Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

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"MODIS" redirects here. For the company, see MPS Group.
External view of the MODIS unit.
Exploded view of the MODIS subsystems.
Ash plumes on Kamchatka Peninsula, eastern Russia.
Hurricane Katrina near Florida peninsula.
Solar irradiance spectrum and MODIS bands.
Detailed, photo-like view of Earth is based largely on observations from MODIS.

The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a payload scientific instrument launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite. The instruments capture data in 36 spectral bands ranging in wavelength from 0.4 µm to 14.4 µm and at varying spatial resolutions (2 bands at 250 m, 5 bands at 500 m and 29 bands at 1 km). Together the instruments image the entire Earth every 1 to 2 days. They are designed to provide measurements in large-scale global dynamics including changes in Earth's cloud cover, radiation budget and processes occurring in the oceans, on land, and in the lower atmosphere. Three on-board calibrators (a solar diffuser combined with a solar diffuser stability monitor, a spectral radiometric calibration assembly, and a black body) provide in-flight calibration. MODIS has used the Marine Optical Buoy for vicarious calibration.

The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) is dedicated to the production of high quality MODIS calibrated product which is a precursor to every geophysical science product. A detailed description of the MCST mission statement and other details can be found at MCST Web.

One major use of MODIS data is for detection and mapping of wildland fires in the United States. The United States Forest Service's Remote Sensing Applications Center analyzes MODIS imagery on a continuous basis to provide information for the management and suppression of wildfires.[1]

Specifications
Orbit705 km, 10:30 a.m. descending node (Terra) or 1:30 p.m. ascending node (Aqua), sun-synchronous, near-polar, circular
Scan Rate20.3 rpm, cross track
Swath2330 km (cross track) by 10 km (along track at nadir)
Dimensions
Telescope17.78 cm diam. off-axis, afocal (collimated), with intermediate field stop
Size1.0 x 1.6 x 1.0 m
Weight228.7 kg
Power162.5 W (single orbit average)
Data Rate10.6 Mbit/s (peak daytime); 6.1 Mbit/s (orbital average)
Quantization12 bits
Spatial Resolution250 m (bands 1–2) 500 m (bands 3–7) 1000 m (bands 8–36)
Design Life6 years

MODIS Bands[edit]

BandWavelength
(nm)
Resolution
(m)
Primary Use
1620–670250Land/Cloud/Aerosols
Boundaries
2841–876250
3459–479500Land/Cloud/Aerosols
Properties
4545–565500
51230–1250500
61628–1652500
72105–2155500
8405–4201000Ocean Color/
Phytoplankton/
Biogeochemistry
9438–4481000
10483–4931000
11526–5361000
12546–5561000
13662–6721000
14673–6831000
15743–7531000
16862–8771000
17890–9201000Atmospheric
Water Vapor
18931–9411000
19915–9651000
BandWavelength
(µm)
Resolution
(m)
Primary Use
203.660–3.8401000Surface/Cloud
Temperature
213.929–3.9891000
223.929–3.9891000
234.020–4.0801000
244.433–4.4981000Atmospheric
Temperature
254.482–4.5491000
261.360–1.3901000Cirrus Clouds
Water Vapor
276.535–6.8951000
287.175–7.4751000
298.400–8.7001000Cloud Properties
309.580–9.8801000Ozone
3110.780–11.2801000Surface/Cloud
Temperature
3211.770–12.2701000
3313.185–13.4851000Cloud Top
Altitude
3413.485–13.7851000
3513.785–14.0851000
3614.085–14.3851000

MODIS data[edit]

MODIS Level 3 datasets[edit]

The following MODIS Level 3 (L3) datasets are available from NASA, as processed by the Collection 5 software.[2]

Daily8-day16-day32-dayMonthlyYearlyGridPlatformDescription
MxD08_D3MxD08_E3MxD08_M31° CMGTerra, AquaAerosol, Cloud Water Vapor, Ozone
MxD10A1MxD10A2500 m SINTerra, AquaSnow Cover
MxD11A1MxD11A21000 m SINTerra, AquaLand Surface Temperature/Emissivity
MxD11B16000 m SINTerra, AquaLand Surface Temperature/Emissivity
MxD11C1MxD11C2MxD11C30.05° CMGTerra, AquaLand Surface Temperature/Emissivity
MxD13C1MxD13C20.05° CMGTerra, AquaVegetation Indices
MxD14A1MxD14A21000 m SINTerra, AquaThermal Anomalies, Fire
MCD45A1500 m SINTerra+AquaBurned Area
250 m SIN500 m SIN1000 m SIN0.05° CMG1° CMGTime windowPlatformDescription
MxD09Q1MxD09A18-dayTerra, AquaSurface Reflectance
MxD09CMGDailyTerra, AquaSurface Reflectance
MCD12Q1MCD12C1YearlyTerra+AquaLand Cover Type
MCD12Q2YearlyTerra+AquaLand Cover Dynamics

(Global Vegetation Phenology)

MxD13Q1MxD13A1MxD13A2MxD13C116-dayTerra, AquaVegetation Indices
MxD13A3MxD13C2MonthlyTerra, AquaVegetation Indices
MCD43A1MCD43B1MCD43C116-dayTerra+AquaBRDF/Albedo Model Parameters
MCD43A3MCD43B3MCD43C316-dayTerra+AquaAlbedo
MCD43A4MCD43B4MCD43C416-dayTerra+AquaNadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance

Availability[edit]

Raw MODIS data stream could be received in real-time using a tracking antenna, thanks to the instrument's direct broadcast capability.[3]

Alternatively, the scientific data is made available to the public via several World Wide Web sites and FTP archives, such as:

Most of the data is available in the HDF-EOS format — a variant of Hierarchical Data Format prescribed for the data derived from Earth Observing System missions.[5]

Image based on observations from MODIS.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ MODIS Active Fire Mapping Program FAQs, United States Forest Service
  2. ^ "MODIS Products Table". Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  3. ^ "Direct Broadcast at MODIS Website". Retrieved 2009-06-02. 
  4. ^ "About Reverb". Retrieved 2011-11-07. 
  5. ^ "HDF-EOS Tools and Information Center". Retrieved 2009-06-02. 

External links[edit]