M1 carbine

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Carbine, Caliber .30, M1
M1 Carbine Mk I - USA - Armémuseum.jpg
M1 Carbine
TypeCarbine/Assault rifle (M2 and M3)

Semi-automatic rifle

Place of origin United States
Service history
In serviceJuly 1942–1973 (U.S.)
Used bySee Users
WarsWorld War II
Hukbalahap Rebellion
Malayan Emergency
Suez Crisis
Korean War
Cuban Revolution
First Indochina War
Vietnam War
Cambodian Civil War
Angolan Civil War
Production history
DesignerFrederick L. Humeston
William C. Roemer
David Marshall Williams
Designed1938–1941
ManufacturerMilitary contractors
Commercial copies
Unit cost$45 (WW2)
ProducedSeptember 1941–August 1945; commercial 1945-present
Number builtOver 6.5 million
VariantsM1A1, M1A3, M2, M2A2, M3
Specifications
Weight5.2 lb (2.4 kg) empty
Length35.6 in (900 mm)
Barrel length18 in (460 mm)

Cartridge.30 Carbine
ActionGas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fireSemi-automatic (M1/A1)
850–900 rounds/min (M2/M3)
Muzzle velocity1,990 ft/s (607 m/s)
Feed system15 or 30-round detachable box magazine
SightsAperture L-type flip or adjustable rear sights, barleycorn-type front sight
 
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Carbine, Caliber .30, M1
M1 Carbine Mk I - USA - Armémuseum.jpg
M1 Carbine
TypeCarbine/Assault rifle (M2 and M3)

Semi-automatic rifle

Place of origin United States
Service history
In serviceJuly 1942–1973 (U.S.)
Used bySee Users
WarsWorld War II
Hukbalahap Rebellion
Malayan Emergency
Suez Crisis
Korean War
Cuban Revolution
First Indochina War
Vietnam War
Cambodian Civil War
Angolan Civil War
Production history
DesignerFrederick L. Humeston
William C. Roemer
David Marshall Williams
Designed1938–1941
ManufacturerMilitary contractors
Commercial copies
Unit cost$45 (WW2)
ProducedSeptember 1941–August 1945; commercial 1945-present
Number builtOver 6.5 million
VariantsM1A1, M1A3, M2, M2A2, M3
Specifications
Weight5.2 lb (2.4 kg) empty
Length35.6 in (900 mm)
Barrel length18 in (460 mm)

Cartridge.30 Carbine
ActionGas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fireSemi-automatic (M1/A1)
850–900 rounds/min (M2/M3)
Muzzle velocity1,990 ft/s (607 m/s)
Feed system15 or 30-round detachable box magazine
SightsAperture L-type flip or adjustable rear sights, barleycorn-type front sight

The M1 carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber .30, M1) is a lightweight, easy to use semi-automatic carbine that became a standard firearm for the U.S. military during World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War, and was produced in several variants. It was widely used by U.S. and foreign military, paramilitary and police forces, and has also been a popular civilian firearm.

In selective fire versions capable of fully automatic fire, the carbine is designated the M2 carbine. The M3 carbine was an M2 with an active infrared scope system. Unlike conventional carbines, which are generally a version of a parent rifle with a shorter barrel (like the earlier .30-40 U.S. Krag rifle and carbine and the later M16 rifle and M4 carbine), the M1 carbine has only one minor part in common with the M1 rifle (a short buttplate screw) and fires a different cartridge.

Contents

Development history

Limitations of weapons in the U.S. arsenal

WW II M1 Carbine
M1 Rifle and M1 Carbine

Prior to World War II, Army Ordnance received reports from various branches (infantry, armor, artillery, supply) that the full-size M1 rifle was unsuitable as issued for an increasing number of soldiers with specialized training (mortar crews, Rangers, Paratroopers, Machine gun crews, Radiomen, Tankers, Artillerymen, Forward observers, Signals troops, Engineers, Headquarters staff etc.) who did not use the service rifle as a primary arm. During prewar and early war field exercises, it was noticed that these troops, when issued the rifle, often found their individual weapon too heavy and cumbersome. In addition to impeding the soldier's mobility, a slung rifle would frequently catch on brush, bang the helmet, or tilt it over the eyes. Many soldiers found the rifle slid off the shoulder unless slung diagonally across the back, where it prevented the wearing of standard field packs and haversacks. Alternate weapons such as the M1911 pistol and M1917 revolver, while undeniably convenient, were often insufficiently accurate or powerful, while the Thompson submachine gun, though reliable, was heavy and limited in both practical accuracy and penetration at typical combat ranges.[1]

Additionally, Germany's use of glider-borne and paratroop forces to infiltrate and attack strategic points behind the front lines (Blitzkrieg tactics) generated a request for a compact, selective-fire infantry small arm to equip support units and line-of-communications troops who might find themselves engaged in combat without prior warning.[1][2] U.S. Army Ordnance decided that a selective-fire carbine would adequately fulfill all of these requirements, but specified that the new arm should add no more than five pounds to the existing equipment load.[3] The requirement for the new firearm called for a compact, lightweight defensive weapon with an effective range of 300 yards, with greater range, firepower, and accuracy than the pistol, while weighing half as much as the Thompson submachine gun or M1 rifle. Parachutists were added to the list of intended users after Ordnance received a request for a lighter and more compact infantry arm for airborne forces, and a folding-stock (M1A1) version of the carbine was introduced in May 1942 to meet this requirement.

Designing the M1 carbine

In 1938, the Chief of Infantry requested the Ordnance Department develop a "light rifle" or carbine, though the formal requirement for the weapon type was not approved until 1940. This led to a competition in 1941 by major U.S. firearm companies and designers. The prototypes for the carbine competition were chambered for a new cartridge, the .30 Carbine, a smaller and lighter .30 caliber (7.62 mm) round very different from the .30-06 in both design and performance. The .30 Carbine cartridge was intermediate in muzzle energy (ME) and muzzle velocity (MV). Essentially a rimless version of the obsolete .32 Winchester Self-Loading cartridge, the .30 Carbine had a round-nose 110 gr (7.1 g) bullet. From an 18 in (460 mm) barrel, the .30 Carbine cartridge produced a muzzle velocity of approximately 1,970 ft/s (600 m/s).

Winchester at first did not submit a carbine design, as it was occupied in developing the .30-06 Winchester M2 Military Rifle. The rifle originated as a design by Jonathan "Ed" Browning, brother of the famous firearm designer John Browning. A couple of months after Ed Browning's death in May 1939, Winchester hired ex-convict David M. Williams, a convicted murderer and former moonshiner who had begun work on a short-stroke gas piston design while serving a prison sentence. Winchester hoped Williams would be able to complete various designs left unfinished by Ed Browning, including the Winchester .30-06 M2 rifle. Williams incorporated his short-stroke piston in the existing design. After the Marine Corps semi-automatic rifle trials in 1940, Browning's rear-locking tilting bolt design proved unreliable in sandy conditions. As a result, the rifle was redesigned to incorporate a Garand-style rotating bolt and operating rod, retaining Williams' short-stroke piston. By May 1941, Williams had shaved the M2 rifle prototype from about 9.5 lb (4.3 kg) to a mere 7.5 lb (3.4 kg).

From prototype to completion

Ordnance found unsatisfactory the first series of prototype carbines submitted by several firearms companies and some independent designers.[4] Winchester had contacted the Ordnance Department to examine their rifle M2 design. Major René Studler of Ordnance believed the rifle design could be scaled down to a carbine which would weigh 4.5 to 4.75 lb (2.0–2.2 kg) and demanded a prototype as soon as possible. The first model was developed at Winchester in 13 days by William C. Roemer, Fred Humeston and three other Winchester engineers under supervision of Edwin Pugsley, essentially Williams' last version of the .30-06 M2 scaled down to the .30 SL cartridge.[5] This patchwork prototype was cobbled together using the trigger housing and lockwork of a Winchester M1905 rifle and a modified Garand operating rod. The prototype was an immediate hit with Army observers.[6]

81 mm mortar crew in action at Camp Carson, Colorado, April 24, 1943. The soldier on the left has a slung M1 Carbine.

After the initial Army testing in August 1941, the Winchester design team set out to develop a more refined version. Williams participated in the finishing of this prototype. The second prototype competed successfully against all remaining carbine candidates in September 1941, and Winchester was notified of their success the very next month. Standardization as the M1 Carbine was approved on October 22, 1941. This story was the loose basis of the 1952 movie Carbine Williams starring James Stewart. Contrary to movie myth, Williams had little to do with the carbine's development, with the exception of his short-stroke gas piston design. Williams worked on his own design apart from the other Winchester staff, but it was not ready for testing until December 1941, two months after the Winchester M1 Carbine had been adopted and type-classified. Winchester supervisor Edwin Pugsley conceded that Williams' final design was "an advance on the one that was accepted", but noted that Williams' decision to go it alone was a distinct impediment to the project,[5] and William's additional design features were not incorporated into M1 production. In a 1951 memo in response to a possible lawsuit by Williams, Winchester noted his patent for the short-stroke piston may have been improperly granted as a previous patent covering the same principle of operation was overlooked at the patent office.[5]

In 1974 the senior technical editor at the NRA contacted Edwin Pugsley for "a technical last testament" on M1 carbine history shortly before his death 19 Nov 1975. According to Pugsley, "The carbine was invented by no single man," but was the result of a team effort including Bill Roemer, Marsh Williams, Fred Humeston, Cliff Warner, at least three other Winchester engineers, and Pugsley himself. Ideas were taken and modified from the Winchester M2 Browning rifle (Williams' gas system), the Winchester 1905 rifle (fire control group), M1 Garand (buttstock, bolt and operating slide), and a percussion shotgun in Pugsley's collection (hook breech and barrel band assembly/disassembly).[7]

Combat use

M1 Carbine at First Iwo Jima Flag Raising

World War II

The first M1 carbines were delivered in mid-1942, with initial priority given to troops in the European Theater of Operations (ETO).[1]

The M1 carbine with its reduced-power .30 cartridge was not originally intended to serve as a primary weapon for combat infantrymen, nor was it comparable to more powerful assault rifles developed late in the war. Nevertheless, the carbine was soon widely issued to infantry officers, American paratroopers,[8] NCOs, ammunition bearers, forward artillery observers, and other frontline troops.[9] Its reputation in front-line combat was mixed. The M1 carbine gained generally high praise for its small size, light weight and firepower, especially by those troops who were unable to use a full-size rifle as their primary weapon.[10][11] However, negative reports began to surface with airborne operations in Sicily in 1943,[12] and increased during the fall and winter of 1944.[13]

In the Pacific theater, soldiers and guerrilla forces operating in heavy jungle with only occasional enemy contact praised the carbine for its small size, light weight, and firepower.[14] Other soldiers and marines engaged in frequent daily firefights (particularly those serving in the Philippines) found the weapon to have insufficient stopping power and penetration.[15][16] Reports of the carbine's failure to stop enemy soldiers, sometimes after multiple hits, appeared in individual after-action reports, postwar evaluations, and service histories of both the U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps.[15][17] Aware of these shortcomings, the U.S. Army, its Pacific Command Ordnance staff, and the Aberdeen small arms facility continued to work on shortened versions of the M1 rifle throughout the war, though none was ever officially adopted.

While the .30 Carbine cartridge used in the M1 Carbine could not penetrate small trees and light cover as well as the standard U.S. .30-06 rifle cartridge, it was markedly superior to the .45-caliber Reising and Thompson submachineguns in both accuracy and penetration,[1] while its lighter .30 cartridge allowed soldiers to carry more ammunition. Lt. Col. John George, a small arms expert and intelligence officer serving in Burma with Merrill's Marauders, reported that .30 carbine bullets would easily penetrate the front and back of steel helmets, as well as the body armor used by Japanese forces of the era.[18][19]

The carbine's exclusive use of non-corrosive primered ammunition was found to be a godsend by troops and ordnance personnel serving in the Pacific, where barrel corrosion was a significant issue with the corrosive primers used in .30-06 caliber weapons.[15] However, in the ETO some soldiers reported misfires attributed to moisture ingress of the non-corrosive primer compound.[20]

Select-fire and infrared sight versions

Initially, the M1 carbine was intended to have a select-fire capability, but in order to speed development of the adopted design, a decision was made to omit this feature. On 26 October 1944, in response to increased use of automatic fire weapons on the battlefield like the German Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifle, the select-fire M2 carbine was adopted, along with a new 30-round magazine. The M2 had a fully automatic rate-of-fire of about 850-900 rounds-per-minute. Although actual M2 production began late in the war (April 1945), US Ordnance issued conversion part kits to allow field conversion of semi-auto M1 carbines to the selective-fire M2 configuration. These converted M1/M2 select-fire carbines saw limited combat service in Europe, primarily during the final Allied advance into Germany. In the Pacific, both converted and original M2 carbines saw limited use in the last days of the fighting in the Philippines.[21]

The M3 carbine (a selective-fire M2 with the M1 infrared night sight or sniperscope) was first used in combat by Army units during the invasion of Okinawa. For the first time, U.S. soldiers had a weapon that allowed them to visually detect Japanese infiltrating into American lines at night, even during complete darkness. A team of two or three soldiers was used to operate the weapon and provide support.[22] At night, the scope would be used to detect Japanese patrols and assault units moving forward. At that point, the operator would fire a burst of automatic fire at the greenish images of enemy soldiers.[22] The M3 with the M1 sight had an effective range of about 70 yards (limited by the visual capabilities of the sight).[23] Fog and rain further reduced the weapon's effective range.[22][23] It is estimated that fully 30% of Japanese casualties inflicted by rifle and carbine fire during the Okinawan campaign were caused by the M3 carbine and its M1 sniperscope.[22]

M1 carbine in action during Korean War. Note: 30-round magazine, stock pouch for two 15-round Magazine and grenade launcher.

Korean War

The M1, M2, and M3 carbine all saw service during the Korean War, although the M2 armed the majority of U.S. Army and Marine units deployed there.[24] In Korea, all versions of the carbine soon acquired a widespread reputation among both soldiers and marines for jamming in extreme cold weather conditions,[25][26][27] eventually traced to inadequate recoil impulse and weak return springs.[28][29] A 1951 official U.S. Army evaluation of scores of individual after-action combat reports for all small arms usage in Korea by the Eighth Army from 1 November 1950 to 1 March 1951 documented the weapon's cold-weather shortcomings, as well as noting complaints from individual soldiers that the carbine bullet failed to stop heavily clothed[30][31][32][33] or gear-laden[34][35][36] North Korean and Chinese (PLA) troops at close range after multiple hits.[26][28][37] Soldiers reported that their "reaction to the weapons family was almost universally to the point that what they have is good and adequate to the tactical need...The one exception was the carbine. One company in the 38th Infantry Regiment expressed its satisfaction with this weapon; but it was alone in the Eighth Army. In all other units, bad experience in battle had made troops shy of this weapon."[38] Marines of the 1st Marine Division also reported instances of carbine bullets failing to stop enemy soldiers, and some units issued standing orders for carbine users to aim for the head.[39][40] Ironically, PLA infantry forces who had been issued captured U.S. small arms disliked the carbine for the same reason.[41]

The M3 carbine with an improved M2 (later, M3) infrared sniperscope also returned to combat, and was used principally during the static stages of the conflict against night infiltrators. The M3 with the improved M3 night sight had an effective range of approximately 125 yards.[23]

ARVN soldiers with M1 carbines and U.S. Special Forces with M16s

Vietnam

The M1 and M2 carbines were again issued to U.S. forces during the Vietnam War, particularly with United States Air Force Security Police and United States Army Special Forces. These weapons began to be replaced by the M16 and by M16A1 in the early-to-mid-1960s and were generally out of service by the late 1960s. Although they were used in limited numbers by U.S. troops and security personnel until the fall of Saigon in 1975. At least 793,994 M1 and M2 carbines were given to the South Vietnamese and were widely used throughout the Vietnam War.[42] A number were captured during the war by Vietcong.[43]

The M1/M2/M3 carbines were the most heavily produced family of U.S. military weapons for several decades. They were used by every branch of the U.S. Armed Forces and are one of the most recognised firearms in the world.

Design and operation

A U.S. anti-tank crew in combat in the Netherlands, November 4, 1944. The soldier on the far right is holding an M1 Carbine

The M1 carbine's bolt mechanism is similar to the M1 rifle, though the carbine has a different gas system and trigger mechanism design. The gas system is a lightweight tappet-and-slide gas system. Initially fed from a 15 round magazine, a 30 round magazine was introduced for the M2.

The very first carbines, those made before mid-1943, were originally equipped with a "V-cut" extractor for removal of the fired round from the chamber. The "V-cut" design was found to be flawed and unreliable. In the field "V-cut" extractors were reground to a straight configuration, which enhanced reliability, until factory production was able to supply the better design.

The .30 Carbine cartridge was intermediate in both muzzle energy (ME) and muzzle velocity (MV). It is essentially a rimless version of the obsolete .32 Winchester Self-Loading cartridge.[44] The .30 Carbine had a round-nose 110 gr (7.1 g) bullet, in contrast to the spitzer bullet designs found in most full-power rifle cartridges of the day. From the M1 carbine's 18 in (460 mm) barrel, the .30 Carbine cartridge produced a muzzle velocity of approximately 1,970 ft/s (600 m/s), a velocity between that of contemporary submachine guns (approximately 900 to 1,600 ft/s (300–500 m/s)) and full-power rifles and light machine guns (approximately 2,400 to 2,800 ft/s (700–900 m/s)). At the M1 carbine's maximum effective combat range of 300 yards (270 m), its bullet has about the same energy as pistol rounds like the 8mm Nambu do at the muzzle. Bullet drop is significant past 200 yards (180 m).[44]

One characteristic of .30 Carbine ammunition is that from the beginning of production, non-corrosive primers were specified. This was the first major use of this type of primer in a military firearm. Because the rifle had a closed gas system, not normally disassembled, corrosive primers would have led to a rapid deterioration of the gas system.[45] The use of non-corrosive primers was a novelty in service ammunition at this time.[46] Some misfires were reported in early lots of .30 Carbine ammunition, attributed to moisture ingress of the non-corrosive primer compound.[20]

Categorizing the M1 carbine series has been the subject of much debate. The M1 is sufficiently accurate at short ranges. At 100 yards (91 m), it can deliver groups of between 3 and 5 minutes of angle, sufficient for its intended purpose as a close-range defensive weapon. Its muzzle energy and range are beyond those of any submachine gun of the period, though its bullet is much lighter in weight and smaller in diameter than that of .45 caliber weapons, and much less powerful than those of other service rifles of the period. The M1 and later M2 carbines were never designed to be assault rifles, such as the later German StG44 and Russian AK-47, and the .30 Carbine cartridge gives up significant muzzle velocity (roughly 350 ft/s (110 m/s)) to both. Additionally, the bullets used in the cartridges of the AK-47 and StG44 are spitzer designs, and suffer less energy loss and trajectory drop at distances beyond 100 yards (91 m). Most authorities list the effective combat range of the M1 carbine at around 200 yards (180 m), compared to 250-300 yards (230–270 m) for the AK-47 and StG44.

Accessories

A United States Marine equipped with an M1 Carbine in the Battle of Iwo Jima, February 1945. An M8 grenade launcher can be seen attached to the muzzle of the weapon

Perhaps the most common accessory used on the M1 Carbine was a magazine pouch that was mounted to the right side of the stock and held two spare 15-round magazines. At first, these were standard belt pouches that were modified by the troops in the field to fit on the M1 Carbine's stock. However, the military soon recognized the value of these stock pouches and made them a standard-issue item. After the introduction of the 30-round magazine, it was common for the troops to tape two 30-round magazines together. This led the military to introduce the "Jungle Clip", which was a metal clamp that would hold two magazines together without the need of tape. A folding stock version of the Carbine was also developed after a request was made for a compact and light infantry arm for airborne troops.

The M1 carbine was used with the M8 grenade launcher, which was fired with the M6 cartridge to launch 22 mm rifle grenades. It also accepts the M4 bayonet, which was based on the M3 knife. The M4 bayonet formed the basis for the later M6 and M7 bayonet-knives. The carbine was modified from its original design to incorporate a bayonet, due to requests from the field. Very few carbines with bayonet lugs reached the front lines before the end of World War II. This modification was made to nearly all carbines during arsenal rebuild following World War II. By the time the Korean War began, the bayonet-equipped M1 was standard issue. It is now rare to find a non bayonet lug-equipped original M1 carbine. As carbines were reconditioned at arsenals, parts such as the magazine catch, rear sight, barrel band with bayonet lug, and stock were upgraded with the current standard issue parts, usually parts as redesigned for the M2 carbine. During World War II, the T23 (M3) flash hider was designed to reduce the muzzle flash from the carbine, but was not introduced into service until the advent of the M3 carbine.[47] With the exception of T23 hiders mounted on M3 Carbines, few if any T23 flash hider attachments saw service during World War II, though unit armorers occasionally hand-built improvised compensator/flash hiders of their own design.[21][47]

Production

A total of over 6.5 million M1 carbines of various models were manufactured, making it the most produced small arm for the American military during World War II (compared with about 6 million M1 rifles and under 2 million Thompson submachine guns). Despite being designed by Winchester, the great majority of these were made by other companies (see list of Military contractors below). The largest producer was the Inland division of General Motors, but many others were made by contractors as diverse as IBM, the Underwood Typewriter Company, and the Rock-Ola jukebox company. Few contractors made all the parts for carbines bearing their name: some makers bought parts from other major contractors or sub-contracted minor parts to companies like Marlin Firearms or Auto-Ordnance. Parts by all makers were required to be interchangeable. Irwin-Pedersen models were the fewest produced, at a little over 4,000. Many carbines were refurbished at several arsenals after the war, with many parts interchanged from original maker carbines. True untouched war production carbines, therefore, are the most desirable for collectors.[48]

The M1 carbine was also one of the most cost effective weapons used by the United States Military during World War II. At the beginning of World War II the average production cost for an M1 carbine was approximately $45, about half the cost of an M1 rifle at approximately $85 and about a fifth of the cost of a Thompson submachine gun at approximately $225. The .30 Carbine ammunition was also far cheaper to produce than the standard .30-06 ammunition; used less resources, was smaller, lighter, faster and easier to make. These were major factors in the United States Military decision to adopt the M1 carbine, especially when considering the vast numbers of weapons and ammunition manufactured and transported by the United States during World War II.

Foreign usage

Ethiopian soldiers deployed with U.S.-made weapons somewhere in Korea, 1953. Note the M1 Carbine with two 30-round magazines taped together "Jungle style".
South Vietnamese Popular Force members on patrol with M1 carbines.

During World War II, the British SAS used the M1 and M1A1 carbines after 1943. The weapon was taken into use simply because a decision had been taken by Allied authorities to supply .30 caliber weapons from US stocks in the weapons containers dropped to Resistance groups sponsored by an SOE, or later also Office of Strategic Services (OSS), organizer, on the assumption the groups so supplied would be operating in areas within the operational boundaries of U.S. forces committed to Operation Overlord.[citation needed] They were found to be suited to the kind of operation the two British, two French, and one Belgian Regiment carried out. It was handy enough to parachute with, and, in addition, could be easily stowed in an operational Jeep. Other specialist intelligence collection units, such as 30 Assault Unit sponsored by the Naval Intelligence Division of the British Admiralty, which operated across the entire Allied area of operations, also made use of this weapon.[citation needed]. The Carbine continued to be utilized as late as the Malayan Emergency, by the Police Field Force[49] of the Royal Malaysian Police, along with other units of the British Army,[50][51] were issued the M2 Carbine for both jungle patrols and outpost defense. The Royal Ulster Constabulary also used the M1 carbine.[52]

Small numbers of captured M1 carbines were used by German forces in World War II, particularly after D-Day.[53] The German designation for captured carbines was Selbstladekarabiner 455(a). The "(a)" came from the country name in German; in this case, Amerika. It was also used by German police and border guard in Bavaria after World War II and into the 1950s. The carbines were stamped according to the branch they were in service with; for instance, those used by the border guard were stamped "Bundesgrenzschutz". Some of these weapons were modified with different sights, finishes, and sometimes new barrels.

A variant was produced shortly after World War II by the Japanese manufacturer Howa Machinery, under U.S. supervision. These were issued to all branches of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, and large numbers of them found their way to Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.

The M1 carbine was also used by the Israeli Palmach-based special forces in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. And, because of their compact size and semi-auto capabilities, they continued to be used by Israeli Defence Forces after the creation of Israel. The Israeli police still use the M1 carbine as a standard long gun for non-combat elements and Mash'az volunteers.

The M1 carbine was also used by the French Paratroopers and Legionnaires during the Indo-China War and Algerian War.[54]

The M1 and M2 carbines were widely used by military, police and security forces during the many guerrilla and civil wars throughout Latin America until the 1990s when they were mostly replaced by more modern designs.

In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a police battalion named BOPE (Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais, or "Special Police Operations Battalion") still uses the M1 carbine.

The government of the Philippines still issues M1 carbines to the infantrymen of the Philippine Army's 2nd Infantry Division[citation needed] assigned in Luzon Island (some units are issued just M14 Automatic Rifles and M1 Carbines) and the Civilian Auxiliary Forces Geographical Unit (CAFGU) and Civilian Volunteer Organizations (CVO)spread throughout the Philippines. Certain provincial police units of the Philippine National Police (PNP) still use government-issue M1 carbines as well as some operating units of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI). In many provinces of the Philippines, M1 carbines are still highly valued as a light small arm. Elements of the New People's Army and Islamic Secessionist movement value the carbine as a lightweight weapon and preferred choice for mountain and ambush operations. The M1 carbine has become one of the most recognized firearms in Philippine society, with the Marikina City-based company ARMSCOR Philippines still continuing to manufacture .30 caliber ammunition for the Philippine market.

After World War II, the M1 and M2 carbines were widely exported to U.S. allies and client states (1,015,568 to South Korea, 793,994 to South Vietnam, 269,644 to France, etc.),[42] they were used as a frontline weapon well into the Vietnam War era, and they continue to be used by military, police and security forces around the world to this day.

Users

The unit data provided below refers to original U.S. Ordnance contract carbines the United States provided these countries. Many countries sold, traded, destroyed, and/or donated these carbines to other countries and/or private gun brokers.[42]

Variants

The standard issue versions of the carbine officially listed and supported were the M1, M1A1, M2 and M3.[64]

M1A1 Carbine. Paratrooper model with folding buttstock.

Carbine, Cal .30, M1A1

Carbines originally issued with the M1A1 folding stock were made by Inland, a division of General Motors. Inland production of M1A1 carbines was interspersed with Inland production of M1 carbines with the standard stock. Stocks were often swapped out as carbines were refurbished at arsenals. An original Inland carbine with an original M1A1 stock is rare today.

Carbine, Cal .30, M1A2

Carbine, Cal .30, M1A3

Carbine, Cal .30, M2

M2 Carbine, note: the selector lever on the left side, opposite of the bolt handle.
Exploded view of M2 Carbine

Initially, the M1 carbine was intended to have a selective-fire capability, but the decision was made to put the M1 into production without this feature. Fully automatic capability was incorporated into the design of the M2 (an improved, selective-fire version of the M1), introduced in 1944. The M2 had a revised wood stock and featured the late M1 improvements to rear sight, a bayonet lug, and other minor changes.

Although some carbines were marked at the factory as M2, the only significant difference between an M1 and M2 carbine is the fire control group. The military issued field conversion kits (T17 and T18) to convert an M1 to an M2. Legally a carbine marked M2 is always a machine gun for national firearms registry purposes.

Other changes developed for the M2 were a 30 round magazine with three catch nibs (as opposed to two on the fifteen round magazine); and a magazine catch with a third retaining surface. These M2 parts including the heavier M2 stock were standardized for arsenal rebuild of M1 and M1A1 carbines.

A modified round bolt replaced the original flat top bolt to save machining steps in manufacture. Many sources erroneously refer to this round bolt as an 'M2 bolt' but it was developed as a standard part for new manufacture M1 and later M2 carbines and as a replacement part, with priority given to use on M1A1 and M2 carbines.[65] The slightly heavier round bolt did moderate the cyclic rate of the M2 on full automatic.[66]

Carbine, Cal. 30, M2A2

Carbine, Cal .30, M3

Original Korean War era USMC M3 Sniperscope

The M3 carbine was an M2 carbine fitted with a mount designed to accept an infrared sight for use at night. It was initially used with the M1 sniperscope, an active infrared sight, and saw action in 1945 with the Army during the invasion of Okinawa. Before the M3 carbine and M1 sniperscope were type-classified, they were known as the T3 and T120, respectively. The system continued to be developed, and by the time of the Korean War, the M3 carbine was used with the M3 sniperscope.

The M2 sniperscope extended the effective nighttime range of the M3 carbine to 100 yards. In the later stages of the Korean War, an improved version of the M3 carbine, with a revised mount, a forward pistol grip, and a new M3 sniperscope design was used in the latter stages of Korea and briefly in Vietnam. The M3 sniperscope had a large active infrared spotlight mounted on top of the scope body itself, allowing use in the prone position. The revised M3/M3 had an effective range of around 125 yards.[23] Eventually, the M3 carbine and its M3 sniperscope would be superseded by passive-design night vision scopes with extended visible ranges; the improved scopes in turn required the use of rifle-caliber weapons with flatter trajectories and increased hit probability.

Derivatives

Ingram SAM

The Ingram SAM rifles are M1 carbine derivatives in 5.56x45mm NATO (SAM-1), 7.62x39mm (SAM-2) and 7.62x51mm NATO (SAM-3). These are occasionally found on auction sites for collectors. The 5.56x45mm versions accept M16 magazines, the 7.62x39mm accept AK magazines and the 7.62x51mm versions use FN FAL magazines.

Military contractors

Commercial copies

Several companies manufactured copies of the M1 Carbine after World War II, which varied in quality. Some companies used a combination of original USGI and new commercial parts, while others manufactured entire firearms from new parts, which may or may not be of the same quality as the originals. These copies were marketed to the general public and police agencies but were not made for or used by the U.S. military.

In 1963, firearms designer Melvin M. Johnson introduced a version of the M1 Carbine called the "Spitfire" that fired a 5.7 mm (.22 in) wildcat cartridge known as the 5.7 mm MMJ or .22 Spitfire.[44] The Spitfire fired a 40-grain (2.6 g) bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2850 ft/s (870 m/s) for a muzzle energy of 720 foot-pounds force (980 J).[69] Johnson advertised the smaller caliber and the modified carbine as a survival rifle for use in jungles or other remote areas.[69] While the concept had some military application when used for this role in the selective-fire M2 Carbine, it was not pursued, and few Spitfire carbines were made.[69]

An Auto-Ordnance AOM-130 Carbine manufactured in 2007.

More recently, the Auto-Ordnance division of Kahr Arms began production of an M1 Carbine replica in 2005. The original Auto-Ordnance had produced various replacement parts for IBM during World War II, but did not manufacture complete carbines until the introduction of this replica. The AOM110 and AOM120 models (no longer produced) featured birch stocks and handguards, Parkerized receivers, flip-style rear sights and barrel bands without bayonet lugs. The current AOM130 and AOM140 models are identical except for American walnut stocks and handguards.[70][71]

An Israeli arms company (Advanced Combat Systems) offers a modernized bullpup variant called the Hezi SM-1.[72] The company claims accuracy of 1.5 MOA at 100 yards (91 m).[73]

Other commercial manufacturers have included:

Hunting and civilian use

A famous photograph of Malcolm X holding an M1 with two 30-round magazines clipped together using the "Jungle style" method.
Patty Hearst holding a sawed-off M1 carbine during her infamous bank robbery attempt.

After World War II, the M1 Carbine became a popular plinking and ranch rifle. It is still popular with civilian shooters around the world and is prized as a historically significant collector's item. The Carbine continues to be used in military marksmanship training and competitive target matches conducted by rifle clubs affiliated with the Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP.)

The M1 Carbine can be used for big-game hunting, such as white-tailed deer and mule deer at close range (less than 100 yards), but is definitely underpowered for larger North American game such as elk, moose, and bear. A standard .30 carbine soft-point round weighs 110 grains (7.1 g) and has a muzzle velocity of about 1,990 ft/s (610 m/s) giving it about 967 ft·lbf (1,311 joules) of energy.[100] By comparison, a .357 Magnum revolver fires the 110 grains (7.1 g) hollow-point bullet from a 4-inch (100 mm) barrel at about 1,500 ft/s (460 m/s) for about 550 ft·lbf (750 J) of energy.[101] 30 Carbine sporting ammunition is factory recommended for hunting and control of large varmints like coyote, fox or bobcat.[102]

Some U.S. states prohibit use of the .30 Carbine cartridge for hunting deer and larger animals due to a lessened chance of killing an animal in a single shot, even with expanding bullets. The M1 Carbine is also prohibited for hunting in several states such as Pennsylvania[103] because of the semi-automatic function, and Illinois[104] which prohibits all non-muzzleloading rifles for big game hunting. Five round magazines are commercially made for use in states that limit the capacity of semi-automatic hunting rifles. Ten round magazines are made for use in jurisdictions that limit the capacity of defensive weapons.

The M1 Carbine was also used by various law enforcement agencies and prison guards, and was prominently carried by riot police during the civil unrest of the late 1960s and early 1970s; until it was replaced in those roles by more modern .223 caliber semi-automatic rifles such as the Ruger Mini-14 and the Colt AR-15 type rifles in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

The ease of use and great adaptability of the weapon led to it being used by Malcolm X and Patty Hearst. Both were featured in famous news photographs carrying the carbine.

Related equipment and accessories

Ammunition types

The ammunition used by the military with the carbine include:[105]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d George, John, Shots Fired In Anger, (2nd ed., enlarged), Washington, D.C.: NRA Press, ISBN 0-935998-42-X, 9780935998429 (1981), p. 394
  2. ^ Weeks, John, World War II Small Arms, London: Orbis Publishing Ltd. and New York: Galahad Books, ISBN 0-88365-403-2, ISBN 978-0-88365-403-3 (1979), p. 130
  3. ^ Larry Ruth, M1 Carbine: Design, Development & Production, (The Gun Room Press, 1979, ISBN 0-88227-020-6) contains many Ordnance documents related to the "Light Rifle" specification that led to the M1 carbine
  4. ^ Larry Ruth, M1 Carbine: Design, Development & Production, Gun Room Press, 1979.
  5. ^ a b c Canfield, Bruce N., "'Carbine' Williams: Myth & Reality", The American Rifleman, February 2009.
  6. ^ Bishop, Chris (1998). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. New York: Orbis Publiishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7607-1022-8 .
  7. ^ E.H. Harrison, "Who Designed the M1 Carbine?", in U.S. Caliber .30 Carbine, NRA American Rifleman Reprint.
  8. ^ Rush, Robert S., GI: The US Infantryman in World War II, Osprey Publishing Ltd. (2003), ISBN 1-84176-739-5, p. 33: Officers were issued .45 M1911 pistols as individual weapons until 1943, when they were issued the M1 Carbine in place of the pistol.
  9. ^ Rush, Robert S., GI: The US Infantryman in World War II, Osprey Publishing Ltd. (2003), ISBN 1-84176-739-5, pp. 33-35: Officers and NCOs, as well as airborne and other elite troops were frequently allowed to exchange with Ordnance personnel for their individual weapon of choice.
  10. ^ Shore, C. (Capt), With British Snipers To The Reich, Mount Ida AR: Lancer Militaria Press, ISBN 0-935856-02-1, ISBN 978-0-935856-02-6 (1988), pp. 191-195: Small-statured men such as Capt. Shore and Sgt. Audie Murphy liked the carbine, as its small stock dimensions fit them particularly well.
  11. ^ McManus, John C., The Deadly Brotherhood: The American Combat Soldier in World War II, New York: Random House Publishing, ISBN 0-89141-823-7 (1998), p. 52: Sergeant Herbert Miller of the U.S. 6th Armored Division stated that he "was very happy with the carbine...It's fast, it's easy to use in a hurry. For churches and houses and things like that, it was good."
  12. ^ Gavin, James M. (Lt. Gen.), War and Peace in the Space Age, New York: Harper and Brothers (1958), pp. 57, 63: Col. Gavin's love affair with his M1A1 carbine ended in Sicily, when his carbine and that of Maj. Vandervoort jammed repeatedly. Noticing that carbine fire rarely suppressed rifle fire from German infantry, he and Vandervoort traded with wounded soldiers for their M1 rifles and ammunition; Gavin carried an M1 rifle for the rest of the war.
  13. ^ Burgett, Donald, Seven Roads To Hell, New York: Dell Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-440-23627-4 pp. 153-154: Burgett, a machine-gunner in the 101st Airborne from Normandy to the Battle of the Bulge, witnessed several failures of the .30 carbine to stop German soldiers after being hit.
  14. ^ Chapman, F. Spencer, The Jungle Is Neutral: A Soldier's Two-Year Escape from the Japanese Army, Lyons Press, 1st ed., ISBN 1-59228-107-9, ISBN 978-1-59228-107-7 (2003), p. 300
  15. ^ a b c Dunlap, Roy, Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 297
  16. ^ McManus, John C., The Deadly Brotherhood: The American Combat Soldier in World War II, New York: Random House Publishing, ISBN 0-89141-823-7 (1998), p. 52: Private Richard Lovett of the U.S. Americal Division noted that "It didn't have stopping power. Enemy soldiers were shot many times but kept on coming."
  17. ^ McManus, John C., The Deadly Brotherhood, p. 52
  18. ^ U.S. Army, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces: Body armor, Technical Manual, 15 September 1944, Chap. X, sec. 4(b) http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/Japan/IJA/HB/HB-10.html
  19. ^ George, John, Shots Fired In Anger NRA Press (1981), p. 450
  20. ^ a b Shore, C. (Capt), With British Snipers To The Reich, Lancer Militaria Press (1988), pp. 191-195
  21. ^ a b Dunlap, Roy, Ordnance Went Up Front, Plantersville, SC: Small-Arms Technical Pub. Co., The Samworth Press, ISBN 1-884849-09-1 (1948), p. 240
  22. ^ a b c d Rush, Robert S., US Infantryman in World War II, Osprey Publishing (2002), ISBN 1-84176-330-6, ISBN 978-1-84176-330-9, p.53
  23. ^ a b c d M3 Infra Red Night Sight Article
  24. ^ Canfield, Bruce, Arms of the Chosin Few American Rifleman, 2 November 2010, retrieved 10 May 2011
  25. ^ Dill, James, Winter of the Yalu, Changjin Journal 06.22.00
  26. ^ a b Canfield, Bruce, Arms of the Chosin Few American Rifleman, 2 November 2010, retrieved 10 May 2011
  27. ^ Hammel, Eric, Chosin: Heroic Ordeal of the Korean War, Zenith Press, 1st ed., ISBN 978-0-7603-3154-5, ISBN 978-0-7603-3154-5 (2007), p. 205
  28. ^ a b S.L.A. Marshall, Commentary on Infantry and Weapons in Korea 1950-51, 1st Report ORO-R-13 of 27 October 1951, Project Doughboy [Restricted], Operations Research Office (ORO), U.S. Army (1951)
  29. ^ Clavin, Tom, Last Stand of Fox Company, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, ISBN 0-87113-993-6, ISBN 978-0-87113-993-1 (2009), p. 161
  30. ^ O'Donnell, Patrick, Give Me Tomorrow: The Korean War's Greatest Untold Story: The Epic Stand of the Marines of George Company, Da Capo Press 1st ed., ISBN 0-306-81801-9, ISBN 978-0-306-81801-1 (2010), p. 88, 168, 173
  31. ^ Clavin, Tom, Last Stand of Fox Company, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, ISBN 0-87113-993-6, ISBN 978-0-87113-993-1 (2009), p. 113: In addition to their bulky cotton-padded telegroika coats, which could freeze solid with perspiration, Chicom infantry frequently wore vests or undercoats of thick goatskin.
  32. ^ Jowett, Philip S., The Chinese Army 1937-49: World War II and Civil War, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84176-904-2 (2005), p. 47
  33. ^ Thomas, Nigel, The Korean War 1950-53, Osprey Publishing Ltd., ISBN 0-85045-685-1, ISBN 978-0-85045-685-1 (1986), p. 47
  34. ^ Andrew, Martin (Dr.), Logistics in the PLA, Army Sustainment, Vol. 42, Issue 2, March–April 2010
  35. ^ Thomas, Nigel, The Korean War 1950-53, Osprey Publishing Ltd., ISBN 0-85045-685-1, ISBN 978-0-85045-685-1 (1986), pp. 37, 47: Many Chinese troops carried either rice or shaoping, an unleavened bread flour mixture in a fabric tube slung over the shoulder.
  36. ^ Chinese troops frequently wore bandolier-type ammunition pouches and carried extra PPsh or Thompson magazines in addition to 4-5 stick grenades.
  37. ^ Russ, Martin, Breakout: The Chosin Reservoir Campaign: Korea 1950, Penguin Publishing, ISBN 0-14-029259-4, ISBN 978-0-14-029259-6 (2000), p. 40: The failure of the .30 carbine round to stop enemy soldiers may not have been due to inadequate penetration. Marine Lt. James Stemple reported that he shot an enemy soldier with his M2 carbine four times in the chest and saw the padding fly out the back of the soldier's padded jacket as the bullets penetrated his body, yet the enemy soldier kept on coming.
  38. ^ Marshall, S.L.A., Infantry Operations and Weapons Usage in Korea, Project Doughboy, Operations Research Office (ORO), U.S. Army (1953), pp. 26-27
  39. ^ Clavin, Tom, Last Stand of Fox Company, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, ISBN 0-87113-993-6, ISBN 978-0-87113-993-1 (2009), pp. 82, 113
  40. ^ O'Donnell, Patrick, Give Me Tomorrow: The Korean War's Greatest Untold Story, p. 88
  41. ^ Spurr, Russell, Enter the Dragon: China's Undeclared War Against the U.S. in Korea, 1950-51, New York, NY: Newmarket Press, ISBN 978-1-55704-914-8 (1998), p.182: Chinese frontline PLA troops disliked the M1/M2 carbine, as they believed its cartridge had inadequate stopping power. Captured U.S. carbines were instead issued to runners and mortar crews.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb http://www.bavarianm1carbines.com/carbinesnara.html
  43. ^ Diagram Group (1991). Weapons: An international encyclopedia from 5000 B.C. to 2000 A.D.. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc.. ISBN 0-312-03950-6 
  44. ^ a b c Barnes, Frank C., Cartridges of the World, Iola WI: DBI Books Inc., ISBN 0-87349-033-9, ISBN 978-0-87349-033-7 (6th ed., 1989), p. 52
  45. ^ Roberts, Joe American Rifleman (December 2007) p.20
  46. ^ Dunlap, Roy, Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 293
  47. ^ a b Ruth, Larry L. War Baby: The U.S. Caliber .30 Carbine, Vol. 1, Collector Grade Publications, ISBN 0-88935-117-1, ISBN 978-0-88935-117-2 (1992), pp. 621-623
  48. ^ "A Pocket History of the M1 Carbine" - Fulton Armory
  49. ^ http://www.cameron-highland-destination.com/jungle-beat-roy-follows-fort-brooke.html
  50. ^ William, Jack and Moran, Grace Spearhead in Malaya 1959 P. Davies, p. 239
  51. ^ Crawford, Oliver, The Door Marked Malaya, London: Rupert Hart-Davis (1958), p. 88
  52. ^ Central Office of Information British Information Services Survey of Current Affairs 1977 H.M Stationary Office
  53. ^ Donald M. Goldstein, Katherine V. Dillon and J. Michael Wenger, Nuts! The Battle of the Bulge, Brassey's, 1994, ISBN-0-02-881069-4. Page 75, photo 4-69, captured German film shows German officer armed with a M1 carbine in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944.
  54. ^ a b {{cite book |editor1-first=Charles C. |editor1-last=Unwin |editor2-first=Mike R. |editor2-last=Vanessa U. |title=20th Century Military Uniforms |year=2002 |edition=2nd |publisher=Grange Books |location=Kent |isbn=1-84013-476-3
  55. ^ "David Thompkins Interview". GWU. 14 February 1999. http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/coldwar/interviews/episode-17/tomkins1.html. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  56. ^ http://www.bavarianm1carbines.com/austria.html
  57. ^ http://www.bavarianm1carbines.com/bavaria.html
  58. ^ http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/files/sas/publications/w_papers_pdf/WP/WP4_Cambodia.pdf
  59. ^ Hogg, Ian (1989). Jane's Infantry Weapons 1989-90, 15th Edition. Jane's Information Group. p. 216. ISBN 0-7106-0889-6. 
  60. ^ Gander, Terry J.; Hogg, Ian V. Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995/1996. Jane's Information Group; 21 edition (May 1995). ISBN 978-0-7106-1241-0.
  61. ^ http://www.victims.org.uk/ira%20weapons.html
  62. ^ Jones, Richard (2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009-2010. Jane's Information Group. p. 898. ISBN 0-7106-2869-2. 
  63. ^ Plaster, John L.; Penguin Group. SOG: The Secret Wars of America's Commandos in Vietnam. Onyx Books; 1 edition (May 1997). ISBN 0-451-19508-6.
  64. ^ Department of the Army Technical Manual TM9-1276 and Department of the Air Force Technical Order TO39A-5AD-2, Cal. .30 Carbines, M1, M1A1, M2, and M3. February 1953.
  65. ^ Larry Ruth, M1 Carbine: Design, Development & Production, Gun Room Press, 1979, p.173.
  66. ^ W.H.B. Smith, Small Arms of the World, Stackpole, 1966, illustrates an M2 carbine in an M1A1 stock on p.642 and a parts breakdown of the M2 on p.646 is shown with a flat top bolt.
  67. ^ Canfield, June 2007, p. 37
  68. ^ Rock-Ola M1 Carbine
  69. ^ a b c Barnes, Frank C., Cartridges of the World, Iola WI: DBI Books Inc., ISBN 0-87349-033-9, ISBN 978-0-87349-033-7 (6th ed., 1989), p. 127.
  70. ^ "Auto-Ordnance M1 Carbines" - Auto-Ordnance.com
  71. ^ "M1 Carbine" - American Rifleman
  72. ^ "ACS Hezi SM-1" - SecurityArms.com
  73. ^ "HEZI SM-1 Upgrade" - AdvancedCombat.com
  74. ^ "Alpine M1 Carbine"
  75. ^ "AMAC M1 Carbine"
  76. ^ "AMPCO M1 Carbine"
  77. ^ "Bullseye M1 Carbine"
  78. ^ "Crosman air rifle M1 Carbine"
  79. ^ "ERMAS Firearms M1 Carbine"
  80. ^ "U.S. GI Carbines used by the police of West Germany & Austria"
  81. ^ "Erma Werke Model EM1"
  82. ^ "Federal Ordnance M1 Carbine"
  83. ^ "Global Arms M1 Carbine"
  84. ^ "H&S M1 Carbine"
  85. ^ "Howa M1 Carbines"
  86. ^ "IAI M1 Carbine"
  87. ^ "Iver Johnson M1 Carbines"
  88. ^ "Johnston-Tucker M1 Carbine"
  89. ^ "MOCO M1 Carbine"
  90. ^ "National Ordnance M1 Carbine"
  91. ^ "NATO M1 Carbine"
  92. ^ "Plainfield Machine M1 Carbine"
  93. ^ "Rock Island Armory M1 Carbine"
  94. ^ "Rowen Becker M1 Carbine"
  95. ^ "Springfield Armory M1 Carbine"
  96. ^ "Texas Armaments M1 Carbine"
  97. ^ "Tirol air rifle look-a-like M1 Carbine training rifle"
  98. ^ "Universal Firearms"
  99. ^ "Williams Gun Sight Sporterized M1 Carbine"
  100. ^ http://www.winchester.com/Products/rifle-ammunition/super-x/hollow-soft-point/Pages/X30M1.aspx
  101. ^ Winchester Ammunition
  102. ^ http://www.winchester.com/Products/rifle-ammunition/super-x/hollow-soft-point/Pages/X30M1.aspx
  103. ^ Pennsylvania Game Commission - State Wildlife Management Agency: Deer Hunting Laws and Regulations
  104. ^ Illinois: Digest of Hunting and Trapping Regulations 2007-2008, "Statewide Deer Hunting Information", Illinois Department of Natural Resources, p. 11.
  105. ^ TM 9-1305-200/TO 11A13-1-101 Small-Arms Ammunition, 1961, p. 39-41

Sources

  • Barnes, Frank C., Cartridges of the World, Iola, WI: DBI Books Inc., ISBN 0-87349-033-9, ISBN 978-0-87349-033-7, (6th ed., 1989).
  • Canfield, Bruce N. (June 2007). A New Lease on Life: The Post-World War II M1 Carbine. American Rifleman. 
  • Dunlap, Roy F. Ordnance Went Up Front, Plantersville, SC: Small-Arms Technical Pub. Co., The Samworth Press, ISBN 1-884849-09-1 (1948).
  • George, John (Lt. Col.), Shots Fired In Anger, (2nd ed., enlarged), Washington, D.C.: NRA Press, ISBN 0-935998-42-X, 9780935998429 (1981).
  • Hufnagl, Wolfdieter. U.S.Karabiner M1 Waffe und Zubehör, Motorbuchverlag, 1994.
  • IBM Archives
  • Korean War cold weather malfunctions
  • Marshall, S.L.A., Commentary on Infantry and Weapons in Korea 1950-51, 1st Report ORO-R-13, Project Doughboy, Report ORO-R-13 of 27 October 1951 [Restricted], Operations Research Office (ORO), U.S. Army (1951).
  • Shore, C. (Capt), With British Snipers To The Reich, Mount Ida AR: Lancer Militaria Press, ISBN 0-935856-02-1, ISBN 978-0-935856-02-6 (1988).
  • United States Government. Departments of the Army and Air Force. TM 9-1305-200/TO 11A13-1-101 Small-Arms Ammunition. Washington, DC: Departments of the Army and Air Force, 1961.
  • U.S. Army Catalog of Standard Ordnance Items. Second Edition 1944, Volume III, p. 419
  • Weeks, John, World War II Small Arms, London: Orbis Publishing Ltd. and New York: Galahad Books, ISBN 0-88365-403-2, ISBN 978-0-88365-403-3 (1979).
  • Worrell, Jessica (2003). "Range of a Rifle Bullet". The Physics Factbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2003/JessicaWorrell.shtml. 

External links