 2004 for a U.S. Marine Corps requirement[citation needed] became the springboard, from which the MRAP program (2007–2012) was launched. The original concept was to replace Humvee-type vehicles with a more robust, survivable vehicle when on patrol "outside the wire".[citation needed] Because there are only two steel mills in the U.S., Oregon Steel Mills and International Steel Group, qualified to produce steel armor for the US Department of Defense, it negotiated to ensure enough steel was available to keep pace with production.[8]

The following companies submitted designs:

A RG-33 convoy with the Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) system installed.

There are plans to integrate the Crows II remote weapon station, the Frag Kit 6 anti-EFP armor, and the Boomerang anti-sniper system on many MRAPs in combat.[citation needed]

US MRAP program, 2007–2012[edit]

First MaxxPros fielded in Iraq
The last vehicle from Iraq returned to U.S. This vehicle arrived at the Port of Beaumont, Texas, on 6 May 2012, and was unloaded from the ship on 7 May 2012.[10]

The US military MRAP program was prompted by U.S. deaths in the Iraq War.[11]

In 2007 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates decided to ramp up MRAP orders after the Marines reported in 2004, that no troops had died in more than 300 IED attacks on Cougars[12] On 8 May 2007, Gates announced that acquisition of MRAPs was the Department of Defense's highest priority,[13] For fiscal year 2007 $1.1 billion was earmarked for MRAP.[8] A 2008 GAO report found that Marine combat planners had delayed "an urgent request in 2005 for 1,169 MRAPs".[14]

In late 2007, the Marine Corps planned to replace all Humvees in combat zones with MRAP vehicles, although this changed.[15][16][17][18] As armored vehicles were considered an "urgent need" in Afghanistan, the MRAP program was primarily funded under an "emergency war budget".[citation needed] By 2012 the US spent $50 billion in 2007 to produce altogether 27,000 MRAPs.[19]

Originally Brig. General Michael Brogan, then Brig. General Frank Kelley, Commander, United States Marine Corps Systems Command, were in charge of the Marine MRAP program.[20][21] Kevin Fahey, U.S. Army Program Executive Officer for Command Support and Combat Service Support,[22] managed the Army MRAP program.[23]

2007[edit]

In 2007, the Pentagon ordered about 10,000 MRAPs at a cost of over $500,000 each, and planned to order more MRAPs.[12]

Partial list of January–July 2007 orders under the MRAP program:

2008[edit]

2009[edit]

Oshkosh Corp., Oshkosh, Wisconsin, was awarded a $1,064.46 million firm-fixed-priced delivery order under previously awarded firm-fixed-price contract W56HZV-09-D-0111 to exercise an option for 1,700 MRAP All Terrain Vehicles. A similar Army contract for 1,700 MRAP All-Terrain Vehicles was valued at a further $1,063.7 million.[39] By 2009 the US Department of Defense had spent $20 billion on the MRAP program.[40] Total MRAP program expenditure with final deliveries was expected to be $48.5 billion (FY10-11).[2]

Categories[edit]

American serviceman alongside his MRAP Cougar, Ramadi, Iraq, in 2008

The MRAP class is separated into three categories according to weight and size.

Category I (MRAP-MRUV)[edit]

International MaxxPro Category 1 MRAP

The Mine-Resistant Utility Vehicle (MRUV) is smaller and lighter, designed for urban operations. Category 1 MRAP vehicles ordered or in service:

Category II (MRAP-JERRV)[edit]

The Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Rapid Response Vehicle (JERRV) is designed for missions including convoy lead, troop transport, ambulance, explosive ordnance disposal and combat engineering.

Category II MRAP vehicles ordered or currently in service:

Category III[edit]

Criticism[edit]

The MRAP program has been criticized for its high, nearly $50 billion cost,[2] the potential logistical difficulties due to high fuel consumption and varied designs, a greater disconnection between troops and the local population due to MRAPs' massive size and menacing appearance conflicting with current counter-insurgency (COIN) strategy, and unclear disposal. In 2007, it was unknown what U.S. military would do with MRAPs following its withdrawal from Iraq since they are expensive to transport and operate.[55][56] MRAP funding has pulled money away from other tactical vehicle programs, most noticeably the HMMWV replacement, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, which has been delayed by two years.[57]

According to Army Times, troops openly wonder about the design of some versions of the MRAP. For example, why the rear seats face inward and not outward in a way so they could fire their weapons through ports, which some versions even lack. The height and steepness of the dropdown stairs at the rear of the some versions can make exiting the vehicle dangerous. Troops riding in the rear can hit their heads on the ceiling while bouncing around in rough terrain. Medics told the Army Times that a soldier broke his neck after bouncing his head on the overhead, and another is said to have seriously damaged his skull after slamming into a protruding bolt in the overhead while wearing a soft cover.[58]

Earlier reports had stated that the MRAP had been well received with US troops stating that they would prefer to be hit by an IED in an MRAP rather than a Humvee.[59][60]

Rollovers and electric shock[edit]

A Caiman after rolling into a ditch.

A June 13, 2008 report by the 'Marine Corps Center for Lessons Learned' indicated concerns about MRAP vehicles rolling over in combat zones. The V-shaped hulls of the MRAP give it a higher center of gravity and the weight of the MRAP can cause the poorly built or maintained roads in rural Iraq or Afghanistan to collapse. Of the 66 MRAP accidents between November 7, 2007, and June 8, 2008, almost 40 were due to rollovers caused by bad roads, weak bridges, or driver error. In many of the rollovers troops were injured, and in two separate incidents five soldiers have been killed by rolling over into a canal and getting trapped under water. The report said 75% of all rollovers occurred in rural areas often where roads are above grade and an adjacent ditch or canal. The report raised concerns associated with MRAP vehicles snagging on low-hanging power lines in Iraq or its antennas getting close enough to create an electric arc, which may lead to electrocution of passengers. The person located in the gunner's hatch is at the highest risk.[58][61]

Effectiveness[edit]

MRAP Cougar hit by a large IED in Iraq, all crew survived

The MRAP may not be effective against Explosively Formed Penetrators (EFP), which use an explosive charge to propel a specially shaped metal plate at high velocity while simultaneously deforming it into an armor-piercing projectile. Use of EFPs in the Iraq war more than doubled in 2006, and as of 2007 was expected to continue to increase.[62][63] In 2007, 11 percent of all roadside bomb fatalities were due to EFPs.[64] In 2007, the Marines had estimated that the use of the MRAP could reduce casualties in Iraq due to IED attacks by as much as 80 percent.[65] The MRAP weakness was addressed by the next-generation MRAP II. As an interim solution, the military installed a variant of the Humvee's IED defeating Frag Kit 6 armor, which adds significant weight, as well as width to the already large and heavy vehicle.[21] In July 2008 the U.S. military reported the number of EFP attacks had dropped by 70 percent.[66]

On 19 January 2008 a 3rd Infantry Division U.S. Army soldier operating as the exposed turret gunner, was killed in a Navistar MaxxPro MRAP vehicle by an ANFO IED estimated at 600 lb.[67] It is unknown whether the gunner was killed by the explosion or by the vehicle when it rolled over after the blast. The vehicle’s v-hull was not compromised. The crew compartment also appeared to be uncompromised, and the three other crew members inside the vehicle survived; one with a shattered left foot, a broken nose and several broken teeth; one with a fractured foot; and the third physically unharmed.[67][68][69][70]

Although this was reported as the first MRAP combat death, later reports stated that three soldiers had been killed by IEDs in RG-31s and two by EFPs in Buffalos before this incident.[71] On May 6, 2008 eight soldiers had been reported killed in the thousands of MRAPs in Iraq, according to news service Knight Ridder.[72] In June 2008, USA Today reported that roadside bomb attacks and fatalities were down almost 90% partially due to MRAPs. "They've taken hits, many, many hits that would have killed soldiers and Marines in unarmored Humvees", according to Adm. Michael Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Maj. General Rick Lynch, who commanded a division in Baghdad, told USA Today the 14-ton MRAPs have forced insurgents to build bigger, more sophisticated bombs to knock out the vehicles. Those bombs take more time and resources to build and set up, which gives U.S. forces a better chance of catching the insurgents in the act and stopping them.[73] According to Marinetimes.com the Taliban was also focusing their efforts away from anti-material IEDs and more toward smaller anti-personnel bombs that target soldiers on patrol.[74] In 2014, the US acknowledged that Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant was operating an advanced armored personnel carrier captured in Iraq.[75]

The MRAP program is similar to the United States Army's Medium Mine Protected Vehicle program.[76]

Logistics[edit]

Mine resistant ambush protected vehicles (MRAP) are offloaded from the Military Sealift Command roll-on/roll-off ship USNS Pililaau (T-AKR 304) onto the pier.

The MRAP program's lack of a common design presents a potential wartime logistic challenge,[21] but others saw the diversity of MRAP vehicles as an advantage.[77] The vehicle's weight and size severely limits its mobility off main roads, in urban areas, and over bridges,[78] as 72 percent of the world's bridges cannot hold the MRAP.[79] Its heft restricts transport by C-130 cargo aircraft or amphibious ships. Three MRAP vehicles (or five Oshkosh M-ATVs) fit in a C-17 aircraft, and airlifting is expensive, at $150,000 per vehicle, according to estimates by the U.S. Transportation Command.[80] The US Air Force contracted several Ukrainian Antonov An-124 heavy-cargo aircraft, which became a familiar sight above cities such as Charleston, South Carolina where some MRAPs are produced.[81] For comparison, sealifting costs around $13,000 per vehicle, but takes 3–4 weeks for the vehicle to arrive in theater.[82] In December 2007, the Marine Corps reduced its request from 3,700 vehicles to 2,300.[17] and the Army also reassessed its MRAP requirements in Iraq.[83][84] In January 2010, 400 were flown in to Afghanistan, increasing to 500 a month in February, but the goal of 1,000 a month was scaled back, because of difficulties in distribution and training drivers.[80]

MRAP II[edit]

A member of the United States Air Force stands in front of an MRAP in Southwest Asia.
Caiman mine-resistant, ambush-protected vehicles in Iraq.
External images
The Bull APC[dead link][85]

On July 31, 2007, the Marine Corps Systems Command launched an MRAP II pre-solicitation, to develop a new vehicle that offers a higher level of protection than the current MRAP vehicles, particularly from threats such as explosively formed penetrators.[86] While the Frag Kit 6 was designed to meet the threat of EFPs, the MRAP II competition's purpose was to find a vehicle that did not need the upgrade kit. The U.S. Army Research laboratory worked to ensure the technologies used in Frag Kit 6 would be available to MRAP II designers. The 2007 solicitation asked to give the Joint Program Management Office greater flexibility.[87][88]

Initial testing at Aberdeen Proving Grounds disqualified vehicles that didn’t meet requirements. Competitors who did not receive MRAP-II orders included Force Dynamics (reinforced Cougar), GDLS Canada (upgraded BAE OMC RG-31), Navistar subsidiary IMG (upgraded MaxxPro), Textron's upgraded M1117, and Protected Vehicles, Inc's upgraded Golan vehicle, with improved side doors and different armor.[89] Blackwater USA (Grizzly APC with Ares EXO Scale appliqué armor) was later disqualified due to a limited amount of armor in the frontal area of the vehicle.

The two qualified designs were an upgraded Caiman, originally designed by Armor Holdings which was later acquired by BAE Systems, and the Bull, a combined effort between Ideal Innovations Inc, Ceradyne and Oshkosh. Both of the designs weighed 40,000 lb or more.

According to the Army Times in August 2007, the Pentagon had already decided to buy first-generation 14- to 24-ton MRAP I vehicles with extra Frag Kit 6-derived armor, not the 30-ton MRAP II vehicles, when placing its final MRAP orders at the end of summer, after a field commander's report.[90] The paper also reported that in addition, the Pentagon may buy some shorter, lighter MRAPs in their final batch. A senior Pentagon official told them that "the roads are caving in" under the weight of MRAPs and "We want it to weigh less than it weighs now."[91]

MRAP All Terrain Vehicle[edit]

On 30 June 2009, the Department of Defense announced that Oshkosh Defense had been awarded a production contract for 2,244 of the MRAP All Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV) to address the immediate need for vehicles in Afghanistan. In October 2009, the first M-ATVs were shipped to Afghanistan.[92]

Post-war applications[edit]

With the end of the Iraq War and the drawdown of the War in Afghanistan, there was some question as to what to do with MRAPs, as they were designed specifically for asymmetric warfare. The Army decided they would keep them in some sort of service post-war. Of the approximately 20,000 MRAPs in service, 30% (6,000) will stay in brigade combat teams as troop transports and route clearance vehicles, 10% (2,000) will be used for training, and 60% (12,000) will go into storage. MRAPs are to be superseded by the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle when it enters service in 2016. It still may be used until 2022, when the JLTV is in use in sufficient numbers.[93]

On October 1, 2012, the Pentagon officially closed the MRAP production line. As of that date, 27,740 MRAP vehicles of all types had rolled off the assembly lines of seven manufacturers, and 12,726 vehicles were still in the Afghanistan theater of operations, about 870 were sold to foreign militaries, with 700 on foreign order.[94]

In early July 2012, five MRAP vehicles were delivered to the 2nd Infantry Division in the Korean Peninsula. The 2ID tested over 50 vehicles to see how they would be used by American troops in the region and if their capabilities were right for Korea to protect against mines buried along the Korean Demilitarized Zone. In addition to force protection, the MRAPs provided a platform for "mission command-on-the-move" to give commanders communications and command-and-control capabilities while moving across the battlefield. Most, if not all, of the MRAPs delivered in Korea were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan and were refurbished in the U.S. Previous combat experiences would determine how to best use the vehicles in South Korea. Integration into 2ID formations was to take less than a year, with positioning on the front line the following year.[95] U.S. Military officials said the MRAPs were brought in to determine whether they would enhance their ability “to preserve peace and deter aggression on the Korean peninsula.” North Korean Military officials claimed they would be used to safely cross the DMZ to mount an all-out attack on the North, and said the forward deployment of such military hardware disturbed peace and stability in the region. However, by August 2013, the 2ID had decided not to utilize the over 80 MRAPs on the peninsula. They determined the vehicles were “not suitable for maneuver battalions to use” and that there are no plans to add MRAPs to their fleet in the foreseeable future. The vehicles were returned to the Army fleet management system for use in more suitable regions.[96]

Navistar Defense is pitching its MaxxPro MRAP as a vehicle that can be upgraded into a mobile command post or power generator. With budget cuts, the plan would allow the Army to get solutions they want from the existing fleet. At Association of the United States Army 2013, a version called the Mission Command on the Move (MCOTM) was displayed as a command post with monitors, computers, and antennae mounted in the back for communications and surveillance. Five passengers can monitor incoming information, see unmanned aerial vehicle feeds, and keep track of where units are operating. The vehicle has an on-board transmission-integrated power generator that can produce up to 120 kilowatts of exportable power, which eliminates the need for a towed trailer and can single-handedly power a semi-permanent tactical operations center. It would allow commanders to be connected to dismounted troops and headquarters while on the move. The MCOTM version will undergo testing at the Army's network integration evaluations in February 2014.[97][98]

The U.S. government is looking to sell about 2,000 out of the 11,000 MRAPs it has in Afghanistan. The logistical and financial task of bringing all the vehicles back to the U.S., or destroying some in-country, is too great and foreign buying are sought to take them. Several countries have reportedly shown interest but none have signed agreements. The cost of buying them would include shipping them out of Afghanistan themselves.[99] If the MRAPs cannot be sold to allies, U.S. forces will have to resort to destroying the vehicles before they leave the country. The quantities of MRAPs have been ruled as "in excess" of the needs of the U.S. military and would cost $50,000 per vehicle to ship them out of the country, and they won't be given to the Afghan National Security Forces because they can't maintain them or operate their electronic systems. The cost of destroying them would be $10,000 per vehicle.[100] The Pakistani Army has shown interest in acquiring former U.S. MRAPs, which could be driven right across the border and handed over to Pakistani forces. Pakistani soldiers are more vulnerable to IEDs in their current armored vehicles than they are in MRAP vehicles.[101] Afghan forces have objected to this option because their soldiers would be sustaining higher casualties and want excess MRAPs left to them, but they don't have enough money to operate a large number of vehicles. India is concerned that MRAPs have "limited utility" in certain areas of Pakistan and that they would more likely be used in an offensive operation against India. The U.S. issued mixed statements, at first claiming they had no plans to provide Pakistan with MRAPs, then said they were considering and reviewing their request for excess defense articles which may include the vehicles.[102] The Pakistani military already operates 22 MaxxPro MRAPs, and a deal is being worked on to deliver 160 more MaxxPros to the country's military. The MaxxPros would be a mix of new builds and stored vehicles from U.S. Army prepositioned stocks in Kuwait and be spread among the Pakistani Army, Air Force, and Navy. The Leahey Amendment is blocking the deal because it prevents the transfer of military equipment to foreign military or police units that have been accused of human rights abuses.[103]

Post-war reductions[edit]

As of September 2013, the U.S. Marine Corps had 3,700-3,800 MRAP vehicles and planned to reduce their inventory to 1,200-1,300 due to sequestration budget cuts,[104] but then increased that number to 2,500 vehicles in May 2014.[105]

In 2013, the U.S. government planned to keep about 5,600 of 8700 M-ATVs, with some 250 vehicles for U.S. Special Operations Command.[106]

Following the drawdown from Afghanistan by the end of 2014, the U.S. Army will reduce its total MRAP fleet to 8,000 vehicles.[99] The US Army estimated in 2014 "it will need to spend $1.7 billion in supplemental wartime dollars over the next several years to modernize and retain 8,585 mine-resistant, ambush-protected vehicles, while divesting itself of another 7,456 MRAPs it no longer needs."[107] From 2007 to 2011, the Army bought about 9,000 Navistar MaxxPro vehicles and planned to keep only about 3,000.[97][98]

US law enforcement usage[edit]

FBI Mine Resistant Ambush vehicle

Since the summer of 2013, Police departments in the U.S. can acquire MRAP vehicle through the 1033 program, which allows the Defense Department to redistribute equipment it no longer needs to state and municipal agencies. Rather than buying a new vehicle, which would cost $535,000–$600,000, some police departments have picked up surplus MRAPs with no transfer costs or fees. Domestic agencies plan to use them in disaster relief roles, as they can go through flooded areas unlike normal police armored vehicles, and to respond to terrorist threats, such as playing a role in guarding sports stadiums. MRAPs used by police forces often have the machine gun turret removed and are repainted from their original flat desert tan to black. Organizations have become critical about police use of military vehicles and worried about police militarization. Proponents of the domestic acquisitions argue they fill the same role as the standard police Lenco BearCat armored vehicles.[108] Proponents, such as Sgt. Dan Downing of the Morgan County Sheriff's Department, said the unique mine resistant capability is important with people leaving the military that have learned to build IEDs.[109]

The Defense Logistics Agency is charged with off-loading 13,000 MRAPs to 780 domestic law enforcement agencies on waiting lists for vehicles. The DLA does not transfer property to the agencies, so the vehicles are allocated to the agencies with costs picked up by them or the state, while the vehicles remain property of the Defense Department. To receive an armored vehicle, a requesting agency has to meet certain criteria including justification for use like for shooting incidents, SWAT operations, and drug interdiction, geographical area and multi-jurisdiction use, ability to pay for repairs and maintenance, and security and restricted access to the vehicle.[110]

The United States Department of Homeland Security Rapid Response Teams used MRAPs to assist people affected by hurricanes in 2012,[111] and to pull destroyed government vehicles onto the street so they could be towed.[112] The Federal Bureau of Investigation used an MRAP-type vehicle in a child kidnapping case in Midland, Alabama in 2013.[113]

The American Civil Liberties Union has concerns about militarization of American police and that the military hardware could escalate violent situations. Many vehicles have been obtained by rural police with few officers or crime. These police reject the notion of militarization and maintain that an MRAP would be an addition to their inventory to be prepared for any situation, with the main purpose of protecting occupants. About 150 other surplus vehicles, including Humvees, are in use by police departments for situations that MRAPs where could be used and more MRAPs are requested for domestic use. Though the vehicles are obtained for free, the drawbacks are weight as much as 18 tons, low fuel efficiency and expensive refitting with a closed turret, new seating, loudspeakers, and emergency lights can cost around $70,000.[114]

Use by riot police of armored vehicles, which are perceived as similar to MRAP program vehicles, in the August 2014 Ferguson unrest highlighted the militarization of police.[115] In response, President Obama called for a review of programs that include issuing surplus MRAPs for police use.[116]

See also[edit]

Poly Technologies CS/VP3 MRAP

References[edit]

  1. ^ "First MRAP vehicles delivered to Iraq". defense-update.com. 08-11-07. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Alex Rogers (Oct 2, 2012). "The MRAP: Brilliant Buy, or Billions Wasted?". Time.com. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  3. ^ Russell, Robert W (2009). Does the MRAP meet the U.S. Army's needs as the primary method of protecting troops from the IED threat? (Master of Military Art and Science thesis). US Army Command and General Staff College. 
  4. ^ Mike Guardia (20 November 2013). US Army and Marine Corps MRAPs: Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles. Osprey Publishing. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-1-78096-255-9. 
  5. ^ http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6527:fact-file-casspir-mrap&catid=79:fact-files&Itemid=159
  6. ^ http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/an-mrap-for-india-04739/
  7. ^ Fields, Jason (18 August 2014). "In Iraq, U.S. is spending millions to blow up captured American war machines". Reuters. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Sandra I. Erwin (April 2007). "Surge in vehicle orders calls for unconventional buying methods". National Defense. 
  9. ^ "BAE Systems completes acquisition of Armor Holdings Inc." (Press release). BAE Systems plc. 31 July 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2014. 
  10. ^ "MRAP04 | Flickr - Photo Sharing!". Flickr. 2012-05-07. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  11. ^ "More Attacks, Mounting Casualties". Washington Post. 28 September 2007. 
  12. ^ a b Peter Eisler (2007-08-01). "The truck the Pentagon wants and the firm that makes it". USA Today. 
  13. ^ "U.S. military struggles to adapt to war's top killer". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  14. ^ Tom Vanden Brook (2011-11-16). "MRAP whistle-blower returning to Marines post". USA Today. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  15. ^ Christian Lowe (19 October 2007). "Marines Urge Caution on MRAP Fielding". military.com. 
  16. ^ Christian Lowe (Dec 11, 2007). "Another Casualty of the Surge". Weekly Standard. 
  17. ^ a b "Armored Vehicle Cut Threatens Industry". military.com. Associated Press. December 5, 2007. 
  18. ^ a b c d ""MRAP Vehicle Order: 1,000 Cougars to be Turned Loose". Defense Industry Daily. 25 April 2007. 
  19. ^ Adam Tobias. "Wis. Police: Mine-Resistant Vehicles Just Like 'Soft Body Armor' Read Latest Breaking News from Newsmax.com http://www.newsmax.com/US/MRAP-1033-Program-Middle-East-police-departments/2014/07/03/id/580817/#ixzz3BFb1lrQK Urgent: Should Obamacare Be Repealed? Vote Here Now!". Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  20. ^ Top Stories. dla.mil[dead link]
  21. ^ a b c Frag Kit 6 to go on MRAPs[dead link] Defense Tech
  22. ^ Mr. Kevin M. Fahey, Program Executive Officer, Combat Support & Combat Service Support. peocscss.army.mil
  23. ^ [1].[dead link] tacom.army.mil/org
  24. ^ a b "In the News". Force Protection, Inc. [dead link]
  25. ^ "MRAP: Survivable Rides, Start Rolling". February 2007. [dead link]
  26. ^ a b "Contracts for Thursday, May 31, 2007". US Dept of defense. 31 May 2007. 
  27. ^ a b USMC "Army Release Orders for more than 2500 Armored Vehicles". 24 June 2007. 
  28. ^ "BAE's Diverse MRAP Orders". Defense Industry Daily. Nov 30, 2012. 
  29. ^ a b c ""MRAP Orders Approach 5,000". marines.mil. July 13, 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. 
  30. ^ "More MRAPs: Navistar’s MaxxPro Maintains the Pole Position". Defense Industry Daily. Jun 25, 2013. 
  31. ^ General Dynamics News - August 8, 2007
  32. ^ "General Dynamics Wins MRAP Orders of Its Own". Defense Industry Daily. Nov 26, 2012. 
  33. ^ "Cougar Armored Trucks to Stalk Mines on the Battlefield (updated)". Defense Industry Daily. 12 Nov 2007. 
  34. ^ Borak, Donna. "Pentagon orders 2,400 armored vehicles". Archived from the original on 2007-11-11. 
  35. ^ "USMC Releases New Orders for 2,288 MRAPs". 19-10-07. 
  36. ^ Melissa Davis (12/18/07). "Navistar Wins Big MRAP Order". TheStreet.com. 
  37. ^ "Today". Reuters.com. 14 March 2008. [dead link]
  38. ^ "General Dynamics to Supply 773 RG-31 MRAP Vehicles to U.S. Defense Department". prnewswire.com. 17 July 2008. [dead link]
  39. ^ "Defense Contracts Listing for 7/31/2009". Militaryindustrialcomplex.com. 2009-07-31. 
  40. ^ Donnelly, Tom. "Why Gates is wrong". Armed Forces Journal. 
  41. ^ "Armor Holdings, Inc. Receives $518 Million MRAP Award". prnewswire.com. 2007-07-16. [dead link]
  42. ^ "U.S. Marines Order 1,170 MRAPs". America DefenseNews.com. 07/13/07. 
  43. ^ "MRAP Advance Purchase #2: Oshkosh, PVI & GD". Defense Industry Daily. 6 Mar 2007. [dead link]
  44. ^ "MRAP: Survivable Rides, Start Rolling". Defense Industry Daily. February 2007. [dead link]
  45. ^ "Cougar Armored Trucks to Stalk Mines on the Battlefield (updated)". Defense Industry Daily. 12 Nov 2007. [dead link]
  46. ^ DefenseNews.com "U.S. Orders 1,200 MRAPs". 05/31/07. 
  47. ^ "DoD Orders 2,400 MRAPs from 3 Firms". DefenseNews.com. 10/18/07. 
  48. ^ "Textron's M1117 Removed from MRAP Competition." Defense Industry Daily. 18 May 2007.
  49. ^ "Pentagon rejects Oshkosh’s truck design". The Providence Journal projo.com. 07-29-07.  [dead link]
  50. ^ "MRAP: Another One Bites the Dust?". Defense Industry Daily. Aug 5, 2007. 
  51. ^ "pressrelease". General Dynamics News. August 8, 2007. [dead link]
  52. ^ "MRAP: Oshkosh Entries Stalled on 2 Fronts". Defense Industry Daily. Aug 19, 2007. 
  53. ^ "MRAPs on the march". Jane's Land Forces News. [dead link]
  54. ^ "U.S. Marine Corps Awards $8.5 Million Contract for Category II Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicles to International Military and Government, LLC". BusinessWire.com, 19 June 2007.
  55. ^ Defense Tech: Corps Asks for MRAP Slowdown[dead link]
  56. ^ Andrew Krepinevich and Dakota Wood. Of IEDs and MRAPs: Force Protection In Complex Irregular Operations, 17 October 2007."
  57. ^ InsideDefense.com NewsStand: The Insider, 27 September 2007[dead link]
  58. ^ a b Mitchell, Bryan; Andrew Scutro; Kris Osborn (July 3, 2008). "SF deaths come amid MRAP rollover concerns: Three soldiers drowned after RG-31 rolled into canal in Afghanistan". 
  59. ^ The 2d Cavalry Assn News Center » A new age in troop protection, 1 November 2007
  60. ^ Vanden Brook, Tom (2007-12-16). "Long-term needs lessen, but vehicles still sought". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  61. ^ Associated Press (24 July 2008). "Fatal MRAP accidents prompt warnings". Journal Inquirer, Manchester, CT. 
  62. ^ Bryce, Robert (2007-01-22). "Surge of danger for U.S. troops". Salon.com. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  63. ^ Vanden Brook, Tom (2007-05-31). "MRAPs can't stop newest weapon". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  64. ^ "Weapons: Dealing With EFPs". Strategypage.com. May 21, 2008. 
  65. ^ "Biden MRAP Amendment Speech" (DOC). defenseindustrydaily.com. 2007-03-28. 
  66. ^ Michaels, Jim (July 18, 2008). "EFPs in Iraq drop 70 percent in 3 months". Army Times. 
  67. ^ a b TURNER, KEVIN (2008-02-02). "Army's new protective vehicle saved soldier's life in Iraq". The Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville.com). 
  68. ^ Farrell, Stephen (2008-01-22). "Hopes for Vehicle Questioned After Iraq Blast". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  69. ^ Tait, Paul (2008-01-22). "US suffers first death in new armoured truck". Reuters. 
  70. ^ "Hopes for NY Times Reporting Questioned After MRAP Story". Defense Industry Daily. Jan 24, 2008. 
  71. ^ MICHAEL GOLDFARB (26 January 2008). "MRAP Confusion". Weekly Standard. 
  72. ^ "new concerns after 2 die in MRAP". Military.com. [dead link]
  73. ^ "Roadside bombs decline in Iraq". USATODAY.com. 22 June 2008. 
  74. ^ Dan Lamothe (9 May 2011). "New weapons, war dogs eyed to fight IEDs". Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  75. ^ "Central Command confirms ISIL operating U.S. armored personnel carriers in Iraq". World Tribune. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  76. ^ US Army: 17,000 MRAP Vehicles to Replace Hummers?[dead link] Defense Industry Daily, 11 May 2007.
  77. ^ Diversity Adds Depth to MRAP, Military.com, business unit of Monster Worldwide[dead link]
  78. ^ Armored Vehicle Cut Threatens Industry, Military.com, business unit of Monster Worldwide
  79. ^ Washington Pulse nationaldefensemagazine.org, January 2008[dead link]
  80. ^ a b "Logistics: The Bottleneck". Strategyworld.com. 2010-03-22. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  81. ^ USAF Hires Russian Jets 5 January 2008, Charleston.net[dead link]
  82. ^ Army.com - Sealift of MRAP vehicles begins Army.com[dead link]
  83. ^ Jeff Schogol (11 December 2007). "General: Army Will Need Fewer MRAPs". 
  84. ^ Vanden Brook, Tom (2007-12-19). "Military sets sights on at least 15,000 MRAPs". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  85. ^ Ideal Innovations, Inc. - News Archive[dead link]
  86. ^ USA Issues MRAP-II Solicitation - Defense Industry Daily, 5 August 2007
  87. ^ Marine Corps Systems Command Launches MRAP II Solicitation
  88. ^ FILE | 23 | Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles (MRAP) II Enhanced Vehicle Competitive | 02-Aug-2007 - FBO#2075 fbodaily.com
  89. ^ EFP Mines? Ceradyne & i3 Say “Bull!&#8221 19 December 2007, defenseindustrydaily.com
  90. ^ http://www.armytimes.com/news/2008/07/defense_MRAP_II_070308/ "DoD won't buy MRAP II, sources say". Army News, Army Times. 3 Jul 3 2008. 
  91. ^ "Pentagon may buy shorter, lighter MRAPs". Army News, Army Times. 17 July 2008. 
  92. ^ Skillings, Jonathan (2009-10-01). "Pentagon ships new M-ATVs to Afghanistan". Cutting Edge - CNET News. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  93. ^ Army Refining Long Term MRAP Plan - Military.com, May 25, 2012
  94. ^ Pentagon shuts MRAP production line - DoDBuzz.com, October 1, 2012
  95. ^ MRAPs represent new tool on contentious Korean peninsula - Stripes.com, 12 July 2013
  96. ^ MRAP No Good for Korea, 2ID Decides - Military.com, 16 August 2013
  97. ^ a b Industry Working To Give the MRAP New Life - Defensenews.com, 21 October 2013
  98. ^ a b Navistar Pitches New Uses for Old MRAPs - DoDBuzz.com, 23 October 2013
  99. ^ a b US Looking to Sell Portion of Afghan MRAP Fleet - Defensenews.com, 4 December 2013
  100. ^ U.S. Must Demolish Thousands of Its Vehicles in Afghanistan - DoDBuzz.com, 14 March 2014
  101. ^ Pakistan shows interest of U.S. Army MRAP that United States used in Afghanistan - Armyrecognition.com, 17 March 2014
  102. ^ Pakistan, Afghanistan, India all want leftover U.S. MRAPs - Militarytimes.com, 1 April 2014
  103. ^ Source: Pakistan already has U.S.-made MRAPs, new deal in works - Militarytimes.com, 2 April 2014
  104. ^ Brendan McGarry (26 September 2013). "Corps to Industry: Prepare for the Worst". DoDBuzz.com. 
  105. ^ Hope Hodge Seck (1 May 2014). "Corps doubles the number of MRAPS it will keep". Marine Corps Times. 
  106. ^ "Oshkosh Defense is working on a deal with Saudi Arabia for the sale of M-ATV MRAP vehicles". Armyrecognition.com. 29 September 2013. 
  107. ^ Paul McLeary (Jan 5, 2014). "Majority of US MRAPs To Be Scrapped or Stored". Defensenews.com. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  108. ^ "Police Are Getting the Military’s Leftover Armored Trucks". New York Times. 11 October 2013. 
  109. ^ Apuzzo, Matt (8 June 2014). "War Gear Flows to Police Departments". New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  110. ^ "Repurposed MRAPs Find New Life in Police Agencies". National Defense Magazine. April 2014. 
  111. ^ "HSI Rapid Response Team saves 14 stranded by Hurricane Isaac" (Press release). U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). 6 September 2012. 
  112. ^ "ICE gives full effort to helping personnel affected by Hurricane Sandy" (Press release). U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). 15 November 2012. 
  113. ^ "Photos of Alabama Bunker Exterior Released". FBI. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  114. ^ Michael Virtanen (24 November 2013). "Spoils of war: Police getting leftover Iraq trucks". Military Times. 
  115. ^ Patrick, Robert; Currier, Joel. "Ferguson highlights police use of military gear and tactics". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  116. ^ "Obama calls for review of programs that supply local police with military gear in wake of Ferguson unrest". National Post. Associated Press. August 18, 2014. 

External links[edit]